Biblio

Found 166 results

Filters: Keyword is IoT  [Clear All Filters]
2019-01-16
Sadeghi, Parham, Movahhedinia, Naser.  2018.  An Analytical Approach to ETX Estimation in Linear-Topology in IoT. Proceedings of the International Conference on Smart Cities and Internet of Things. :2:1–2:4.
With ubiquitous connectivity no longer a dream, the need for efficient communications between smart objects in Internet of Things has become more demanding than ever before. In this context, efficient yet low cost modeling tools, capable of considering the impactful parameters are essential in provisioning such systems. ETX (Expected Transmission count), used in RPL (Routing Protocol for Low power lossy networks), turns to be one of the most widely used routing metrics, so it is considered by IETF for IPv6 routing in low-power wireless sensor networks and to infer many network layer characteristics like packet loss rate. As more and more wireless sensor networks being deployed with 6LoWPAN, having a model to easily obtain network parameters gains importance. This work aims to provide such a tool in the form of a modular analytic model for linear topology of 6LoWPANs which are mostly seen in monitoring systems of linear structures like pipeline, bridges and highways. The proposed model is evaluated in obtaining the ETX metric and packet loss rate in a typical IoT network.
2019-08-05
Sertbaş, Nurefşan, Aytaç, Samet, Ermiş, Orhan, Alagöz, Fatih, Gür, Gürkan.  2018.  Attribute Based Content Security and Caching in Information Centric IoT. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :34:1–34:8.
Information-centric networking (ICN) is a Future Internet paradigm which uses named information (data objects) instead of host-based end-to-end communications. In-network caching is a key pillar of ICN. Basically, data objects are cached in ICN routers and retrieved from these network elements upon availability when they are requested. It is a particularly promising networking approach due to the expected benefits of data dissemination efficiency, reduced delay and improved robustness for challenging communication scenarios in IoT domain. From the security perspective, ICN concentrates on securing data objects instead of ensuring the security of end-to-end communication link. However, it inherently involves the security challenge of access control for content. Thus, an efficient access control mechanism is crucial to provide secure information dissemination. In this work, we investigate Attribute Based Encryption (ABE) as an access control apparatus for information centric IoT. Moreover, we elaborate on how such a system performs for different parameter settings such as different numbers of attributes and file sizes.
2019-04-01
Peters, Travis, Lal, Reshma, Varadarajan, Srikanth, Pappachan, Pradeep, Kotz, David.  2018.  BASTION-SGX: Bluetooth and Architectural Support for Trusted I/O on SGX. Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Hardware and Architectural Support for Security and Privacy. :3:1–3:9.
This paper presents work towards realizing architectural support for Bluetooth Trusted I/O on SGX-enabled platforms, with the goal of providing I/O data protection that does not rely on system software security. Indeed, we are primarily concerned with protecting I/O from all software adversaries, including privileged software. In this paper we describe the challenges in designing and implementing Trusted I/O at the architectural level for Bluetooth. We propose solutions to these challenges. In addition, we describe our proof-of-concept work that extends existing over-the-air Bluetooth security all the way to an SGX enclave by securing user data between the Bluetooth Controller and an SGX enclave.
2019-10-02
McMahon, E., Patton, M., Samtani, S., Chen, H..  2018.  Benchmarking Vulnerability Assessment Tools for Enhanced Cyber-Physical System (CPS) Resiliency. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :100–105.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) are engineered systems seamlessly integrating computational algorithms and physical components. CPS advances offer numerous benefits to domains such as health, transportation, smart homes and manufacturing. Despite these advances, the overall cybersecurity posture of CPS devices remains unclear. In this paper, we provide knowledge on how to improve CPS resiliency by evaluating and comparing the accuracy, and scalability of two popular vulnerability assessment tools, Nessus and OpenVAS. Accuracy and suitability are evaluated with a diverse sample of pre-defined vulnerabilities in Industrial Control Systems (ICS), smart cars, smart home devices, and a smart water system. Scalability is evaluated using a large-scale vulnerability assessment of 1,000 Internet accessible CPS devices found on Shodan, the search engine for the Internet of Things (IoT). Assessment results indicate several CPS devices from major vendors suffer from critical vulnerabilities such as unsupported operating systems, OpenSSH vulnerabilities allowing unauthorized information disclosure, and PHP vulnerabilities susceptible to denial of service attacks.
2019-02-08
Metongnon, Lionel, Sadre, Ramin.  2018.  Beyond Telnet: Prevalence of IoT Protocols in Telescope and Honeypot Measurements. Proceedings of the 2018 Workshop on Traffic Measurements for Cybersecurity. :21-26.
