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Carrozzo, G., Siddiqui, M. S., Betzler, A., Bonnet, J., Perez, G. M., Ramos, A., Subramanya, T..  2020.  AI-driven Zero-touch Operations, Security and Trust in Multi-operator 5G Networks: a Conceptual Architecture. 2020 European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC). :254—258.
The 5G network solutions currently standardised and deployed do not yet enable the full potential of pervasive networking and computing envisioned in 5G initial visions: network services and slices with different QoS profiles do not span multiple operators; security, trust and automation is limited. The evolution of 5G towards a truly production-level stage needs to heavily rely on automated end-to-end network operations, use of distributed Artificial Intelligence (AI) for cognitive network orchestration and management and minimal manual interventions (zero-touch automation). All these elements are key to implement highly pervasive network infrastructures. Moreover, Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) can be adopted to implement distributed security and trust through Smart Contracts among multiple non-trusted parties. In this paper, we propose an initial concept of a zero-touch security and trust architecture for ubiquitous computing and connectivity in 5G networks. Our architecture aims at cross-domain security & trust orchestration mechanisms by coupling DLTs with AI-driven operations and service lifecycle automation in multi-tenant and multi-stakeholder environments. Three representative use cases are identified through which we will validate the work which will be validated in the test facilities at 5GBarcelona and 5TONIC/Madrid.
Whaiduzzaman, Md, Oliullah, Khondokar, Mahi, Md. Julkar Nayeen, Barros, Alistair.  2020.  AUASF: An Anonymous Users Authentication Scheme for Fog-IoT Environment. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—7.
Authentication is a challenging and emerging issue for Fog-IoT security paradigms. The fog nodes toward large-scale end-users offer various interacted IoT services. The authentication process usually involves expressing users' personal information such as username, email, and password to the Authentication Server (AS). However, users are not intended to express their identities or information over the fog or cloud servers. Hence, we have proposed an Anonymous User Authentication Scheme for Fog-IoT (AUASF) to keep the anonymity existence of the IoT users and detect the intruders. To provide anonymity, the user can send encrypted credentials such as username, email, and mobile number through the Cloud Service Provider (CSP) for registration. IoT user receives the response with a default password and a secret Id from the CSP. After that, the IoT user submits the default password for first-time access to Fog Service Provider (FSP). The FSP assigns a One Time Password (OTP) to each user for further access. The developed scheme is equipped with hash functions, symmetric encryptions, and decryptions for security perceptions across fog that serves better than the existing anonymity schemes.
Tsai, W., Chou, T., Chen, J., Ma, Y., Huang, C..  2020.  Blockchain as a Platform for Secure Cloud Computing Services. 2020 22nd International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :155—158.
Problems related to privacy and cyber-attacks have increased in recent years as a result of the rapid development of cloud computing. This work concerns secure cloud computing services on a blockchain platform, called cloud@blockchain, which benefit from the anonymity and immutability of blockchain. Two functions- anonymous file sharing and inspections to find illegally uploaded files- on cloud@blockchain are designed. On cloud@blockchain, cloud users can access data through smart contracts, and recognize all users within the application layer. The performance of three architectures- a pure blockchain, a hybrid blockchain with cache and a traditional database in accessing data is analyzed. The results reveal the superiority of the hybrid blockchain with the cache over the pure blockchain and the traditional database, which it outperforms by 500% and 53.19%, respectively.
Fernando, Praveen, Wei, Jin.  2020.  Blockchain-Powered Software Defined Network-Enabled Networking Infrastructure for Cloud Management. 2020 IEEE 17th Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–6.
Cloud architecture has become a valuable solution for different applications, such as big data analytics, due to its high degree of availability, scalability and strategic value. However, there still remain challenges in managing cloud architecture, in areas such as cloud security. In this paper, we exploit software-defined networking (SDN) and blockchain technologies to secure cloud management platforms from a networking perspective. We develop a blockchain-powered SDN-enabled networking infrastructure in which the integration between blockchain-based security and autonomy management layer and multi-controller SDN networking layer is defined to enhance the integrity of the control and management messages. Furthermore, our proposed networking infrastructure also enables the autonomous bandwidth provisioning to enhance the availability of cloud architecture. In the simulation section, we evaluate the performance of our proposed blockchain-powered SDN-enabled networking infrastructure by considering different scenarios.
