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Hannum, Corey, Li, Rui, Wang, Weitian.  2020.  Trust or Not?: A Computational Robot-Trusting-Human Model for Human-Robot Collaborative Tasks 2020 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :5689–5691.
The trust of a robot in its human partner is a significant issue in human-robot interaction, which is seldom explored in the field of robotics. This study addresses a critical issue of robots' trust in humans during the human-robot collaboration process based on the data of human motions, past interactions of the human-robot pair, and the human's current performance in the co-carry task. The trust level is evaluated dynamically throughout the collaborative task that allows the trust level to change if the human performs false positive actions, which can help the robot avoid making unpredictable movements and causing injury to the human. Experimental results showed that the robot effectively assisted the human in collaborative tasks through the proposed computational trust model.
Dodson, Michael, Beresford, Alastair R., Richardson, Alexander, Clarke, Jessica, Watson, Robert N. M..  2020.  CHERI Macaroons: Efficient, host-based access control for cyber-physical systems. 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :688–693.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) often rely on network boundary defence as a primary means of access control; therefore, the compromise of one device threatens the security of all devices within the boundary. Resource and real-time constraints, tight hardware/software coupling, and decades-long service lifetimes complicate efforts for more robust, host-based access control mechanisms. Distributed capability systems provide opportunities for restoring access control to resource-owning devices; however, such a protection model requires a capability-based architecture for CPS devices as well as task compartmentalisation to be effective.This paper demonstrates hardware enforcement of network bearer tokens using an efficient translation between CHERI (Capability Hardware Enhanced RISC Instructions) architectural capabilities and Macaroon network tokens. While this method appears to generalise to any network-based access control problem, we specifically consider CPS, as our method is well-suited for controlling resources in the physical domain. We demonstrate the method in a distributed robotics application and in a hierarchical industrial control application, and discuss our plans to evaluate and extend the method.
Staschulat, J., Lütkebohle, I., Lange, R..  2020.  The rclc Executor: Domain-specific deterministic scheduling mechanisms for ROS applications on microcontrollers: work-in-progress. 2020 International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT). :18—19.

Robots are networks of a variety of computing devices, such as powerful computing platforms but also tiny microcontrollers. The Robot Operating System (ROS) is the dominant framework for powerful computing devices. While ROS version 2 adds important features like quality of service and security, it cannot be directly applied to microcontrollers because of its large memory footprint. The micro-ROS project has ported the ROS 2 API to microcontrollers. However, the standard ROS 2 concepts are not enough for real-time performance: In the ROS 2 release “Foxy”, the standard ROS 2 Executor, which is the central component responsible for handling timers and incoming message data, is neither real-time capable nor deterministic. Domain-specific requirements of mobile robots, like sense-plan-act control loops, cannot be addressed with the standard ROS 2 Executor. In this paper, we present an advanced Executor for the ROS 2 C API which provides deterministic scheduling and supports domain-specific requirements. A proof-of-concept is demonstrated on a 32-bit microcontroller.

Rivera, S., Lagraa, S., State, R..  2019.  ROSploit: Cybersecurity Tool for ROS. 2019 Third IEEE International Conference on Robotic Computing (IRC). :415—416.

Robotic Operating System(ROS) security research is currently in a preliminary state, with limited research in tools or models. Considering the trend of digitization of robotic systems, this lack of foundational knowledge increases the potential threat posed by security vulnerabilities in ROS. In this article, we present a new tool to assist further security research in ROS, ROSploit. ROSploit is a modular two-pronged offensive tool covering both reconnaissance and exploitation of ROS systems, designed to assist researchers in testing exploits for ROS.