With the arrival of the Internet of Things (IoT), more devices appear online with default credentials or lacking proper security protocols. Consequently, we have seen a rise of powerful DDoS attacks originating from IoT devices in the last years. In most cases the devices were infected by bot malware through the telnet protocol. This has lead to several honeypot studies on telnet-based attacks. However, IoT installations also involve other protocols, for example for Machine-to-Machine communication. Those protocols often provide by default only little security. In this paper, we present a measurement study on attacks against or based on those protocols. To this end, we use data obtained from a /15 network telescope and three honey-pots with 15 IPv4 addresses. We find that telnet-based malware is still widely used and that infected devices are employed not only for DDoS attacks but also for crypto-currency mining. We also see, although at a much lesser frequency, that attackers are looking for IoT-specific services using MQTT, CoAP, UPnP, and HNAP, and that they target vulnerabilities of routers and cameras with HTTP.
2019-03-06
Khan, Latifur.  2018.  Big IoT Data Stream Analytics with Issues in Privacy and Security. Proceedings of the Fourth ACM International Workshop on Security and Privacy Analytics. :22-22.
Internet of Things (IoT) Devices are monitoring and controlling systems that interact with the physical world by collecting, processing and transmitting data using the internet. IoT devices include home automation systems, smart grid, transportation systems, medical devices, building controls, manufacturing and industrial control systems. With the increase in deployment of IoT devices, there will be a corresponding increase in the amount of data generated by these devices, therefore, resulting in the need of large scale data processing systems to process and extract information for efficient and impactful decision making that will improve quality of living.
2019-02-13
Ko, Ronny, Mickens, James.  2018.  DeadBolt: Securing IoT Deployments. Proceedings of the Applied Networking Research Workshop. :50–57.
In this paper, we introduce DeadBolt, a new security framework for managing IoT network access. DeadBolt hides all of the devices in an IoT deployment behind an access point that implements deny-by-default policies for both incoming and outgoing traffic. The DeadBolt AP also forces high-end IoT devices to use remote attestation to gain network access; attestation allows the devices to prove that they run up-to-date, trusted software. For lightweight IoT devices which lack the ability to attest, the DeadBolt AP uses virtual drivers (essentially, security-focused virtual network functions) to protect lightweight device traffic. For example, a virtual driver might provide network intrusion detection, or encrypt device traffic that is natively cleartext. Using these techniques, and several others, DeadBolt can prevent realistic attacks while imposing only modest performance costs.
2019-07-01
Ammar, Zakariya, AlSharif, Ahmad.  2018.  Deployment of IoT-based Honeynet Model. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Technology: IoT and Smart City. :134–139.
This paper deals with the developing model of a honeynet that depends on the Internet of things (IoT). Due to significant of industrial services, such model helps enhancement of information security detection in industrial domain, the model is designed to detect adversaries whom attempt to attack industrial control systems (ICS) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The model consists of hardware and software aspects, designed to focus on ICS services that managed remotely via SCADA systems. In order to prove the work of the model, a few of security tools are used such as Shodan, Nmap and others. These tools have been applied locally inside LAN and globally via internet to get proving results. Ultimately, results contain a list of protocols and ports that represent industry control services. To clarify outputs, it contains tcp/udp ports 623, 102, 1025 and 161 which represent respectively IPMI, S7comm, KAMSTRAP and SNMP services.
2019-04-01
Imran, Laiqa Binte, Farhan, Muhammad, Latif, Rana M. Amir, Rafiq, Ahsan.  2018.  Design of an IoT Based Warfare Car Robot Using Sensor Network Connectivity. Proceedings of the 2Nd International Conference on Future Networks and Distributed Systems. :55:1–55:8.
Robots remain the focus of researchers and developers, and now they are moving towards IoT based devices and mobile robots to take advantage of the different sensor enables facilities. A robot is a machine capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically, especially one programmable by a computer. A robot can be controlled by a human and can be modified by its functionality at runtime by the operator. From past few decades, researchers are contributing towards Robotics. There is no end of technology, creativity, and innovation. The project is designed to develop a robot using android application for remote operation attached to the wireless camera for monitoring purpose. Surveillance using the camera can help the soldier team to make strategies at run-time. This kind of robot can be helpful for spying purpose in war fields. The android application loaded on mobile devices can connect to the security system and easy to use GUI and visualization of the Warfield. The security system then acts on these commands and responds to the user. The camera and the motion detector are attached to the system for remote surveillance using wireless protocol 802.11, ZigBee and Bluetooth protocols. This robot is having the functionality of mines detection, object detection, GPS used for location and navigation and a gun to fire the enemy at the runtime.
2019-09-23
Ramijak, Dusan, Pal, Amitangshu, Kant, Krishna.  2018.  Pattern Mining Based Compression of IoT Data. Proceedings of the Workshop Program of the 19th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking. :12:1–12:6.