Lehniger, Kai, Aftowicz, Marcin J., Langendorfer, Peter, Dyka, Zoya.  2020.  Challenges of Return-Oriented-Programming on the Xtensa Hardware Architecture. 2020 23rd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :154–158.
This paper shows how the Xtensa architecture can be attacked with Return-Oriented-Programming (ROP). The presented techniques include possibilities for both supported Application Binary Interfaces (ABIs). Especially for the windowed ABI a powerful mechanism is presented that not only allows to jump to gadgets but also to manipulate registers without relying on specific gadgets. This paper purely focuses on how the properties of the architecture itself can be exploited to chain gadgets and not on specific attacks or a gadget catalog.
Wang, Guodong, Tian, Dongbo, Gu, Fengqiang, Li, Jia, Lu, Yang.  2020.  Design of Terminal Security Access Scheme based on Trusted Computing in Ubiquitous Electric Internet of Things. 2020 IEEE 9th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). 9:188–192.
In the Ubiquitous Electric Internet of Things (UEIoT), the terminals are very easy to be accessed and attacked by attackers due to the lack of effective monitoring and safe isolation methods. Therefore, in the implementation of UEIoT, the security protection of terminals is particularly important. Therefore, this paper proposes a dual-system design scheme for terminal active immunity based on trusted computing. In this scheme, the terminal node in UEIoT is composed of two parts: computing part and trusted protection part. The computing component and the trusted protection component are logically independent of each other, forming a trusted computing active immune dual-system structure with both computing and protection functions. The Trusted Network Connection extends the trusted state of the terminal to the network, thus providing a solution for terminal secure access in the UEIoT.
Ravikumar, G., Singh, A., Babu, J. R., A, A. Moataz, Govindarasu, M..  2020.  D-IDS for Cyber-Physical DER Modbus System - Architecture, Modeling, Testbed-based Evaluation. 2020 Resilience Week (RWS). :153—159.
Increasing penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution networks expands the cyberattack surface. Moreover, the widely used standard protocols for communicating DER inverters such as Modbus is more vulnerable to data-integrity attacks and denial of service (DoS) attacks because of its native clear-text packet format. This paper proposes a distributed intrusion detection system (D-IDS) architecture and algorithms for detecting anomalies on the DER Modbus communication. We devised a model-based approach to define physics-based threshold bands for analog data points and transaction-based threshold bands for both the analog and discrete data points. The proposed IDS algorithm uses the model- based approach to develop Modbus-specific IDS rule sets, which can enhance the detection accuracy of the anomalies either by data-integrity attacks or maloperation on cyber-physical DER Modbus devices. Further, the IDS algorithm autogenerates the Modbus-specific IDS rulesets in compliance with various open- source IDS rule syntax formats, such as Snort and Suricata, for seamless integration and mitigation of semantic/syntax errors in the development and production environment. We considered the IEEE 13-bus distribution grid, including DERs, as a case study. We conducted various DoS type attacks and data-integrity attacks on the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) CPS DER testbed at ISU to evaluate the proposed D-IDS. Consequently, we computed the performance metrics such as IDS detection accuracy, IDS detection rate, and end-to-end latency. The results demonstrated that 100% detection accuracy, 100% detection rate for 60k DoS packets, 99.96% detection rate for 80k DoS packets, and 0.25 ms end-to-end latency between DERs to Control Center.
Cordeiro, Renato, Gajaria, Dhruv, Limaye, Ankur, Adegbija, Tosiron, Karimian, Nima, Tehranipoor, Fatemeh.  2020.  ECG-Based Authentication Using Timing-Aware Domain-Specific Architecture. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems. 39:3373–3384.
Electrocardiogram (ECG) biometric authentication (EBA) is a promising approach for human identification, particularly in consumer devices, due to the individualized, ubiquitous, and easily identifiable nature of ECG signals. Thus, computing architectures for EBA must be accurate, fast, energy efficient, and secure. In this article, first, we implement an EBA algorithm to achieve 100% accuracy in user authentication. Thereafter, we extensively analyze the algorithm to show the distinct variance in execution requirements and reveal the latency bottleneck across the algorithm's different steps. Based on our analysis, we propose a domain-specific architecture (DSA) to satisfy the execution requirements of the algorithm's different steps and minimize the latency bottleneck. We explore different variations of the DSA, including one that features the added benefit of ensuring constant timing across the different EBA steps, in order to mitigate the vulnerability to timing-based side-channel attacks. Our DSA improves the latency compared to a base ARM-based processor by up to 4.24×, while the constant timing DSA improves the latency by up to 19%. Also, our DSA improves the energy by up to 5.59×, as compared to the base processor.
