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Fan, M., Yu, L., Chen, S., Zhou, H., Luo, X., Li, S., Liu, Y., Liu, J., Liu, T..  2020.  An Empirical Evaluation of GDPR Compliance Violations in Android mHealth Apps. 2020 IEEE 31st International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE). :253—264.

The purpose of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is to provide improved privacy protection. If an app controls personal data from users, it needs to be compliant with GDPR. However, GDPR lists general rules rather than exact step-by-step guidelines about how to develop an app that fulfills the requirements. Therefore, there may exist GDPR compliance violations in existing apps, which would pose severe privacy threats to app users. In this paper, we take mobile health applications (mHealth apps) as a peephole to examine the status quo of GDPR compliance in Android apps. We first propose an automated system, named HPDROID, to bridge the semantic gap between the general rules of GDPR and the app implementations by identifying the data practices declared in the app privacy policy and the data relevant behaviors in the app code. Then, based on HPDROID, we detect three kinds of GDPR compliance violations, including the incompleteness of privacy policy, the inconsistency of data collections, and the insecurity of data transmission. We perform an empirical evaluation of 796 mHealth apps. The results reveal that 189 (23.7%) of them do not provide complete privacy policies. Moreover, 59 apps collect sensitive data through different measures, but 46 (77.9%) of them contain at least one inconsistent collection behavior. Even worse, among the 59 apps, only 8 apps try to ensure the transmission security of collected data. However, all of them contain at least one encryption or SSL misuse. Our work exposes severe privacy issues to raise awareness of privacy protection for app users and developers.

Ghaffaripour, S., Miri, A..  2020.  A Decentralized, Privacy-preserving and Crowdsourcing-based Approach to Medical Research. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). :4510—4515.
Access to data at large scales expedites the progress of research in medical fields. Nevertheless, accessibility to patients' data faces significant challenges on regulatory, organizational and technical levels. In light of this, we present a novel approach based on the crowdsourcing paradigm to solve this data scarcity problem. Utilizing the infrastructure that blockchain provides, our decentralized platform enables researchers to solicit contributions to their well-defined research study from a large crowd of volunteers. Furthermore, to overcome the challenge of breach of privacy and mutual trust, we employed the cryptographic primitive of Zero-knowledge Argument of Knowledge (zk-SNARK). This not only allows participants to make contributions without exposing their privacy-sensitive health data, but also provides a means for a distributed network of users to verify the validity of the contributions in an efficient manner. Finally, since without an incentive mechanism in place, the crowdsourcing platform would be rendered ineffective, we incorporated smart contracts to ensure a fair reciprocal exchange of data for reward between patients and researchers.
Avianto, Hana, Ogi, Dion.  2019.  Design of Electronic Medical Record Security Policy in Hospital Management Information System (SIMRS) in XYZ Hospital. 2019 2nd International Conference on Applied Information Technology and Innovation (ICAITI). :163–167.
Electronic Medical Record (EMR) is a medical record management system. EMR contains personal data of patients that is critical. The critical nature of medical records is the reason for the necessity to develop security policies as guidelines for EMR in SIMRS in XZY Hospital. In this study, analysis and risk assessment conducted to EMR management at SIMRS in XZY Hospital. Based on this study, the security of SIMRS in XZY Hospital is categorized as high. Security and Privacy Control mapping based on NIST SP800-53 rev 5 obtained 57 security controls related to privacy aspects as control options to protect EMR in SIMRS in XZY Hospital. The policy designing was done using The Triangle framework for Policy Analysis. The analysis obtained from the policy decisions of the head of XYZ Hospital. The contents of the security policy are provisions on the implementation of security policies of EMR, outlined of 17 controls were selected.
Khayat, Mohamad, Barka, Ezedin, Sallabi, Farag.  2019.  SDN\_Based Secure Healthcare Monitoring System(SDN-SHMS). 2019 28th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN). :1–7.
Healthcare experts and researchers have been promoting the need for IoT-based remote health monitoring systems that take care of the health of elderly people. However, such systems may generate large amounts of data, which makes the security and privacy of such data to become imperative. This paper studies the security and privacy concerns of the existing Healthcare Monitoring System (HMS) and proposes a reference architecture (security integration framework) for managing IoT-based healthcare monitoring systems that ensures security, privacy, and reliable service delivery for patients and elderly people to reduce and avoid health related risks. Our proposed framework will be in the form of state-of-the-art Security Platform, for HMS, using the emerging Software Defined Network (SDN) networking paradigm. Our proposed integration framework eliminates the dependency on specific Software or vendor for different security systems, and allows for the benefits from the functional and secure applications, and services provided by the SDN platform.
Yoshikawa, Masaya, Nozaki, Yusuke.  2019.  Side-Channel Analysis for Searchable Encryption System and Its Security Evaluation. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) and IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC). :465–469.