The increasing proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices and systems result in large amounts of highly heterogeneous data to be collected. Although at least some of the collected sensor data is often consumed by the real-time decision making and control of the IoT system, that is not the only use of such data. Invariably, the collected data is stored, perhaps in some filtered or downselected fashion, so that it can be used for a variety of lower-frequency operations. It is expected that in a smart city environment with numerous IoT deployments, the volume of such data can become enormous. Therefore, mechanisms for lossy data compression that provide a trade-off between compression ratio and data usefulness for offline statistical analysis becomes necessary. In this paper, we discuss several simple pattern mining based compression strategies for multi-attribute IoT data streams. For each method, we evaluate the compressibility of the method vs. the level of similarity between original and compressed time series in the context of the home energy management system.
2019-02-08
Shi, Jianpei, Zhang, Liqiang, Ge, Daohan.  2018.  Remote Intelligent Position-Tracking and Control System with MCU/GSM/GPS/IoT. Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Computing and Artificial Intelligence. :66-70.
In this paper, we applied IoT (Internet of things) technology and SMS (short message service) technology to vehicle security system, and designed vehicle remote control system to ensure the vehicle security. Besides, we discussed the method that converted the displacement increment to latitude and longitude increment in order to solve the problem that how to accurately obtain the current location information when GPS (Global Positioning System) failed. The hardware system can realize such function that owners by sending an SMS, or by sending the password through web side of IoT platform, you can remotely control the car alarm system opening or closing, and query vehicle position and other functions. Through this method, it is easy to achieve security for vehicle positioning and tracking.
2019-03-28
He, F., Zhang, Y., Liu, H., Zhou, W..  2018.  SCPN-Based Game Model for Security Situational Awareness in the Intenet of Things. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1-5.
Internet of Things (IoT) is characterized by various of heterogeneous devices that facing numerous threats, which makes modeling security situation of IoT still a certain challenge. This paper defines a Stochastic Colored Petri Net (SCPN) for IoT-based smart environment and then proposes a Game model for security situational awareness. All possible attack paths are computed by the SCPN, and antagonistic behavior of both attackers and defenders are taken into consideration dynamically according to Game Theory (GT). Experiments on two typical attack scenarios in smart home environment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The proposed model can form a macroscopic trend curve of the security situation. Analysis of the results shows the capabilities of the proposed model in finding vulnerable devices and potential attack paths, and even facilitating the choice of defense strategy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to use Game Theory in the IoT-based SCPN to establish a security situational awareness model for a complex smart environment.
2019-06-17
Nguyen, Phu H., Phung, Phu H., Truong, Hong-Linh.  2018.  A Security Policy Enforcement Framework for Controlling IoT Tenant Applications in the Edge. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Internet of Things. :4:1–4:8.
In the context of edge computing, IoT-as-a-Service (IoTaaS) with IoT data hubs and execution services allow IoT tenant applications (apps) to be executed next to IoT devices, enabling edge analytics and controls. However, this brings up new security challenges on controlling tenant apps in IoTaaS, whilst the great potential of IoTaaS can only be realized by flexible security mechanisms to govern such applications. In this paper, we propose a Model-Driven Security policy enforcement framework, named MDSIoT, for IoT tenant apps deployed in edge servers. This framework allows execution policies specified at the model level and then transformed into the code that can be deployed for policy enforcement at runtime. Moreover, our approach supports for the interoperability of IoT tenant apps when deployed in the edge to access IoTaaS services. The interoperability is enabled by an intermediate proxy layer (gatekeeper) that abstracts underlying communication protocols to the different IoTaaS services from IoT tenant apps. Therefore, our approach supports different IoT tenant apps to be deployed and controlled automatically, independently from their technologies, e.g. programming languages. We have developed a proof-of-concept of the proposed gatekeepers based on ThingML, derived from execution policies. Thanks to the ThingML tool, we can generate platform-specific code of gatekeepers that can be deployed in the edge for controlling IoT tenant apps based on the execution policies.
2019-03-28
Joo, M., Seo, J., Oh, J., Park, M., Lee, K..  2018.  Situational Awareness Framework for Cyber Crime Prevention Model in Cyber Physical System. 2018 Tenth International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN). :837-842.
Recently, IoT, 5G mobile, big data, and artificial intelligence are increasingly used in the real world. These technologies are based on convergenced in Cyber Physical System(Cps). Cps technology requires core technologies to ensure reliability, real-time, safety, autonomy, and security. CPS is the system that can connect between cyberspace and physical space. Cyberspace attacks are confused in the real world and have a lot of damage. The personal information that dealing in CPS has high confidentiality, so the policies and technique will needed to protect the attack in advance. If there is an attack on the CPS, not only personal information but also national confidential data can be leaked. In order to prevent this, the risk is measured using the Factor Analysis of Information Risk (FAIR) Model, which can measure risk by element for situational awareness in CPS environment. To reduce risk by preventing attacks in CPS, this paper measures risk after using the concept of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design(CPTED).