Stan, O., Bitton, R., Ezrets, M., Dadon, M., Inokuchi, M., Yoshinobu, O., Tomohiko, Y., Elovici, Y., Shabtai, A..  2020.  Extending Attack Graphs to Represent Cyber-Attacks in Communication Protocols and Modern IT Networks. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. :1–1.
An attack graph is a method used to enumerate the possible paths that an attacker can take in the organizational network. MulVAL is a known open-source framework used to automatically generate attack graphs. MulVAL's default modeling has two main shortcomings. First, it lacks the ability to represent network protocol vulnerabilities, and thus it cannot be used to model common network attacks, such as ARP poisoning. Second, it does not support advanced types of communication, such as wireless and bus communication, and thus it cannot be used to model cyber-attacks on networks that include IoT devices or industrial components. In this paper, we present an extended network security model for MulVAL that: (1) considers the physical network topology, (2) supports short-range communication protocols, (3) models vulnerabilities in the design of network protocols, and (4) models specific industrial communication architectures. Using the proposed extensions, we were able to model multiple attack techniques including: spoofing, man-in-the-middle, and denial of service attacks, as well as attacks on advanced types of communication. We demonstrate the proposed model in a testbed which implements a simplified network architecture comprised of both IT and industrial components
Wei, Hanlin, Bai, Guangdong, Luo, Zongwei.  2020.  Foggy: A New Anonymous Communication Architecture Based on Microservices. 2020 25th International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems (ICECCS). :135–144.
This paper presents Foggy, an anonymous communication system focusing on providing users with anonymous web browsing. Foggy provides a microservice-based proxy for web browsing and other low-latency network activities without exposing users' metadata and browsed content to adversaries. It is designed with decentralized information management, web caching, and configurable service selection. Although Foggy seems to be more centralized compared with Tor, it gains an advantage in manageability while retaining anonymity. Foggy can be deployed by several agencies to become more decentralized. We prototype Foggy and test its performance. Our experiments show Foggy's low latency and deployability, demonstrating its potential to be a commercial solution for real-world deployment.
Bhutta, Muhammad Nasir Mumtaz, Cruickshank, Haitham, Nadeem, Adnan.  2020.  A Framework for Key Management Architecture for DTN (KMAD): Requirements and Design. 2019 International Conference on Advances in the Emerging Computing Technologies (AECT). :1–4.
Key Management in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) still remains an unsolved complex problem. Due to peculiar characteristics of DTN, important challenges that make it difficult to design key management architecture are: 1) no systematic requirement analysis is undertaken to define its components, their composition and prescribed functions; and 2) no framework is available for its seamless integration with Bundle Security Protocol (BSP). This paper proposes a Key Management Architecture for DTN (KMAD) to address challenges in DTN key management. The proposed architecture not only provides guidelines for key management in DTN but also caters for seamless integration with BSP. The framework utilizes public key cryptography to provide required security services to enable exchange of keying material, and information about security policy and cipher suites. The framework also supports secure exchange of control and data information in DTNs.
Tirupathi, Chittibabu, Hamdaoui, Bechir, Rayes, Ammar.  2020.  HybridCache: AI-Assisted Cloud-RAN Caching with Reduced In-Network Content Redundancy. GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1–6.
The ever-increasing growth of urban populations coupled with recent mobile data usage trends has led to an unprecedented increase in wireless devices, services and applications, with varying quality of service needs in terms of latency, data rate, and connectivity. To cope with these rising demands and challenges, next-generation wireless networks have resorted to cloud radio access network (Cloud-RAN) technology as a way of reducing latency and network traffic. A concrete example of this is New York City's LinkNYC network infrastructure, which replaces the city's payphones with kiosk-like structures, called Links, to provide fast and free public Wi-Fi access to city users. When enabled with data storage capability, these Links can, for example, play the role of edge cloud devices to allow in-network content caching so that access latency and network traffic are reduced. In this paper, we propose HybridCache, a hybrid proactive and reactive in-network caching scheme that reduces content access latency and network traffic congestion substantially. It does so by first grouping edge cloud devices in clusters to minimize intra-cluster content access latency and then enabling cooperative-proactively and reactively-caching using LSTM-based prediction to minimize in-network content redundancy. Using the LinkNYC network as the backbone infrastructure for evaluation, we show that HybridCache reduces the number of hops that content needs to traverse and increases cache hit rates, thereby reducing both network traffic and content access latency.
