Biblio

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2020-03-23
Choi, Jungyong, Shin, WoonSeob, Kim, Jonghyun, Kim, Ki-Hyung.  2020.  Random Seed Generation For IoT Key Generation and Key Management System Using Blockchain. 2020 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :663–665.
Recently, the Internet of Things (IoT) is growing rapidly. IoT sensors are attached to various devices, and information is detected, collected and utilized through various wired and wireless communication environments. As the IoT is used in various places, IoT devices face a variety of malicious attacks such as MITM and reverse engineering. To prevent these, encryption is required for device-to-device communication, and keys required for encryption must be properly managed. We propose a scheme to generate seed needed for key generation and a scheme to manage the public key using blockchain.
2020-03-09
Nadir, Ibrahim, Ahmad, Zafeer, Mahmood, Haroon, Asadullah Shah, Ghalib, Shahzad, Farrukh, Umair, Muhammad, Khan, Hassam, Gulzar, Usman.  2019.  An Auditing Framework for Vulnerability Analysis of IoT System. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :39–47.
Introduction of IoT is a big step towards the convergence of physical and virtual world as everyday objects are connected to the internet nowadays. But due to its diversity and resource constraint nature, the security of these devices in the real world has become a major challenge. Although a number of security frameworks have been suggested to ensure the security of IoT devices, frameworks for auditing this security are rare. We propose an open-source framework to audit the security of IoT devices covering hardware, firmware and communication vulnerabilities. Using existing open-source tools, we formulate a modular approach towards the implementation of the proposed framework. Standout features in the suggested framework are its modular design, extensibility, scalability, tools integration and primarily autonomous nature. The principal focus of the framework is to automate the process of auditing. The paper further mentions some tools that can be incorporated in different modules of the framework. Finally, we validate the feasibility of our framework by auditing an IoT device using proposed toolchain.
2020-02-10
Bansal, Bhawana, Sharma, Monika.  2019.  Client-Side Verification Framework for Offline Architecture of IoT. 2019 3rd International conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). :1044–1050.
Internet of things is a network formed between two or more devices through internet which helps in sharing data and resources. IoT is present everywhere and lot of applications in our day-to-day life such as smart homes, smart grid system which helps in reducing energy consumption, smart garbage collection to make cities clean, smart cities etc. It has some limitations too such as concerns of security of the network and the cost of installations of the devices. There have been many researches proposed various method in improving the IoT systems. In this paper, we have discussed about the scope and limitations of IoT in various fields and we have also proposed a technique to secure offline architecture of IoT.
2020-01-13
Li, Nan, Varadharajan, Vijay, Nepal, Surya.  2019.  Context-Aware Trust Management System for IoT Applications with Multiple Domains. 2019 IEEE 39th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :1138–1148.
The Internet of Things (IoT) provides connectivity between heterogeneous devices in different applications, such as smart wildlife, supply chain and traffic management. Trust management system (TMS) assesses the trustworthiness of service with respect to its quality. Under different context information, a service provider may be trusted in one context but not in another. The existing context-aware trust models usually store trust values under different contexts and search the closest (to a given context) record to evaluate the trustworthiness of a service. However, it is not suitable for distributed resource-constrained IoT devices which have small memory and low power. Reputation systems are applied in many trust models where trustor obtains recommendations from others. In context-based trust evaluation, it requires interactive queries to find relevant information from remote devices. The communication overhead and energy consumption are issues in low power networks like 6LoWPAN. In this paper, we propose a new context-aware trust model for lightweight IoT devices. The proposed model provides a trustworthiness overview of a service provider without storing past behavior records, that is, constant size storage. The proposed model allows a trustor to decide the significance of context items. This could result in distinctive decisions under the same trustworthiness record. We also show the performance of the proposed model under different attacks.
2020-02-17
Hassan, Mehmood, Mansoor, Khwaja, Tahir, Shahzaib, Iqbal, Waseem.  2019.  Enhanced Lightweight Cloud-assisted Mutual Authentication Scheme for Wearable Devices. 2019 International Conference on Applied and Engineering Mathematics (ICAEM). :62–67.