2019-09-23
Kobayashi, Toru, Nakashima, Ryota, Uchida, Rinsuke, Arai, Kenichi.  2018.  SNS Door Phone As Robotic Process Automation. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM International Conference on Interactive Surfaces and Spaces. :457–460.
We developed SNS Door Phone by making an interphone system an IoT device. We integrated SNS and QR-code recognition function with an interphone system. Thanks to connection with SNS, we can know the visit of the parcel delivery service anytime through SNS even if during going out. Thanks to introduction of QR-code recognition function, if a parcel deliveryman only showed the QR-code of the parcel in front of SNS Door Phone, the re-delivery operation information would be sent to a user automatically through SNS. Then, the user can call or ask re-delivery arrangement using smart phone without inputting any additional data. We can consider this kind of seamless re-delivery operation to be a good example of Robotic Process Automation.
2019-08-26
Chakraborty, Saurav, Thomas, Drew, DeHart, Joanathan, Saralaya, Kishan, Tadepalli, Prabhakar, Narendra, Siva G..  2018.  Solving Internet's Weak Link for Blockchain and IoT Applications. Proceedings of the 1st ACM/EIGSCC Symposium on Smart Cities and Communities. :6:1–6:5.
Blockchain normalizes applications that run on the internet through the standardization of decentralized data structure, computational requirements and trust in transactions. This new standard has now spawned hundreds of legitimate internet applications in addition to the cryptocurrency revolution. This next frontier that standardizes internet applications will dramatically increase productivity to levels never seen before, especially when applied to Internet of Things (IoT) applications. The blockchain framework relies on cryptographic private keys to sign digital data as its foundational principle. Without the security of private keys to sign data blocks, there can be no trust in blockchain. Central storage of these keys for managing IoT machines and users, while convenient to implement, will be highly detrimental to the assumed safety and security of this next frontier. In this paper, we will introduce decentralized and device agnostic cryptographic signing solutions suitable for securing users and machines in blockchain and IoT applications.
2019-03-28
Schroeder, Jill M., Manz, David O., Amaya, Jodi P., McMakin, Andrea H., Bays, Ryan M..  2018.  Understanding Past, Current and Future Communication and Situational Awareness Technologies for First Responders. Proceedings of the Fifth Cybersecurity Symposium. :2:1-2:14.
This study builds a foundation for improving research for first responder communication and situational awareness technology in the future. In an online survey, we elicited the opinions of 250 U.S. first responders about effectiveness, security, and reliability of past, current, and future Internet of Things technology. The most desired features respondents identified were connectivity, reliability, interoperability, and affordability. The top barriers to technology adoption and use included restricted budgets/costs, interoperability, insufficient training resources, and insufficient interagency collaboration and communication. First responders in all job types indicated that technology has made first responder equipment more useful, and technology that supports situational awareness is particularly valued. As such, future Internet of Things capabilities, such as tapping into smart device data in residences and piggybacking onto alternative communication channels, could be valuable for future first responders. Potential areas for future investigation are suggested for technology development and research.
2019-02-13
Semedo, Felisberto, Moradpoor, Naghmeh, Rafiq, Majid.  2018.  Vulnerability Assessment of Objective Function of RPL Protocol for Internet of Things. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Security of Information and Networks. :1:1–1:6.
The Internet of Things (IoT) can be described as the ever-growing global network of objects with built-in sensing and communication interfaces such as sensors, Global Positioning devices (GPS) and Local Area Network (LAN) interfaces. Security is by far one of the biggest challenges in IoT networks. This includes secure routing which involves the secure creation of traffic routes and secure transmission of routed packets from a source to a destination. The Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy network (RPL) is one of the popular IoT's routing protocol that supports IPv6 communication. However, it suffers from having a basic system for supporting secure routing procedure which makes the RPL vulnerable to many attacks. This includes rank attack manipulation. Objective Function (OF) is one of the extreme importance features of RPL which influences an IoT network in terms of routing strategies as well as network topology. However, current literature lacks study of vulnerability analysis of OFs. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the vulnerability assessment of OF of RPL protocol. For this, we focus on the rank attack manipulation and two popular OFs: Objective Function Zero (OF0) and the Minimum Rank with Hysteresis Objective Function (MRHOF).
2019-08-05
Thapliyal, H., Ratajczak, N., Wendroth, O., Labrado, C..  2018.  Amazon Echo Enabled IoT Home Security System for Smart Home Environment. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :31–36.