Luntovskyy, Andriy, Globa, Larysa.  2019.  Performance, Reliability and Scalability for IoT. 2019 International Conference on Information and Digital Technologies (IDT). :316–321.
So-called IoT, based on use of enabling technologies like 5G, Wi-Fi, BT, NFC, RFID, IPv6 as well as being widely applied for sensor networks, robots, Wearable and Cyber-PHY, invades rapidly to our every day. There are a lot of apps and software platforms to IoT support. However, a most important problem of QoS optimization, which lays in Performance, Reliability and Scalability for IoT, is not yet solved. The extended Internet of the future needs these solutions based on the cooperation between fog and clouds with delegating of the analytics blocks via agents, adaptive interfaces and protocols. The next problem is as follows: IoT can generate large arrays of unmanaged, weakly-structured, and non-configured data of various types, known as "Big Data". The given papers deals with the both problems. A special problem is Security and Privacy in potentially "dangerous" IoTscenarios. Anyway, this subject needs as special discussion for risks evaluation and cooperative intrusion detection. Some advanced approaches for optimization of Performance, Reliability and Scalability for IoT-solutions are offered within the paper. The paper discusses the Best Practises and Case Studies aimed to solution of the established problems.
Sun, Pengfei, Garcia, Luis, Zonouz, Saman.  2019.  Tell Me More Than Just Assembly! Reversing Cyber-Physical Execution Semantics of Embedded IoT Controller Software Binaries. 2019 49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :349–361.
The safety of critical cyber-physical IoT devices hinges on the security of their embedded software that implements control algorithms for monitoring and control of the associated physical processes, e.g., robotics and drones. Reverse engineering of the corresponding embedded controller software binaries enables their security analysis by extracting high-level, domain-specific, and cyber-physical execution semantic information from executables. We present MISMO, a domain-specific reverse engineering framework for embedded binary code in emerging cyber-physical IoT control application domains. The reverse engineering outcomes can be used for firmware vulnerability assessment, memory forensics analysis, targeted memory data attacks, or binary patching for dynamic selective memory protection (e.g., important control algorithm parameters). MISMO performs semantic-matching at an algorithmic level that can help with the understanding of any possible cyber-physical security flaws. MISMO compares low-level binary symbolic values and high-level algorithmic expressions to extract domain-specific semantic information for the binary's code and data. MISMO enables a finer-grained understanding of the controller by identifying the specific control and state estimation algorithms used. We evaluated MISMO on 2,263 popular firmware binaries by 30 commercial vendors from 6 application domains including drones, self-driving cars, smart homes, robotics, 3D printers, and the Linux kernel controllers. The results show that MISMO can accurately extract the algorithm-level semantics of the embedded binary code and data regions. We discovered a zero-day vulnerability in the Linux kernel controllers versions 3.13 and above.
Rivera, Sean, Lagraa, Sofiane, Nita-Rotaru, Cristina, Becker, Sheila, State, Radu.  2019.  ROS-Defender: SDN-Based Security Policy Enforcement for Robotic Applications. 2019 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :114–119.
In this paper we propose ROS-Defender, a holistic approach to secure robotics systems, which integrates a Security Event Management System (SIEM), an intrusion prevention system (IPS) and a firewall for a robotic system. ROS-Defender combines anomaly detection systems at application (ROS) level and network level, with dynamic policy enforcement points using software defined networking (SDN) to provide protection against a large class of attacks. Although SIEMs, IPS, and firewall have been previously used to secure computer networks, ROSDefender is applying them for the specific use case of robotic systems, where security is in many cases an afterthought.
Petrenko, S. A., Vorobieva, D. E..  2019.  Method of Ensuring Cyber Resilience of Digital Platforms Based on Catastrophe Theory. 2019 XXII International Conference on Soft Computing and Measurements (SCM)). :97—101.

This article presents the valuable experience and practical results of exploratory research by authors on the scientific problem of cyber-resilient (Cyber Resilience) critical information infrastructure in the previously unknown heterogeneous mass cyber attacks of attackers based on similarity invariants. It is essential that the results obtained significantly complement the well-known practices and recommendations of ISO 22301 (, MITER PR 15-1334 ( and NIST SP 800-160 ( in terms of developing quantitative metrics and cyber resistance measures. This allows you to open and formally present the ultimate law of the effectiveness of ensuring the cyber stability of modern systems of Industry 4.0. in the face of growing security threats.

P. Damacharla, A. Y. Javaid, J. J. Gallimore, V. K. Devabhaktuni.  2018.  Common Metrics to Benchmark Human-Machine Teams (HMT): A Review. IEEE Access. 6:38637-38655.