Flora, José.  2020.  Improving the Security of Microservice Systems by Detecting and Tolerating Intrusions. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW). :131–134.
Microservice architectures adoption is growing expeditiously in market size and adoption, including in business-critical systems. This is due to agility in development and deployment further increased by containers and their characteristics. Ensuring security is still a major concern due to challenges faced such as resource separation and isolation, as improper access to one service might compromise complete systems. This doctoral work intends to advance the security of microservice systems through research and improvement of methodologies for detection, tolerance and mitigation of security intrusions, while overcoming challenges related to multi-tenancy, heterogeneity, dynamicity of systems and environments. Our preliminary research shows that host-based IDSes are applicable in container environments. This will be extended to dynamic scenarios, serving as a steppingstone to research intrusion tolerance techniques suited to these environments. These methodologies will be demonstrated in realistic microservice systems: complex, dynamic, scalable and elastic.
Malik, A., Fréin, R. de, Al-Zeyadi, M., Andreu-Perez, J..  2020.  Intelligent SDN Traffic Classification Using Deep Learning: Deep-SDN. 2020 2nd International Conference on Computer Communication and the Internet (ICCCI). :184–189.
Accurate traffic classification is fundamentally important for various network activities such as fine-grained network management and resource utilisation. Port-based approaches, deep packet inspection and machine learning are widely used techniques to classify and analyze network traffic flows. However, over the past several years, the growth of Internet traffic has been explosive due to the greatly increased number of Internet users. Therefore, both port-based and deep packet inspection approaches have become inefficient due to the exponential growth of the Internet applications that incurs high computational cost. The emerging paradigm of software-defined networking has reshaped the network architecture by detaching the control plane from the data plane to result in a centralised network controller that maintains a global view over the whole network on its domain. In this paper, we propose a new deep learning model for software-defined networks that can accurately identify a wide range of traffic applications in a short time, called Deep-SDN. The performance of the proposed model was compared against the state-of-the-art and better results were reported in terms of accuracy, precision, recall, and f-measure. It has been found that 96% as an overall accuracy can be achieved with the proposed model. Based on the obtained results, some further directions are suggested towards achieving further advances in this research area.
Adat, V., Parsamehr, R., Politis, I., Tselios, C., Kotsopoulos, S..  2020.  Malicious user identification scheme for network coding enabled small cell environment. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1—6.
Reliable communication over the wireless network with high throughput is a major target for the next generation communication technologies. Network coding can significantly improve the throughput efficiency of the network in a cooperative environment. The small cell technology and device to device communication make network coding an ideal candidate for improved performance in the fifth generation of communication networks. However, the security concerns associated with network coding needs to be addressed before any practical implementations. Pollution attacks are considered one of the most threatening attacks in the network coding environment. Although there are different integrity schemes to detect polluted packets, identifying the exact adversary in a network coding environment is a less addressed challenge. This paper proposes a scheme for identifying and locating adversaries in a dense, network coding enabled environment of mobile nodes. It also discusses a non-repudiation protocol that will prevent adversaries from deceiving the network.
Dilshan, D., Piumika, S., Rupasinghe, C., Perera, I., Siriwardena, P..  2020.  MSChain: Blockchain based Decentralized Certificate Transparency for Microservices. 2020 Moratuwa Engineering Research Conference (MERCon). :1–6.
Microservices architecture has become one of the most prominent software architectures in the software development processes due to its features such as scalability, maintainability, resilience, and composability. It allows developing business applications in a decentralized manner by dividing the important business logic into separate independent services. Digital certificates are used to verify the identity of microservices in most cases. However, the certificate authorities (CA) who issue the certificates to microservices cannot be trusted always since they can issue certificates without the consent of the relevant microservice. Nevertheless, existing implementations of certificate transparency are mostly centralized and has the vulnerability of the single point of failure. The distributed ledger technologies such as blockchain can be used to achieve decentralized nature in certificate transparency implementations. A blockchain-based decentralized certificate transparency system specified for microservices architecture is proposed in this paper to ensure secure communication among services. After the implementation and deployment in a cloud service, the system expressed average certificate querying time of 643 milliseconds along with the highly secured service provided.