Ever-driven by technological innovation, the Internet of Things (IoT) is continuing its exceptional evolution and growth into the common consumer space. In the wake of these developments, this paper proposes a framework for an IoT home security system that is secure, expandable, and accessible. Congruent with the ideals of the IoT, we are proposing a system utilizing an ultra-low-power wireless sensor network which would interface with a central hub via Bluetooth 4, commonly referred to as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), to monitor the home. Additionally, the system would interface with an Amazon Echo to accept user voice commands. The aforementioned central hub would also act as a web server and host an internet accessible configuration page from which users could monitor and customize their system. An internet-connected system would carry the capability to notify the users of system alarms via SMS or email. Finally, this proof of concept is intended to demonstrate expandability into other areas of home automation or building monitoring functions in general.

2019-05-01
Mili, S., Nguyen, N., Chelouah, R..  2018.  Attack Modeling and Verification for Connected System Security. 2018 13th Annual Conference on System of Systems Engineering (SoSE). :157–162.

In the development process of critical systems, one of the main challenges is to provide early system validation and verification against vulnerabilities in order to reduce cost caused by late error detection. We propose in this paper an approach that, firstly allows formally describe system security specifications, thanks to our suggested extended attack tree. Secondly, static and dynamic system modeling by using a SysML connectivity profile to model error propagation is introduced. Finally, a model checker has been used in order to validate system specifications.

2019-04-01
Di Pietro, Roberto, Salleras, Xavier, Signorini, Matteo, Waisbard, Erez.  2018.  A Blockchain-based Trust System for the Internet of Things. Proceedings of the 23Nd ACM on Symposium on Access Control Models and Technologies. :77–83.

One of the biggest challenges for the Internet of Things (IoT) is to bridge the currently fragmented trust domains. The traditional PKI model relies on a common root of trust and does not fit well with the heterogeneous IoT ecosystem where constrained devices belong to independent administrative domains. In this work we describe a distributed trust model for the IoT that leverages the existing trust domains and bridges them to create end-to-end trust between IoT devices without relying on any common root of trust. Furthermore we define a new cryptographic primitive, denoted as obligation chain designed as a credit-based Blockchain with a built-in reputation mechanism. Its innovative design enables a wide range of use cases and business models that are simply not possible with current Blockchain-based solutions while not experiencing traditional blockchain delays. We provide a security analysis for both the obligation chain and the overall architecture and provide experimental tests that show its viability and quality.