A significant amount of work is invested in human-machine teaming (HMT) across multiple fields. Accurately and effectively measuring system performance of an HMT is crucial for moving the design of these systems forward. Metrics are the enabling tools to devise a benchmark in any system and serve as an evaluation platform for assessing the performance, along with the verification and validation, of a system. Currently, there is no agreed-upon set of benchmark metrics for developing HMT systems. Therefore, identification and classification of common metrics are imperative to create a benchmark in the HMT field. The key focus of this review is to conduct a detailed survey aimed at identification of metrics employed in different segments of HMT and to determine the common metrics that can be used in the future to benchmark HMTs. We have organized this review as follows: identification of metrics used in HMTs until now, and classification based on functionality and measuring techniques. Additionally, we have also attempted to analyze all the identified metrics in detail while classifying them as theoretical, applied, real-time, non-real-time, measurable, and observable metrics. We conclude this review with a detailed analysis of the identified common metrics along with their usage to benchmark HMTs.

Xu, J., Howard, A..  2018.  The Impact of First Impressions on Human- Robot Trust During Problem-Solving Scenarios. 2018 27th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN). :435—441.

With recent advances in robotics, it is expected that robots will become increasingly common in human environments, such as in the home and workplaces. Robots will assist and collaborate with humans on a variety of tasks. During these collaborations, it is inevitable that disagreements in decisions would occur between humans and robots. Among factors that lead to which decision a human should ultimately follow, theirs or the robot, trust is a critical factor to consider. This study aims to investigate individuals' behaviors and aspects of trust in a problem-solving situation in which a decision must be made in a bounded amount of time. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 100 participants. With the assistance of a humanoid robot, participants were requested to tackle a cognitive-based task within a given time frame. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of the following initial conditions: 1) a working robot in which the robot provided a correct answer or 2) a faulty robot in which the robot provided an incorrect answer. Impacts of the faulty robot behavior on participant's decision to follow the robot's suggested answer were analyzed. Survey responses about trust were collected after interacting with the robot. Results indicated that the first impression has a significant impact on participant's behavior of trusting a robot's advice during a disagreement. In addition, this study discovered evidence supporting that individuals still have trust in a malfunctioning robot even after they have observed a robot's faulty behavior.

Clark, G., Doran, M., Glisson, W..  2018.  A Malicious Attack on the Machine Learning Policy of a Robotic System. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :516-521.

The field of robotics has matured using artificial intelligence and machine learning such that intelligent robots are being developed in the form of autonomous vehicles. The anticipated widespread use of intelligent robots and their potential to do harm has raised interest in their security. This research evaluates a cyberattack on the machine learning policy of an autonomous vehicle by designing and attacking a robotic vehicle operating in a dynamic environment. The primary contribution of this research is an initial assessment of effective manipulation through an indirect attack on a robotic vehicle using the Q learning algorithm for real-time routing control. Secondly, the research highlights the effectiveness of this attack along with relevant artifact issues.

Schmittle, Matt, Lukina, Anna, Vacek, Lukas, Das, Jnaneshwar, Buskirk, Christopher P., Rees, Stephen, Sztipanovits, Janos, Grosu, Radu, Kumar, Vijay.  2018.  OpenUAV: A UAV Testbed for the CPS and Robotics Community. Proceedings of the 9th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems. :130–139.

Multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have grown in popularity for research and education, overcoming challenges associated with fixed wing and ground robots. Unfortunately, extensive physical testing can be expensive and time consuming because of short flight times due to battery constraints and safety precautions. Simulation tools offer a low barrier to entry and enable testing and validation before field trials. However, most of the well-known simulators today have a high barrier to entry due to the need for powerful computers and the time required for initial set up. In this paper, we present OpenUAV, an open source test bed for UAV education and research that overcomes these barriers. We leverage the Containers as a Service (CaaS) technology to enable students and researchers carry out simulations on the cloud. We have based our framework on open-source tools including ROS, Gazebo, Docker, PX4, and Ansible, we designed the simulation framework so that it has no special hardware requirements. Two use-cases are presented. First, we show how a UAV can navigate around obstacles, and second, we test a multi-UAV swarm formation algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first open-source, cloud-enabled testbed for UAVs. The code is available on GitHub:

Prakash, A., Walambe, R..  2018.  Military Surveillance Robot Implementation Using Robot Operating System. 2018 IEEE Punecon. :1—5.

