Biblio

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2021-03-04
Carrozzo, G., Siddiqui, M. S., Betzler, A., Bonnet, J., Perez, G. M., Ramos, A., Subramanya, T..  2020.  AI-driven Zero-touch Operations, Security and Trust in Multi-operator 5G Networks: a Conceptual Architecture. 2020 European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC). :254—258.
The 5G network solutions currently standardised and deployed do not yet enable the full potential of pervasive networking and computing envisioned in 5G initial visions: network services and slices with different QoS profiles do not span multiple operators; security, trust and automation is limited. The evolution of 5G towards a truly production-level stage needs to heavily rely on automated end-to-end network operations, use of distributed Artificial Intelligence (AI) for cognitive network orchestration and management and minimal manual interventions (zero-touch automation). All these elements are key to implement highly pervasive network infrastructures. Moreover, Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) can be adopted to implement distributed security and trust through Smart Contracts among multiple non-trusted parties. In this paper, we propose an initial concept of a zero-touch security and trust architecture for ubiquitous computing and connectivity in 5G networks. Our architecture aims at cross-domain security & trust orchestration mechanisms by coupling DLTs with AI-driven operations and service lifecycle automation in multi-tenant and multi-stakeholder environments. Three representative use cases are identified through which we will validate the work which will be validated in the test facilities at 5GBarcelona and 5TONIC/Madrid.
2021-03-09
Naveena, S., Senthilkumar, C., Manikandan, T..  2020.  Analysis and Countermeasures of Black-Hole Attack in MANET by Employing Trust-Based Routing. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :1222–1227.
A self-governing system consisting of mobile nodes that exchange information within a cellular area and is known as a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). Due to its dynamic nature, it is vulnerable to attacks and there is no fixed infrastructure. To transfer a data packet Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is used and it's another form of a reactive protocol. The black-hole attack is a major attack that drastically decreases the packet delivery ratio during a data transaction in a routing environment. In this attack, the attacker's node acts as the shortest path to the target node itself. If the attacker node receives the data packet from the source node, all obtained data packets are excluded from a routing network. A trust-based routing scheme is suggested to ensure secure routing. This routing scheme is divided into two stages, i.e., the Data retrieval (DR), to identify and preserve each node data transfer mechanism in a routing environment and route development stage, to predict a safe path to transmit a data packet to the target node.
Shakeel, M., Saeed, K., Ahmed, S., Nawaz, A., Jan, S., Najam, Z..  2020.  Analysis of Different Black Hole Attack Detection Mechanisms for AODV Routing Protocol in Robotics Mobile AdHoc Networks. 2020 Advances in Science and Engineering Technology International Conferences (ASET). :1–6.
Robotics Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are comprised of stations having mobility with no central authority and control. The stations having mobility in Robotics MANETs work as a host as well as a router. Due to the unique characteristics of Robotics MANETs such type of networks are vulnerable to different security attacks. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) is a routing protocol that belongs to the reactive category of routing protocols in Robotics MANETs. However, it is more vulnerable to the Black hole (BH) attack that is one of the most common attacks in the Robotics MANETs environment. In this attack during the route disclosure procedure a malicious station promotes itself as a most brief path to the destination as well as after that drop every one of the data gotten by the malicious station. Meanwhile the packets don't reach to its ideal goal, the BH attack turns out to be progressively escalated when a heap of malicious stations attack the system as a gathering. This research analyzed different BH finding as well as removal mechanisms for AODV routing protocol.
2021-01-25
Yoon, S., Cho, J.-H., Kim, D. S., Moore, T. J., Free-Nelson, F., Lim, H..  2020.  Attack Graph-Based Moving Target Defense in Software-Defined Networks. IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management. 17:1653–1668.
Moving target defense (MTD) has emerged as a proactive defense mechanism aiming to thwart a potential attacker. The key underlying idea of MTD is to increase uncertainty and confusion for attackers by changing the attack surface (i.e., system or network configurations) that can invalidate the intelligence collected by the attackers and interrupt attack execution; ultimately leading to attack failure. Recently, the significant advance of software-defined networking (SDN) technology has enabled several complex system operations to be highly flexible and robust; particularly in terms of programmability and controllability with the help of SDN controllers. Accordingly, many security operations have utilized this capability to be optimally deployed in a complex network using the SDN functionalities. In this paper, by leveraging the advanced SDN technology, we developed an attack graph-based MTD technique that shuffles a host's network configurations (e.g., MAC/IP/port addresses) based on its criticality, which is highly exploitable by attackers when the host is on the attack path(s). To this end, we developed a hierarchical attack graph model that provides a network's vulnerability and network topology, which can be utilized for the MTD shuffling decisions in selecting highly exploitable hosts in a given network, and determining the frequency of shuffling the hosts' network configurations. The MTD shuffling with a high priority on more exploitable, critical hosts contributes to providing adaptive, proactive, and affordable defense services aiming to minimize attack success probability with minimum MTD cost. We validated the out performance of the proposed MTD in attack success probability and MTD cost via both simulation and real SDN testbed experiments.