With the emergence of IoT, wearable devices are drawing attention and becoming part of our daily life. These wearable devices collect private information about their wearers. Mostly, a secure authentication process is used to verify a legitimate user that relies on the mobile terminal. Similarly, remote cloud services are used for verification and authentication of both wearable devices and wearers. Security is necessary to preserve the privacy of users. Some traditional authentication protocols are proposed which have vulnerabilities and are prone to different attacks like forgery, de-synchronization, and un-traceability issues. To address these vulnerabilities, recently, Wu et al. (2017) proposed a cloud-assisted authentication scheme which is costly in terms of computations required. Therefore this paper proposed an improved, lightweight and computationally efficient authentication scheme for wearable devices. The proposed scheme provides similar level of security as compared to Wu's (2017) scheme but requires 41.2% lesser computations.
2020-01-13
Vasilev, Rusen Vasilev, Haka, Aydan Mehmed.  2019.  Enhanced Simulation Framework for Realisation of Mobility in 6LoWPAN Wireless Sensor Networks. 2019 IEEE XXVIII International Scientific Conference Electronics (ET). :1–4.
The intense incursion of the Internet of Things (IoT) into all areas of modern life has led to a need for a more detailed study of these technologies and their mechanisms of work. It is necessary to study mechanisms in order to improve QoS, security, identifying shortest routes, mobility, etc. This paper proposes an enhanced simulation framework that implements an improved mechanism for prioritising traffic on 6LoWPAN networks and the realisation of micro-mobility.
2020-02-24
Ahmadi-Assalemi, Gabriela, al-Khateeb, Haider M., Epiphaniou, Gregory, Cosson, Jon, Jahankhani, Hamid, Pillai, Prashant.  2019.  Federated Blockchain-Based Tracking and Liability Attribution Framework for Employees and Cyber-Physical Objects in a Smart Workplace. 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Security, Safety and Sustainability (ICGS3). :1–9.
The systematic integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) into the supply chain to increase operational efficiency and quality has also introduced new complexities to the threat landscape. The myriad of sensors could increase data collection capabilities for businesses to facilitate process automation aided by Artificial Intelligence (AI) but without adopting an appropriate Security-by-Design framework, threat detection and response are destined to fail. The emerging concept of Smart Workplace incorporates many CPS (e.g. Robots and Drones) to execute tasks alongside Employees both of which can be exploited as Insider Threats. We introduce and discuss forensic-readiness, liability attribution and the ability to track moving Smart SPS Objects to support modern Digital Forensics and Incident Response (DFIR) within a defence-in-depth strategy. We present a framework to facilitate the tracking of object behaviour within Smart Controlled Business Environments (SCBE) to support resilience by enabling proactive insider threat detection. Several components of the framework were piloted in a company to discuss a real-life case study and demonstrate anomaly detection and the emerging of behavioural patterns according to objects' movement with relation to their job role, workspace position and nearest entry or exit. The empirical data was collected from a Bluetooth-based Proximity Monitoring Solution. Furthermore, a key strength of the framework is a federated Blockchain (BC) model to achieve forensic-readiness by establishing a digital Chain-of-Custody (CoC) and a collaborative environment for CPS to qualify as Digital Witnesses (DW) to support post-incident investigations.
2020-01-13
Gopaluni, Jitendra, Unwala, Ishaq, Lu, Jiang, Yang, Xiaokun.  2019.  Graphical User Interface for OpenThread. 2019 IEEE 16th International Conference on Smart Cities: Improving Quality of Life Using ICT IoT and AI (HONET-ICT). :235–237.
This paper presents an implementation of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for the OpenThread software. OpenThread is a software package for Thread. Thread is a networking protocol for Internet of Things (IoT) designed for home automation. OpenThread package was released by Nest Labs as an open source implementation of the Thread specification v1.1.1. The OpenThread includes IPv6, 6LoWPAN, IEEE 802.15.4 with MAC security, Mesh Link Establishment, and Mesh Routing. OpenThread includes all Thread supported device types and supports both SOC and NCP implementations. OpenThread runs on Linux and allows the users to use it as a simulator with a command line interface. This research is focused on adding a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to the OpenThread. The GUI package is implemented in TCL/Tk (Tool Control Language). OpenThread with a GUI makes working with OpenThread much easier for researchers and students. The GUI also makes it easier to visualize the Thread network and its operations.