Searchable encryption will become more important as medical services intensify their use of big data and artificial intelligence. To use searchable encryption safely, the resistance of terminals with embedded searchable encryption to illegal attacks (tamper resistance) is extremely important. This study proposes a searchable encryption system embedded in terminals and evaluate the tamper resistance of the proposed system. This study also proposes attack scenarios and quantitatively evaluates the tamper resistance of the proposed system by performing experiments following the proposed attack scenarios.

Almehmadi, Tahani, Alshehri, Suhair, Tahir, Sabeen.  2019.  A Secure Fog-Cloud Based Architecture for MIoT. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1–6.

Medical Internet of Things (MIoT) offers innovative solutions to a healthier life, making radical changes in people's lives. Healthcare providers are enabled to continuously and remotely monitor their patients for many medial issues outside hospitals and healthcare providers' offices. MIoT systems and applications lead to increase availability, accessibility, quality and cost-effectiveness of healthcare services. On the other hand, MIoT devices generate a large amount of diverse real-time data, which is highly sensitive. Thus, securing medical data is an essential requirement when developing MIoT architectures. However, the MIoT architectures being developed in the literature have many security issues. To address the challenge of data security in MIoT, the integration of fog computing and MIoT is studied as an emerging and appropriate solution. By data security, it means that medial data is stored in fog nodes and transferred to the cloud in a secure manner to prevent any unauthorized access. In this paper, we propose a design for a secure fog-cloud based architecture for MIoT.

Gupta, Avinash, Cecil, J., Tapia, Oscar, Sweet-Darter, Mary.  2019.  Design of Cyber-Human Frameworks for Immersive Learning. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC). :1563—1568.

This paper focuses on the creation of information centric Cyber-Human Learning Frameworks involving Virtual Reality based mediums. A generalized framework is proposed, which is adapted for two educational domains: one to support education and training of residents in orthopedic surgery and the other focusing on science learning for children with autism. Users, experts and technology based mediums play a key role in the design of such a Cyber-Human framework. Virtual Reality based immersive and haptic mediums were two of the technologies explored in the implementation of the framework for these learning domains. The proposed framework emphasizes the importance of Information-Centric Systems Engineering (ICSE) principles which emphasizes a user centric approach along with formalizing understanding of target subjects or processes for which the learning environments are being created.

Nausheen, Farha, Begum, Sayyada Hajera.  2018.  Healthcare IoT: Benefits, vulnerabilities and solutions. 2018 2nd International Conference on Inventive Systems and Control (ICISC). :517–522.
With all the exciting benefits of IoT in healthcare - from mobile applications to wearable and implantable health gadgets-it becomes prominent to ensure that patients, their medical data and the interactions to and from their medical devices are safe and secure. The security and privacy is being breached when the mobile applications are mishandled or tampered by the hackers by performing reverse engineering on the application leading to catastrophic consequences. To combat against these vulnerabilities, there is need to create an awareness of the potential risks of these devices and effective strategies are needed to be implemented to achieve a level of security defense. In this paper, the benefits of healthcare IoT system and the possible vulnerabilities that may result are presented. Also, we propose to develop solutions against these vulnerabilities by protecting mobile applications using obfuscation and return oriented programming techniques. These techniques convert an application into a form which makes difficult for an adversary to interpret or alter the code for illegitimate purpose. The mobile applications use keys to control communication with the implantable medical devices, which need to be protected as they are the critical component for securing communications. Therefore, we also propose access control schemes using white box encryption to make the keys undiscoverable to hackers.
Iwaya, L. H., Fischer-Hübner, S., \AAhlfeldt, R., Martucci, L. A..  2018.  mHealth: A Privacy Threat Analysis for Public Health Surveillance Systems. 2018 IEEE 31st International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS). :42–47.