2021-02-16
Kriaa, S., Papillon, S., Jagadeesan, L., Mendiratta, V..  2020.  Better Safe than Sorry: Modeling Reliability and Security in Replicated SDN Controllers. 2020 16th International Conference on the Design of Reliable Communication Networks DRCN 2020. :1—6.
Software-defined networks (SDN), through their programmability, significantly increase network resilience by enabling dynamic reconfiguration of network topologies in response to faults and potentially malicious attacks detected in real-time. Another key trend in network softwarization is cloud-native software, which, together with SDN, will be an integral part of the core of future 5G networks. In SDN, the control plane forms the "brain" of the software-defined network and is typically implemented as a set of distributed controller replicas to avoid a single point of failure. Distributed consensus algorithms are used to ensure agreement among the replicas on key data even in the presence of faults. Security is also a critical concern in ensuring that attackers cannot compromise the SDN control plane; byzantine fault tolerance algorithms can provide protection against compromised controller replicas. However, while reliability/availability and security form key attributes of resilience, they are typically modeled separately in SDN, without consideration of the potential impacts of their interaction. In this paper we present an initial framework for a model that unifies reliability, availability, and security considerations in distributed consensus. We examine – via simulation of our model – some impacts of the interaction between accidental faults and malicious attacks on SDN and suggest potential mitigations unique to cloud-native software.
2020-12-28
Antonioli, D., Tippenhauer, N. O., Rasmussen, K..  2020.  BIAS: Bluetooth Impersonation AttackS. 2020 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :549—562.
Bluetooth (BR/EDR) is a pervasive technology for wireless communication used by billions of devices. The Bluetooth standard includes a legacy authentication procedure and a secure authentication procedure, allowing devices to authenticate to each other using a long term key. Those procedures are used during pairing and secure connection establishment to prevent impersonation attacks. In this paper, we show that the Bluetooth specification contains vulnerabilities enabling to perform impersonation attacks during secure connection establishment. Such vulnerabilities include the lack of mandatory mutual authentication, overly permissive role switching, and an authentication procedure downgrade. We describe each vulnerability in detail, and we exploit them to design, implement, and evaluate master and slave impersonation attacks on both the legacy authentication procedure and the secure authentication procedure. We refer to our attacks as Bluetooth Impersonation AttackS (BIAS).Our attacks are standard compliant, and are therefore effective against any standard compliant Bluetooth device regardless the Bluetooth version, the security mode (e.g., Secure Connections), the device manufacturer, and the implementation details. Our attacks are stealthy because the Bluetooth standard does not require to notify end users about the outcome of an authentication procedure, or the lack of mutual authentication. To confirm that the BIAS attacks are practical, we successfully conduct them against 31 Bluetooth devices (28 unique Bluetooth chips) from major hardware and software vendors, implementing all the major Bluetooth versions, including Apple, Qualcomm, Intel, Cypress, Broadcom, Samsung, and CSR.
Helluy-Lafont, É, Boé, A., Grimaud, G., Hauspie, M..  2020.  Bluetooth devices fingerprinting using low cost SDR. 2020 Fifth International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC). :289—294.
Physical fingerprinting is a trending domain in wireless security. Those methods aim at identifying transmitters based on the subtle variations existing in their handling of a communication protocol. They can provide an additional authentication layer, hard to emulate, to improve the security of systems. Software Defined Radios (SDR) are a tool of choice for the fingerprinting, as they virtually enable the analysis of any wireless communication scheme. However, they require expensive computations, and are still complex to handle by newcomers. In this paper, we use low cost SDR to propose a physical-layer fingerprinting approach, that allows recognition of the model of a device performing a Bluetooth scan, with more than 99.8% accuracy in a set of ten devices.
2021-02-10
Hou, N., Zheng, Y..  2020.  CloakLoRa: A Covert Channel over LoRa PHY. 2020 IEEE 28th International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP). :1—11.
This paper describes our design and implementation of a covert channel over LoRa physical layer (PHY). LoRa adopts a unique modulation scheme (chirp spread spectrum (CSS)) to enable long range communication at low-power consumption. CSS uses the initial frequencies of LoRa chirps to differentiate LoRa symbols, while simply ignoring other RF parameters (e.g., amplitude and phase). Our study reveals that the LoRa physical layer leaves sufficient room to build a covert channel by embedding covert information with a modulation scheme orthogonal to CSS. To demonstrate the feasibility of building a covert channel, we implement CloakLoRa. CloakLoRa embeds covert information into a regular LoRa packet by modulating the amplitudes of LoRa chirps while keeping the frequency intact. As amplitude modulation is orthogonal to CSS, a regular LoRa node receives the LoRa packet as if no secret information is embedded into the packet. Such an embedding method is transparent to all security mechanisms at upper layers in current LoRaWAN. As such, an attacker can create an amplitude modulated covert channel over LoRa without being detected by current LoRaWAN security mechanism. We conduct comprehensive evaluations with COTS LoRa nodes and receive-only software defined radios and experiment results show that CloakLoRa can send covert information over 250m.
2021-03-15
Joykutty, A. M., Baranidharan, B..  2020.  Cognitive Radio Networks: Recent Advances in Spectrum Sensing Techniques and Security. 2020 International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :878–884.