2020-03-27
Cabrini, Fábio H., de Barros Castro Filho, Albérico, Filho, Filippo V., Kofuji, Sergio T., Moura, Angelo Rafael Lunardelli Pucci.  2019.  Helix SandBox: An Open Platform to Fast Prototype Smart Environments Applications. 2019 IEEE 1st Sustainable Cities Latin America Conference (SCLA). :1–6.
This paper presents the Helix SandBox, an open platform for quick prototyping of smart environment applications. Its architecture was designed to be a lightweight solution that aimed to simplify the instance integration and setup of the main Generic Enablers provided in the FIWARE architecture. As a Powered by FIWARE platform, the SandBox operates with the NGSI standard for interoperability between systems. The platform offers a container-based multicloud architecture capable of running in public, private and bare metal clouds or even in the leading hypervisors available. This paper also proposes a multi-layered architecture capable of integrates the cloud, fog, edge and IoT layers through the federation concept. Lastly, we present two Smart Cities applications conducted in the form of Proof of Concept (PoC) that use the Helix SandBox platform as back-end.
2020-01-21
Saadeh, Huda, Almobaideen, Wesam, Sabri, Khair Eddin, Saadeh, Maha.  2019.  Hybrid SDN-ICN Architecture Design for the Internet of Things. 2019 Sixth International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :96–101.
Internet of Things (IoT) impacts the current network with many challenges due to the variation, heterogeneity of its devices and running technologies. For those reasons, monitoring and controlling network efficiently can rise the performance of the network and adapts network techniques according to environment measurements. This paper proposes a new privacy aware-IoT architecture that combines the benefits of both Information Centric Network (ICN) and Software Defined Network (SDN) paradigms. In this architecture controlling functionalities are distributed over multiple planes: operational plane which is considered as smart ICN data plane with Controllers that control local clusters, tactical plane which is an Edge environment to take controlling decisions based on small number of clusters, and strategic plane which is a cloud controlling environment to make long-term decision that affects the whole network. Deployment options of this architecture is discussed and SDN enhancement due to in-network caching is evaluated.
2020-02-17
Nouichi, Douae, Abdelsalam, Mohamed, Nasir, Qassim, Abbas, Sohail.  2019.  IoT Devices Security Using RF Fingerprinting. 2019 Advances in Science and Engineering Technology International Conferences (ASET). :1–7.
Internet of Things (IoT) devices industry is rapidly growing, with an accelerated increase in the list of manufacturers offering a wide range of smart devices selected to enhance end-users' standard of living. Security remains an after-thought in these devices resulting in vulnerabilities. While there exists a cryptographic protocol designed to solve such authentication problem, the computational complexity of cryptographic protocols and scalability problems make almost all cryptography-based authentication protocols impractical for IoT. Wireless RFF (Radio Frequency Fingerprinting) comes as a physical layer-based security authentication method that improves wireless security authentication, which is especially useful for the power and computing limited devices. As a proof-of-concept, this paper proposes a universal SDR (software defined Radio)-based inexpensive implementation intended to sense emitted wireless signals from IoT devices. Our approach is validated by extracting mobile phone signal bursts under different user-dedicated modes. The proposed setup is well adapted to accurately capture signals from different telecommunication standards. To ensure a unique identification of IoT devices, this paper also provides an optimum set of features useful to generate the device identity fingerprint.
2020-06-01
da Silva Andrade, Richardson B., Souto Rosa, Nelson.  2019.  MidSecThings: Assurance Solution for Security Smart Homes in IoT. 2019 IEEE 19th International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE). :171–178.
The interest over building security-based solutions to reduce the vulnerability exploits and mitigate the risks associated with smart homes in IoT is growing. However, our investigation identified to architect and implement distributed security mechanisms is still a challenge because is necessary to handle security and privacy in IoT middleware with a strong focus. Our investigation, it was identified the significant proportion of the systems that did not address security and did not describe the security approach in any meaningful detail. The idea proposed in this work is to provide middleware aim to implement security mechanisms in smart home and contribute as how guide to beginner developers' IoT middleware. The advantages of using MidSecThings are to avoid leakage data, unavailable service, unidentification action and not authorized access over IoT devices in smart home.
2020-02-24
Anand, Shajina, Raja, Gunasekaran, Anand, Gokul, Chauhdary, Sajjad Hussain, Bashir, Ali Kashif.  2019.  Mirage: A Protocol for Decentralized and Secured Communication of IoT Devices. 2019 IEEE 10th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :1074–1080.
Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly emerging as the manifestation of the networked society vision. But its centralized architecture will lead to a single point of failure. On the other hand, it will be difficult to handle communications in the near future considering the rapid growth of IoT devices. Along with its popularity, IoT suffers from a lot of vulnerabilities, which IoT developers are constantly working to mitigate. This paper proposes a new protocol called Mirage which can be used for secure and decentralized communication of IoT devices. This protocol is built based on security principles. Out of which Mirage mainly focuses on authentication, integrity, and non-repudiation. In this protocol, devices are authenticated via secret keys known only to the parties involved in the communication. These secret keys are not static and will be constantly changing for every communication. For ensuring integrity, an intermediary is asked to exchange the hash of the messages. As the intermediary nodes are lending their computing and networking powers, they should be rewarded. To ensure non-repudiation, instead of going for trusted third parties, blockchain technology is used. Every node in the network needs to spend a mirage token for sending a message. Mirage tokens will be provided only to those nodes, who help in exchanging the hashes as a reward. In the end, a decentralized network of IoT devices is formed where every node contribute to the security of the network.
2020-01-13
Potrino, Giuseppe, de Rango, Floriano, Santamaria, Amilcare Francesco.  2019.  Modeling and evaluation of a new IoT security system for mitigating DoS attacks to the MQTT broker. 2019 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :1–6.
In recent years, technology use has assumed an important role in the support of human activities. Intellectual work has become the main preferred human activity, while structured activities are going to become ever more automatized for increasing their efficiency. For this reason, we assist to the diffusion of ever more innovative devices able to face new emergent problems. These devices can interact with the environment and each other autonomously, taking decisions even without human control. This is the Internet of Things (IoT) phenomenon, favored by low cost, high mobility, high interaction and low power devices. This spread of devices has become uncontrolled, but security in this context continues to increase slowly. The purpose of this work is to model and evaluate a new IoT security system. The context is based on a generic IoT system in the presence of lightweight actuator and sensor nodes exchanging messages through Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol. This work aims to increase the security of this protocol at application level, particularly mitigating Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. The system is based on the use of a host Intrusion Detection System (IDS) which applies a threshold based packet discarding policy to the different topics defined through MQTT.
2020-02-17
Pandelea, Alexandru-Ionut, Chiroiu, Mihai-Daniel.  2019.  Password Guessing Using Machine Learning on Wearables. 2019 22nd International Conference on Control Systems and Computer Science (CSCS). :304–311.
Wearables are now ubiquitous items equipped with a multitude of sensors such as GPS, accelerometer, or Bluetooth. The raw data from this sensors are typically used in a health context. However, we can also use it for security purposes. In this paper, we present a solution that aims at using data from the sensors of a wearable device to identify the password a user is typing on a keyboard by using machine learning algorithms. Hence, the purpose is to determine whether a malicious third party application could extract sensitive data through the raw data that it has access to.
2020-03-23
Korenda, Ashwija Reddy, Afghah, Fatemeh, Cambou, Bertrand, Philabaum, Christopher.  2019.  A Proof of Concept SRAM-based Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) Key Generation Mechanism for IoT Devices. 2019 16th Annual IEEE International Conference on Sensing, Communication, and Networking (SECON). :1–8.
This paper provides a proof of concept for using SRAM based Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) to generate private keys for IoT devices. PUFs are utilized, as there is inadequate protection for secret keys stored in the memory of the IoT devices. We utilize a custom-made Arduino mega shield to extract the fingerprint from SRAM chip on demand. We utilize the concepts of ternary states to exclude the cells which are easily prone to flip, allowing us to extract stable bits from the fingerprint of the SRAM. Using the custom-made software for our SRAM device, we can control the error rate of the PUF to achieve an adjustable memory-based PUF for key generation. We utilize several fuzzy extractor techniques based on using different error correction coding methods to generate secret keys from the SRAM PUF, and study the trade-off between the false authentication rate and false rejection rate of the PUF.
2020-03-16
Rosa, Taras, Kaidan, Mykola, Gazda, Juraj, Bykovyy, Pavlo, Sapozhnyk, Grygoriy, Maksymyuk, Taras.  2019.  Scalable QAM Modulation for Physical Layer Security of Wireless Networks. 2019 10th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 2:1095–1098.