2019-03-22
Shaaban, Abdelkader Magdy, Schmittner, Christoph, Gruber, Thomas, Mohamed, A. Baith, Quirchmayr, Gerald, Schikuta, Erich.  2018.  CloudWoT - A Reference Model for Knowledge-Based IoT Solutions. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Information Integration and Web-Based Applications & Services. :272-281.

Internet technology has changed how people work, live, communicate, learn and entertain. The internet adoption is rising rapidly, thus creating a new industrial revolution named "Industry 4.0". Industry 4.0 is the use of automation and data transfer in manufacturing technologies. It fosters several technological concepts, one of these is the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT technology is based on a big network of machines, objects, or people called "things" interacting together to achieve a common goal. These things are continuously generating vast amounts of data. Data understanding, processing, securing and storing are significant challenges in the IoT technology which restricts its development. This paper presents a new reference IoT model for future smart IoT solutions called Cloud Web of Things (CloudWoT). CloudWoT aims to overcome these limitations by combining IoT with edge computing, semantic web, and cloud computing. Additionally, this work is concerned with the security issues which threatens data in IoT application domains.

2019-06-28
Hamza, Ayyoob, Gharakheili, Hassan Habibi, Sivaraman, Vijay.  2018.  Combining MUD Policies with SDN for IoT Intrusion Detection. Proceedings of the 2018 Workshop on IoT Security and Privacy. :1-7.

The IETF's push towards standardizing the Manufacturer Usage Description (MUD) grammar and mechanism for specifying IoT device behavior is gaining increasing interest from industry. The ability to control inappropriate communication between devices in the form of access control lists (ACLs) is expected to limit the attack surface on IoT devices; however, little is known about how MUD policies will get enforced in operational networks, and how they will interact with current and future intrusion detection systems (IDS). We believe this paper is the first attempt to translate MUD policies into flow rules that can be enforced using SDN, and in relating exception behavior to attacks that can be detected via off-the-shelf IDS. Our first contribution develops and implements a system that translates MUD policies to flow rules that are proactively configured into network switches, as well as reactively inserted based on run-time bindings of DNS. We use traces of 28 consumer IoT devices taken over several months to evaluate the performance of our system in terms of switch flow-table size and fraction of exception traffic that needs software inspection. Our second contribution identifies the limitations of flow-rules derived from MUD in protecting IoT devices from internal and external network attacks, and we show how our system is able to detect such volumetric attacks (including port scanning, TCP/UDP/ICMP flooding, ARP spoofing, and TCP/SSDP/SNMP reflection) by sending only a very small fraction of exception packets to off-the-shelf IDS.

2019-10-02
Huang, Shao-Cheng, Tsai, Chia-Wei, Hwang, Tzonelih.  2018.  Comment on "Cryptanalysis of a Novel Ultralightweight Mutual Authentication Protocol for IoT Devices Using RFID Tags". Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Data Science and Information Technology. :23–27.

To protect the security of IoT devices, Tewari and Gupta proposed an ultralightweight mutual-authentication protocol for an RFID system. In the protocol, only two simple bitwise operations (XOR and rotation) are used to achieve two-pass mutual authentication. Although the protocol is efficient, we observe that the protocol has a security vulnerability. This security weakness could cause the leaking of all secrets in RFID tags. Compared with other researches that also proposed attacks for Tewari and Gupta's protocol, our attack needs less time and smaller space complexity to implement. The time complexity of our attack is O(1), and the attack can successfully crack the protocol with 100% probability.

2019-01-31
Kim, Bo Youn, Choi, Seong Seok, Jang, Ju Wook.  2018.  Data Managing and Service Exchanging on IoT Service Platform Based on Blockchain with Smart Contract and Spatial Data Processing. Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Information Science and System. :59–63.

Expectation of cryptocurrencies has been increased rapidly and all of these cryptocurrencies are generated on blockchain platform. This means not only the paradigm is changing in the field of finance but also the blockchain platform is technically stable. Based on the stability of blockchain, many kind of crypto currencies or application platforms are being implemented or released and world famous banks are applying blockchain on their financial service[1]. Even law for exchanging cryptocurrencies is being discussed. Furthermore, blockchain platforms also run programmed source code which is called as smart contract on its distributed platform. Smart contract extends usage of blockchain platform. So in this paper, we propose an algorithm for recording and managing location data of IoT service provider and user based on blockchain with smart contract. Our proposal records data of participants in network by blockchain which ensures security and match with other optimized participant by spatial data processing.