Community Health Workers (CHWs) have been using Mobile Health Data Collection Systems (MDCSs) for supporting the delivery of primary healthcare and carrying out public health surveys, feeding national-level databases with families' personal data. Such systems are used for public surveillance and to manage sensitive data (i.e., health data), so addressing the privacy issues is crucial for successfully deploying MDCSs. In this paper we present a comprehensive privacy threat analysis for MDCSs, discuss the privacy challenges and provide recommendations that are specially useful to health managers and developers. We ground our analysis on a large-scale MDCS used for primary care (GeoHealth) and a well-known Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) methodology. The threat analysis is based on a compilation of relevant privacy threats from the literature as well as brain-storming sessions with privacy and security experts. Among the main findings, we observe that existing MDCSs do not employ adequate controls for achieving transparency and interveinability. Thus, threatening fundamental privacy principles regarded as data quality, right to access and right to object. Furthermore, it is noticeable that although there has been significant research to deal with data security issues, the attention with privacy in its multiple dimensions is prominently lacking.

Mohammedi, M., Omar, M., Aitabdelmalek, W., Mansouri, A., Bouabdallah, A..  2018.  Secure and Lightweight Biometric-Based Remote Patient Authentication Scheme for Home Healthcare Systems. 2018 International Symposium on Programming and Systems (ISPS). :1-6.

Recently, the home healthcare system has emerged as one of the most useful technology for e-healthcare. Contrary to classical recording methods of patient's medical data, which are, based on paper documents, nowadays all this sensitive data can be managed and forwarded through digital systems. These make possible for both patients and healthcare workers to access medical data or receive remote medical treatment using wireless interfaces whenever and wherever. However, simplifying access to these sensitive and private data can directly put patient's health and life in danger. In this paper, we propose a secure and lightweight biometric-based remote patient authentication scheme using elliptic curve encryption through which two mobile healthcare system communication parties could authenticate each other in public mobile healthcare environments. The security and performance analysis demonstrate that our proposal achieves better security than other concurrent schemes, with lower storage, communication and computation costs.

Rauscher, Julia, Bauer, Bernhard.  2018.  Safety and Security Architecture Analyses Framework for the Internet of Things of Medical Devices. 2018 IEEE 20th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applications and Services (Healthcom). :1–3.
Internet of Things (IoT) is spreading increasingly in different areas of application. Accordingly, IoT also gets deployed in health care including ambient assisted living, telemedicine or medical smart homes. However, IoT also involves risks. Next to increased security issues also safety concerns are occurring. Deploying health care sensors and utilizing medical data causes a high need for IoT architectures free of vulnerabilities in order to identify weak points as early as possible. To address this, we are developing a safety and security analysis approach including a standardized meta model and an IoT safety and security framework comprising a customizable analysis language.
Backes, M., Berrang, P., Bieg, M., Eils, R., Herrmann, C., Humbert, M., Lehmann, I..  2017.  Identifying Personal DNA Methylation Profiles by Genotype Inference. 2017 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :957–976.