The rapid growth of the connected devices driven by Internet of Things (IoT) concept requires a complete rethinking of the conventional approaches for the network design. One of the key constraints of the IoT devices are their low capabilities in order to optimize energy consumption. On the other hand, many IoT applications require high level of data protection and privacy, which can be provided only by advanced cryptographic algorithms, which are not feasible for IoT devices. In this paper, we propose a scalable quadrature modulation aiming to solve the problem of secure communications at the physical layer. The key idea of the proposed approach is to transmit only part of information in way that allows target receiver to retrieve the complete information. Such approach allows to ensure the security of wireless channel, while reducing the overhead of advanced cryptographic algorithms.
2020-05-22
Jemal, Jay, Kornegay, Kevin T..  2019.  Security Assessment of Blockchains in Heterogenous IoT Networks : Invited Presentation. 2019 53rd Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS). :1—4.
As Blockchain technology become more understood in recent years and its capability to solve enterprise business use cases become evident, technologist have been exploring Blockchain technology to solve use cases that have been daunting industries for years. Unlike existing technologies, one of the key features of blockchain technology is its unparalleled capability to provide, traceability, accountability and immutable records that can be accessed at any point in time. One application area of interest for blockchain is securing heterogenous networks. This paper explores the security challenges in a heterogonous network of IoT devices and whether blockchain can be a viable solution. Using an experimental approach, we explore the possibility of using blockchain technology to secure IoT devices, validate IoT device transactions, and establish a chain of trust to secure an IoT device mesh network, as well as investigate the plausibility of using immutable transactions for forensic analysis.
2020-04-17
Liu, Sihang, Wei, Yizhou, Chi, Jianfeng, Shezan, Faysal Hossain, Tian, Yuan.  2019.  Side Channel Attacks in Computation Offloading Systems with GPU Virtualization. 2019 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :156—161.
The Internet of Things (IoT) and mobile systems nowadays are required to perform more intensive computation, such as facial detection, image recognition and even remote gaming, etc. Due to the limited computation performance and power budget, it is sometimes impossible to perform these workloads locally. As high-performance GPUs become more common in the cloud, offloading the computation to the cloud becomes a possible choice. However, due to the fact that offloaded workloads from different devices (belonging to different users) are being computed in the same cloud, security concerns arise. Side channel attacks on GPU systems have been widely studied, where the threat model is the attacker and the victim are running on the same operating system. Recently, major GPU vendors have provided hardware and library support to virtualize GPUs for better isolation among users. This work studies the side channel attacks from one virtual machine to another where both share the same physical GPU. We show that it is possible to infer other user's activities in this setup and can further steal others deep learning model.
2020-05-26
Fu, Yulong, Li, Guoquan, Mohammed, Atiquzzaman, Yan, Zheng, Cao, Jin, Li, Hui.  2019.  A Study and Enhancement to the Security of MANET AODV Protocol Against Black Hole Attacks. 2019 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing Communications, Cloud Big Data Computing, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/CBDCom/IOP/SCI). :1431–1436.
Mobile AdHoc Networks (MANET) can be fast implemented, and it is very popular in many specific network requirements, such as UAV (Unmanned Aerial Unit), Disaster Recovery and IoT (Internet of Things) etc. However, MANET is also vulnerable. AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing) protocol is one type of MANET routing protocol and many attacks can be implemented to break the connections on AODV based AdHoc networks. In this article, aim of protecting the MANET security, we modeled the AODV protocol with one type of Automata and analyzed the security vulnerabilities of it; then based on the analyzing results, we proposed an enhancement to AODV protocol to against the Black Hole Attacks. We also implemented the proposed enhancement in NS3 simulator and verified the correctness, usability and efficiency.
2020-05-15
Krishnamoorthy, Raja, Kalaivaani, P.T., Jackson, Beulah.  2019.  Test methodology for detecting short-channel faults in network on- chip networks using IOT. 2019 3rd International conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). :1406—1417.