Zhang, ZhiShuo, Zhang, Wei, Qin, Zhiguang.  2020.  Multi-Authority CP-ABE with Dynamical Revocation in Space-Air-Ground Integrated Network. 2020 International Conference on Space-Air-Ground Computing (SAGC). :76–81.
Space-air-ground integrated network (SAGIN) is emerged as a versatile computing and traffic architecture in recent years. Though SAGIN brings many significant benefits for modern communication and computing services, there are many unprecedented challenges in SAGIN. The one critical challenge in SAGIN is the data security. In SAGIN, because the data will be stored in cleartext on cloud, the sensitive data may suffer from the illegal access by the unauthorized users even the untrusted cloud servers (CSs). Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE), which is a type of attribute-based encryption (ABE), has been regarded as a promising solution to the critical challenge of the data security on cloud. But there are two main blemishes in traditional CP-ABE. The first one is that there is only one attribute authority (AA) in CP-ABE. If the single AA crashs down, the whole system will be shut down. The second one is that the AA cannot effectively manage the life cycle of the users’ private keys. If a user on longer has one attribute, the AA cannot revoke the user’s private key of this attribute. This means the user can still decrypt some ciphertexts using this invalid attribute. In this paper, to solve the two flaws mentioned above, we propose a multi-authority CP-ABE (MA-CP-ABE) scheme with the dynamical key revocation (DKR). Our key revocation supports both user revocation and attribute revocation. And the our revocation is time friendly. What’s more, by using our dynamically tag-based revocation algorithm, AAs can dynamically and directly re-enable or revoke the invalid attributes to users. Finally, by evaluating and implementing our scheme, we can observe that our scheme is more comprehensive and practical for cloud applications in SAGIN.
Hikawa, H..  2020.  Nested Pipeline Hardware Self-Organizing Map for High Dimensional Vectors. 2020 27th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS). :1–4.
This paper proposes a hardware Self-Organizing Map (SOM) for high dimensional vectors. The proposed SOM is based on nested architecture with pipeline processing. Due to homogeneous modular structure, the nested architecture provides high expandability. The original nested SOM was designed to handle low-dimensional vectors with fully parallel computation, and it yielded very high performance. In this paper, the architecture is extended to handle much higher dimensional vectors by using sequential computation, which requires multiple clocks to process a single vector. To increase the performance, the proposed architecture employs pipeline computation, in which search of winner neuron and weight vector update are carried out simultaneously. Operable clock frequency for the system was 60 MHz, and its throughput reached 15012 million connection updates per second (MCUPS).
Kunz, Immanuel, Schneider, Angelika, Banse, Christian.  2020.  Privacy Smells: Detecting Privacy Problems in Cloud Architectures. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1324—1331.
Many organizations are still reluctant to move sensitive data to the cloud. Moreover, data protection regulations have established considerable punishments for violations of privacy and security requirements. Privacy, however, is a concept that is difficult to measure and to demonstrate. While many privacy design strategies, tactics and patterns have been proposed for privacy-preserving system design, it is difficult to evaluate an existing system with regards to whether these strategies have or have not appropriately been implemented. In this paper we propose indicators for a system's non-compliance with privacy design strategies, called privacy smells. To that end we first identify concrete metrics that measure certain aspects of existing privacy design strategies. We then define smells based on these metrics and discuss their limitations and usefulness. We identify these indicators on two levels of a cloud system: the data flow level and the access control level. Using a cloud system built in Microsoft Azure we show how the metrics can be measured technically and discuss the differences to other cloud providers, namely Amazon Web Services and Google Cloud Platform. We argue that while it is difficult to evaluate the privacy-awareness in a cloud system overall, certain privacy aspects in cloud systems can be mapped to useful metrics that can indicate underlying privacy problems. With this approach we aim at enabling cloud users and auditors to detect deep-rooted privacy problems in cloud systems.