Since the first whole-genome sequencing, the biomedical research community has made significant steps towards a more precise, predictive and personalized medicine. Genomic data is nowadays widely considered privacy-sensitive and consequently protected by strict regulations and released only after careful consideration. Various additional types of biomedical data, however, are not shielded by any dedicated legal means and consequently disseminated much less thoughtfully. This in particular holds true for DNA methylation data as one of the most important and well-understood epigenetic element influencing human health. In this paper, we show that, in contrast to the aforementioned belief, releasing one's DNA methylation data causes privacy issues akin to releasing one's actual genome. We show that already a small subset of methylation regions influenced by genomic variants are sufficient to infer parts of someone's genome, and to further map this DNA methylation profile to the corresponding genome. Notably, we show that such re-identification is possible with 97.5% accuracy, relying on a dataset of more than 2500 genomes, and that we can reject all wrongly matched genomes using an appropriate statistical test. We provide means for countering this threat by proposing a novel cryptographic scheme for privately classifying tumors that enables a privacy-respecting medical diagnosis in a common clinical setting. The scheme relies on a combination of random forests and homomorphic encryption, and it is proven secure in the honest-but-curious model. We evaluate this scheme on real DNA methylation data, and show that we can keep the computational overhead to acceptable values for our application scenario.

Yavari, A., Panah, A. S., Georgakopoulos, D., Jayaraman, P. P., Schyndel, R. v.  2017.  Scalable Role-Based Data Disclosure Control for the Internet of Things. 2017 IEEE 37th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :2226–2233.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the latest Internet evolution that interconnects billions of devices, such as cameras, sensors, RFIDs, smart phones, wearable devices, ODBII dongles, etc. Federations of such IoT devices (or things) provides the information needed to solve many important problems that have been too difficult to harness before. Despite these great benefits, privacy in IoT remains a great concern, in particular when the number of things increases. This presses the need for the development of highly scalable and computationally efficient mechanisms to prevent unauthorised access and disclosure of sensitive information generated by things. In this paper, we address this need by proposing a lightweight, yet highly scalable, data obfuscation technique. For this purpose, a digital watermarking technique is used to control perturbation of sensitive data that enables legitimate users to de-obfuscate perturbed data. To enhance the scalability of our solution, we also introduce a contextualisation service that achieve real-time aggregation and filtering of IoT data for large number of designated users. We, then, assess the effectiveness of the proposed technique by considering a health-care scenario that involves data streamed from various wearable and stationary sensors capturing health data, such as heart-rate and blood pressure. An analysis of the experimental results that illustrate the unconstrained scalability of our technique concludes the paper.

Siddiqi, M., All, S. T., Sivaraman, V..  2017.  Secure Lightweight Context-Driven Data Logging for Bodyworn Sensing Devices. 2017 5th International Symposium on Digital Forensic and Security (ISDFS). :1–6.

Rapid advancement in wearable technology has unlocked a tremendous potential of its applications in the medical domain. Among the challenges in making the technology more useful for medical purposes is the lack of confidence in the data thus generated and communicated. Incentives have led to attacks on such systems. We propose a novel lightweight scheme to securely log the data from bodyworn sensing devices by utilizing neighboring devices as witnesses who store the fingerprints of data in Bloom filters to be later used for forensics. Medical data from each sensor is stored at various locations of the system in chronological epoch-level blocks chained together, similar to the blockchain. Besides secure logging, the scheme offers to secure other contextual information such as localization and timestamping. We prove the effectiveness of the scheme through experimental results. We define performance parameters of our scheme and quantify their cost benefit trade-offs through simulation.

Long, W. J., Lin, W..  2017.  An Authentication Protocol for Wearable Medical Devices. 2017 13th International Conference and Expo on Emerging Technologies for a Smarter World (CEWIT). :1–5.