The NOC Network on chip provides better performance and scalability communication structures point-to-point signal node, shared through bus architecture. Information analysis of method using the IOT termination, as the energy consumed in this regard reduces and reduces the network load but it also displays safety concerns because the valuation data is stored or transmitted to the network in various stages of the node. Using encryption to protect data on the area of network-on-chip Analysis Machine is a way to solve data security issues. We propose a Network on chip based on a combined multicore cluster with special packages for computing-intensive data processing and encryption functionality and support for software, in a tight power envelope for analyzing and coordinating integrated encryption. Programming for regular computing tasks is the challenge of efficient and secure data analysis for IOT end-end applications while providing full-functionality with high efficiency and low power to satisfy the needs of multiple processing applications. Applications provide a substantial parallel, so they can also use NOC's ability. Applications must compose in. This system controls the movement of the packets through the network. As network on chip (NOC) systems become more prevalent in the processing unit. Routers and interconnection networks are the main components of NOC. This system controls the movement of packets over the network. Chip (NOC) networks are very backward for the network processing unit. Guides and Link Networks are critical elements of the NOC. Therefore, these areas require less access and power consumption, so we can better understand environmental and energy transactions. In this manner, a low-area and efficient NOC framework were proposed by removing virtual channels.
2020-01-27
Hibti, Meryem, Baïna, Karim, Benatallah, Boualem.  2019.  Towards Swarm Intelligence Architectural Patterns: an IoT-Big Data-AI-Blockchain convergence perspective. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Big Data and Internet of Things. :1–8.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is exploding. It is made up of billions of smart devices -from minuscule chips to mammoth machines - that use wireless technology to talk to each other (and to us). IoT infrastructures can vary from instrumented connected devices providing data externally to smart, and autonomous systems. To accompany data explosion resulting, among others, from IoT, Big data analytics processes examine large data sets to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations between collected events, either at a very technical level (incident/anomaly detection, predictive maintenance) or at business level (customer preferences, market trends, revenue opportunities) to provide improved operational efficiency, better customer service, competitive advantages over rival organizations, etc. In order to capitalize business value of the data generated by IoT sensors, IoT, Big Data Analytics/IA need to meet in the middle. One critical use case for IoT is to warn organizations when a product or service is at risk. The aim of this paper is to present a first proposal of IoT-Big Data-IA architectural patterns catalogues with a Blockchain implementation perspective in seek of design methodologies artifacts.
2020-04-13
Mohanta, Bhabendu K., Panda, Soumyashree S., Satapathy, Utkalika, Jena, Debasish, Gountia, Debasis.  2019.  Trustworthy Management in Decentralized IoT Application using Blockchain. 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–5.
Internet of Things (IoT) as per estimated will connect 50 billion devices by 2020. Since its evolution, IoT technology provides lots of flexibility to develop and implement any application. Most of the application improves the human living standard and also makes life easy to access and monitoring the things in real time. Though there exist some security and privacy issues in IoT system like authentication, computation, data modification, trust among users. In this paper, we have identified the IoT application like insurance, supply chain system, smart city and smart car where trust among associated users is an major issue. The current centralized system does not provide enough trust between users. Using Blockchain technology we have shown that trust issue among users can be managed in a decentralized way so that information can be traceable and identify/verify any time. Blockchain has properties like distributed, digitally share and immutable which enhance security. For Blockchain implementation, Ethereum platform is used.
2020-02-17
Alfaleh, Faleh, Alfehaid, Haitham, Alanzy, Mohammed, Elkhediri, Salim.  2019.  Wireless Sensor Networks Security: Case study. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1–4.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are important and becoming more important as we integrate wireless sensor networks and the internet with different things, which has changed our life, and it is affected everywhere in our life like shopping, storage, live monitoring, smart home etc., called Internet of Things (IoT), as any use of the network physical devices that included in electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and connectivity which makes available these things to connect, collect and exchange data, and the most importantly thing is the accuracy of the data that has been collected in the Internet of Things, detecting sensor data with faulty readings is an important issue of secure communication and power consumption. So, requirement of energy-efficiency and integrity of information is mandatory.
Rizk, Dominick, Rizk, Rodrigue, Hsu, Sonya.  2019.  Applied Layered-Security Model to IoMT. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :227–227.

Nowadays, IoT has crossed all borders and become ubiquitous in everyday life. This emerging technology has a huge success in closing the gap between the digital and the real world. However, security and privacy become huge concerns especially in the medical field which prevent the healthcare industry from adopting it despite its benefits and potentials. This paper focuses on identifying potential security threats to the IoMT and presents the security mechanisms to remove any possible impediment from immune information security of IoMT. A summarized framework of the layered-security model is proposed followed by a specific assessment review of each layer.