Robots are becoming more and more prevalent in many real world scenarios. Housekeeping, medical aid, human assistance are a few common implementations of robots. Military and Security are also major areas where robotics is being researched and implemented. Robots with the purpose of surveillance in war zones and terrorist scenarios need specific functionalities to perform their tasks with precision and efficiency. In this paper, we present a model of Military Surveillance Robot developed using Robot Operating System. The map generation based on Kinect sensor is presented and some test case scenarios are discussed with results.

Chaminade, Thierry.  2017.  How Do Artificial Agents Think? Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGCHI International Workshop on Investigating Social Interactions with Artificial Agents. :1–1.
Anthropomorphic artificial agents, computed characters or humanoid robots, can be sued to investigate human cognition. They are intrinsically ambivalent. They appear and act as humans, hence we should tend to consider them as human, yet we know they are machine designed by humans, and should not consider them as humans. Reviewing a number of behavioral and neurophysiological studies provides insights into social mechanisms that are primarily influenced by the appearance of the agent, and in particular its resemblance to humans, and other mechanisms that are influenced by the knowledge we have about the artificial nature of the agent. A significant finding is that, as expected, humans don't naturally adopt an intentional stance when interacting with artificial agents.
Houchouas, V., Esteves, J. L., Cottais, E., Kasmi, C., Armstrong, K..  2017.  Immunity assessment of a servomotor exposed to an intentional train of RF pulses. 2017 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility - EMC EUROPE. :1–5.

Conducted emission of motors is a domain of interest for EMC as it may introduce disturbances in the system in which they are integrated. Nevertheless few publications deal with the susceptibility of motors, and especially, servomotors despite this devices are more and more used in automated production lines as well as for robotics. Recent papers have been released devoted to the possibility of compromising such systems by cyber-attacks. One could imagine the use of smart intentional electromagnetic interference to modify their behavior or damage them leading in the modification of the industrial process. This paper aims to identify the disturbances that may affect the behavior of a Commercial Off-The-Shelf servomotor when exposed to an electromagnetic field and the criticality of the effects with regards to its application. Experiments have shown that a train of radio frequency pulses may induce an erroneous reading of the position value of the servomotor and modify in an unpredictable way the movement of the motor's axis.

L. Vacek, E. Atter, P. Rizo, B. Nam, R. Kortvelesy, D. Kaufman, J. Das, V. Kumar.  2017.  sUAS for Deployment and Recovery of an Environmental Sensor Probe. IEEE International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS) 2017.

Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) are already revolutionizing agricultural and environmental monitoring through the acquisition of high-resolution multi-spectral imagery on-demand. However, in order to accurately understand various complex environmental and agricultural processes, it is often necessary to collect physical samples of pests, pathogens, and insects from the field for ex-situ analysis. In this paper, we describe a sUAS for autonomous deployment and recovery of a novel environmental sensor probe. We present the UAS software and hardware stack, and a probe design that can be adapted to collect a variety of environmental samples and can be transported autonomously for off-site analysis. Our team participated in an NSF-sponsored student unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) challenge, where we used our sUAS to deploy and recover a scale-model mosquito trap outdoors. Results from indoor and field trials are presented, and the challenges experienced in detecting and docking with the probe in outdoor conditions are discussed.

Dey, Swarnava, Mukherjee, Arijit.  2016.  Robotic SLAM: A Review from Fog Computing and Mobile Edge Computing Perspective. Adjunct Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing Networking and Services. :153–158.

Offloading computationally expensive Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) task for mobile robots have attracted significant attention during the last few years. Lack of powerful on-board compute capability in these energy constrained mobile robots and rapid advancement in compute cloud access technologies laid the foundation for development of several Cloud Robotics platforms that enabled parallel execution of computationally expensive robotic algorithms, especially involving multiple robots. In this work the Cloud Robotics concept is extended to include the current emphasis of computing at the network edge nodes along with the Cloud. The requirements and advantages of using edge nodes for computation offloading over remote cloud or local robot clusters are discussed with reference to the ETSI 'Mobile-Edge Computing' initiative and OpenFog Consortium's 'OpenFog Architecture'. A Particle Filter algorithm for SLAM is modified and implemented for offloading in a multi-tier edge+cloud setup. Additionally a model is proposed for offloading decision in such a setup with experiments and results demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed dynamic offloading scheme over static offloading strategies.