Wearable medical devices are playing more and more important roles in healthcare. Unlike the wired connection, the wireless connection between wearable devices and the remote servers are exceptionally vulnerable to malicious attacks, and poses threats to the safety and privacy of the patient health data. Therefore, wearable medical devices require the implementation of reliable measures to secure the wireless network communication. However, those devices usually have limited computational power that is not comparable with the desktop computer and thus, it is difficult to adopt the full-fledged security algorithm in software. In this study, we have developed an efficient authentication and encryption protocol for internetconnected wearable devices using the recognized standards of AES and SHA that can provide two-way authentication between wearable device and remote server and protection of patient privacy against various network threats. We have tested the feasibility of this protocol on the TI CC3200 Launchpad, an evaluation board of the CC3200, which is a Wi-Fi capable microcontroller designed for wearable devices and includes a hardware accelerated cryptography module for the implementation of the encryption algorithm. The microcontroller serves as the wearable device client and a Linux computer serves as the server. The embedded client software was written in ANSI C and the server software was written in Python.

Mozaffari-Kermani, M., Sur-Kolay, S., Raghunathan, A., Jha, N. K..  2015.  Systematic Poisoning Attacks on and Defenses for Machine Learning in Healthcare. IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics. 19:1893–1905.

Machine learning is being used in a wide range of application domains to discover patterns in large datasets. Increasingly, the results of machine learning drive critical decisions in applications related to healthcare and biomedicine. Such health-related applications are often sensitive, and thus, any security breach would be catastrophic. Naturally, the integrity of the results computed by machine learning is of great importance. Recent research has shown that some machine-learning algorithms can be compromised by augmenting their training datasets with malicious data, leading to a new class of attacks called poisoning attacks. Hindrance of a diagnosis may have life-threatening consequences and could cause distrust. On the other hand, not only may a false diagnosis prompt users to distrust the machine-learning algorithm and even abandon the entire system but also such a false positive classification may cause patient distress. In this paper, we present a systematic, algorithm-independent approach for mounting poisoning attacks across a wide range of machine-learning algorithms and healthcare datasets. The proposed attack procedure generates input data, which, when added to the training set, can either cause the results of machine learning to have targeted errors (e.g., increase the likelihood of classification into a specific class), or simply introduce arbitrary errors (incorrect classification). These attacks may be applied to both fixed and evolving datasets. They can be applied even when only statistics of the training dataset are available or, in some cases, even without access to the training dataset, although at a lower efficacy. We establish the effectiveness of the proposed attacks using a suite of six machine-learning algorithms and five healthcare datasets. Finally, we present countermeasures against the proposed generic attacks that are based on tracking and detecting deviations in various accuracy metrics, and benchmark their effectiveness.

Lian, Y..  2015.  Challenges in the design of self-powered wearable wireless sensors for healthcare Internet-of-Things. 2015 IEEE 11th International Conference on ASIC (ASICON). :1–4.

The design of low power chip for IoT applications is very challenge, especially for self-powered wireless sensors. Achieving ultra low power requires both system level optimization and circuit level innovation. This paper presents a continuous-in-time and discrete-in-amplitude (CTDA) system architecture that facilitates adaptive data rate sampling and clockless implementation for a wireless sensor SoC.

Ochian, A., Suciu, G., Fratu, O., Voicu, C., Suciu, V..  2014.  An overview of cloud middleware services for interconnection of healthcare platforms. Communications (COMM), 2014 10th International Conference on. :1-4.

Using heterogeneous clouds has been considered to improve performance of big-data analytics for healthcare platforms. However, the problem of the delay when transferring big-data over the network needs to be addressed. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare existing cloud computing environments (PaaS, IaaS) in order to implement middleware services. Understanding the differences and similarities between cloud technologies will help in the interconnection of healthcare platforms. The paper provides a general overview of the techniques and interfaces for cloud computing middleware services, and proposes a cloud architecture for healthcare. Cloud middleware enables heterogeneous devices to act as data sources and to integrate data from other healthcare platforms, but specific APIs need to be developed. Furthermore, security and management problems need to be addressed, given the heterogeneous nature of the communication and computing environment. The present paper fills a gap in the electronic healthcare register literature by providing an overview of cloud computing middleware services and standardized interfaces for the integration with medical devices.