Liao, S., Wu, J., Li, J., Bashir, A. K..  2020.  Proof-of-Balance: Game-Theoretic Consensus for Controller Load Balancing of SDN. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :231–236.
Software Defined Networking (SDN) focus on the isolation of control plane and data plane, greatly enhancing the network's support for heterogeneity and flexibility. However, although the programmable network greatly improves the performance of all aspects of the network, flexible load balancing across controllers still challenges the current SDN architecture. Complex application scenarios lead to flexible and changeable communication requirements, making it difficult to guarantee the Quality of Service (QoS) for SDN users. To address this issue, this paper proposes a paradigm that uses blockchain to incentive safe load balancing for multiple controllers. We proposed a controller consortium blockchain for secure and efficient load balancing of multi-controllers, which includes a new cryptographic currency balance coin and a novel consensus mechanism Proof-of-Balance (PoB). In addition, we have designed a novel game theory-based incentive mechanism to incentive controllers with tight communication resources to offload tasks to idle controllers. The security analysis and performance simulation results indicate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Liu, Xinlin, Huang, Jianhua, Luo, Weifeng, Chen, Qingming, Ye, Peishan, Wang, Dingbo.  2020.  Research on Attack Mechanism using Attack Surface. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Applications (ICAICA). :137–141.
A approach to research on the attack mechanism designs through attack surface technology due to the complexity of the attack mechanism. The attack mechanism of a mimic architecture is analyzed in a relative way using attack surface metrics to indicate whether mimic architectures are safer than non-mimic architectures. The definition of the architectures attack surface in terms of the mimic brackets along three abstract dimensions referenced the system attack surface. The larger the attack surface, the more likely the architecture will be attacked.
Mendiboure, L., Chalouf, M. A., Krief, F..  2020.  A Scalable Blockchain-based Approach for Authentication and Access Control in Software Defined Vehicular Networks. 2020 29th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN). :1—11.
Software Defined Vehicular Networking (SDVN) could be the future of the vehicular networks, enabling interoperability between heterogeneous networks and mobility management. Thus, the deployment of large SDVN is considered. However, SDVN is facing major security issues, in particular, authentication and access control issues. Indeed, an unauthorized SDN controller could modify the behavior of switches (packet redirection, packet drops) and an unauthorized switch could disrupt the operation of the network (reconnaissance attack, malicious feedback). Due to the SDVN features (decentralization, mobility) and the SDVN requirements (flexibility, scalability), the Blockchain technology appears to be an efficient way to solve these authentication and access control issues. Therefore, many Blockchain-based approaches have already been proposed. However, two key challenges have not been addressed: authentication and access control for SDN controllers and high scalability for the underlying Blockchain network. That is why in this paper we propose an innovative and scalable architecture, based on a set of interconnected Blockchain sub-networks. Moreover, an efficient access control mechanism and a cross-sub-networks authentication/revocation mechanism are proposed for all SDVN devices (vehicles, roadside equipment, SDN controllers). To demonstrate the benefits of our approach, its performances are compared with existing solutions in terms of throughput, latency, CPU usage and read/write access to the Blockchain ledger. In addition, we determine an optimal number of Blockchain sub-networks according to different parameters such as the number of certificates to store and the number of requests to process.
Saeed, Imtithal A., Selamat, Ali, Rohani, Mohd Foad, Krejcar, Ondrej, Chaudhry, Junaid Ahsenali.  2020.  A Systematic State-of-the-Art Analysis of Multi-Agent Intrusion Detection. IEEE Access. 8:180184–180209.
Multi-agent architectures have been successful in attaining considerable attention among computer security researchers. This is so, because of their demonstrated capabilities such as autonomy, embedded intelligence, learning and self-growing knowledge-base, high scalability, fault tolerance, and automatic parallelism. These characteristics have made this technology a de facto standard for developing ambient security systems to meet the open and dynamic nature of today's online communities. Although multi-agent architectures are increasingly studied in the area of computer security, there is still not enough empirical evidence on their performance in intrusions and attacks detection. The aim of this paper is to report the systematic literature review conducted in the context of specific research questions, to investigate multi-agent IDS architectures to highlight the issues that affect their performance in terms of detection accuracy and response time. We used pertinent keywords and terms to search and retrieve the most recent research studies, on multi-agent IDS architectures, from the major research databases and digital libraries such as SCOPUS, Springer, and IEEE Explore. The search processes resulted in a number of studies; among them, there were journal articles, book chapters, conference papers, dissertations, and theses. The obtained studies were assessed and filtered out, and finally, there were over 71 studies chosen to answer the research questions. The results of this study have shown that multi-agent architectures include several advantages that can help in the development of ambient IDS. However, it has been found that there are several issues in the current multi-agent IDS architectures that may degrade the accuracy and response time of intrusions and attacks detection. Based on our findings, the issues of multi-agent IDS architectures include limitations in the techniques, mechanisms, and schemes used for multi-agent IDS adaptation and learning, load balancing, scalability, fault-tolerance, and high communication overhead. It has also been found that new measurement metrics are required for evaluating multi-agent IDS architectures.
Mishra, Prateek, Yadav, Sanjay Kumar, Arora, Sunil.  2020.  TCB Minimization towards Secured and Lightweight IoT End Device Architecture using Virtualization at Fog Node. 2020 Sixth International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing (PDGC). :16–21.
An Internet of Things (IoT) architecture comprised of cloud, fog and resource constrained IoT end devices. The exponential development of IoT has increased the processing and footprint overhead in IoT end devices. All the components of IoT end devices that establish Chain of Trust (CoT) to ensure security are termed as Trusted Computing Base (TCB). The increased overhead in the IoT end device has increased the demand to increase the size of TCB surface area hence increases complexity of TCB surface area and also the increased the visibility of TCB surface area to the external world made the IoT end devices architecture over-architectured and unsecured. The TCB surface area minimization that has been remained unfocused reduces the complexity of TCB surface area and visibility of TCB components to the external un-trusted world hence ensures security in terms of confidentiality, integrity, authenticity (CIA) at the IoT end devices. The TCB minimization thus will convert the over-architectured IoT end device into lightweight and secured architecture highly desired for resource constrained IoT end devices. In this paper we review the IoT end device architectures proposed in the recent past and concluded that these architectures of resource constrained IoT end devices are over-architectured due to larger TCB and ignored bugs and vulnerabilities in TCB hence un-secured. We propose the Novel levelled architecture with TCB minimization by replacing oversized hypervisor with lightweight Micro(μ)-hypervisor i.e. μ-visor and transferring μ-hypervisor based virtualization over fog node for light weight and secured IoT End device architecture. The bug free TCB components confirm stable CoT for guaranteed CIA resulting into robust Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) hence secured IoT end device architecture. Thus the proposed resulting architecture is secured with minimized SRAM and flash memory combined footprint 39.05% of the total available memory per device. In this paper we review the IoT end device architectures proposed in the recent past and concluded that these architectures of resource constrained IoT end devices are over-architectured due to larger TCB and ignored bugs and vulnerabilities in TCB hence un-secured. We propose the Novel levelled architecture with TCB minimization by replacing oversized hypervisor with lightweight Micro(μ)-hypervisor i.e. μ-visor and transferring μ-hypervisor based virtualization over fog node for light weight and secured IoT End device architecture. The bug free TCB components confirm stable CoT for guaranteed CIA resulting into robust Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) hence secured IoT end device architecture. Thus the proposed resulting architecture is secured with minimized SRAM and flash memory combined footprint 39.05% of the total available memory per device.
Alabugin, S. K., Sokolov, A. N..  2020.  Applying of Generative Adversarial Networks for Anomaly Detection in Industrial Control Systems. 2020 Global Smart Industry Conference (GloSIC). :199–203.

Modern industrial control systems (ICS) act as victims of cyber attacks more often in last years. These cyber attacks often can not be detected by classical information security methods. Moreover, the consequences of cyber attack's impact can be catastrophic. Since cyber attacks leads to appearance of anomalies in the ICS and technological equipment controlled by it, the task of intrusion detection for ICS can be reformulated as the task of industrial process anomaly detection. This paper considers the applicability of generative adversarial networks (GANs) in the field of industrial processes anomaly detection. Existing approaches for GANs usage in the field of information security (such as anomaly detection in network traffic) were described. It is proposed to use the BiGAN architecture in order to detect anomalies in the industrial processes. The proposed approach has been tested on Secure Water Treatment Dataset (SWaT). The obtained results indicate the prospects of using the examined method in practice.