Wireless networks are very significant in the present world owing to their widespread use and its application in domains like disaster management, smart cities, IoT etc. A wireless network is made up of a group of wireless nodes that communicate with each other without using any formal infrastructure. The topology of the wireless network is not fixed and it can vary. The huge increase in the number of wireless devices is a challenge owing to the limited availability of wireless spectrum. Opportunistic spectrum access by Cognitive radio enables the efficient usage of limited spectrum resources. The unused channels assigned to the primary users may go waste in idle time. Cognitive radio systems will sense the unused channel space and assigns it temporarily for secondary users. This paper discusses about the recent trends in the two most important aspects of Cognitive radio namely spectrum sensing and security.
Toma, A., Krayani, A., Marcenaro, L., Gao, Y., Regazzoni, C. S..  2020.  Deep Learning for Spectrum Anomaly Detection in Cognitive mmWave Radios. 2020 IEEE 31st Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications. :1–7.
Millimeter Wave (mmWave) band can be a solution to serve the vast number of Internet of Things (IoT) and Vehicle to Everything (V2X) devices. In this context, Cognitive Radio (CR) is capable of managing the mmWave spectrum sharing efficiently. However, Cognitive mmWave Radios are vulnerable to malicious users due to the complex dynamic radio environment and the shared access medium. This indicates the necessity to implement techniques able to detect precisely any anomalous behaviour in the spectrum to build secure and efficient radios. In this work, we propose a comparison framework between deep generative models: Conditional Generative Adversarial Network (C-GAN), Auxiliary Classifier Generative Adversarial Network (AC-GAN), and Variational Auto Encoder (VAE) used to detect anomalies inside the dynamic radio spectrum. For the sake of the evaluation, a real mmWave dataset is used, and results show that all of the models achieve high probability in detecting spectrum anomalies. Especially, AC-GAN that outperforms C-GAN and VAE in terms of accuracy and probability of detection.
2021-03-01
Santos, L. S. dos, Nascimento, P. R. M., Bento, L. M. S., Machado, R. C. S., Amorim, C. L..  2020.  Development of security mechanisms for a remote sensing system based on opportunistic and mesh networks. 2020 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 IoT. :418–422.
The present work describes a remote environment monitoring system based on the paradigms of mesh networks and opportunistic networks, whereby a sensor node can explore “con-nectivity windows” to transmit information that will eventually reach another network participants. We discuss the threats to the system's security and propose security mechanisms for the system ensuring the integrity and availability of monitoring information, something identified as critical to its proper operation.
2021-03-15
Akter, S., Rahman, M. S., Mansoor, N..  2020.  An Efficient Routing Protocol for Secured Communication in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks. 2020 IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP). :1713–1716.
This paper introduces an efficient reactive routing protocol considering the mobility and the reliability of a node in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks (CRSNs). The proposed protocol accommodates the dynamic behavior of the spectrum availability and selects a stable transmission path from a source node to the destination. Outlined as a weighted graph problem, the proposed protocol measures the weight for an edge the measuring the mobility patterns of the nodes and channel availability. Furthermore, the mobility pattern of a node is defined in the proposed routing protocol from the viewpoint of distance, speed, direction, and node's reliability. Besides, the spectrum awareness in the proposed protocol is measured over the number of shared common channels and the channel quality. It is anticipated that the proposed protocol shows efficient routing performance by selecting stable and secured paths from source to destination. Simulation is carried out to assess the performance of the protocol where it is witnessed that the proposed routing protocol outperforms existing ones.
Hwang, S., Ryu, S..  2020.  Gap between Theory and Practice: An Empirical Study of Security Patches in Solidity. 2020 IEEE/ACM 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :542–553.
Ethereum, one of the most popular blockchain platforms, provides financial transactions like payments and auctions through smart contracts. Due to the immense interest in smart contracts in academia, the research community of smart contract security has made a significant improvement recently. Researchers have reported various security vulnerabilities in smart contracts, and developed static analysis tools and verification frameworks to detect them. However, it is unclear whether such great efforts from academia has indeed enhanced the security of smart contracts in reality. To understand the security level of smart contracts in the wild, we empirically studied 55,046 real-world Ethereum smart contracts written in Solidity, the most popular programming language used by Ethereum smart contract developers. We first examined how many well-known vulnerabilities the Solidity compiler has patched, and how frequently the Solidity team publishes compiler releases. Unfortunately, we observed that many known vulnerabilities are not yet patched, and some patches are not even sufficient to avoid their target vulnerabilities. Subsequently, we investigated whether smart contract developers use the most recent compiler with vulnerabilities patched. We reported that developers of more than 98% of real-world Solidity contracts still use older compilers without vulnerability patches, and more than 25% of the contracts are potentially vulnerable due to the missing security patches. To understand actual impacts of the missing patches, we manually investigated potentially vulnerable contracts that are detected by our static analyzer and identified common mistakes by Solidity developers, which may cause serious security issues such as financial loss. We detected hundreds of vulnerable contracts and about one fourth of the vulnerable contracts are used by thousands of people. We recommend the Solidity team to make patches that resolve known vulnerabilities correctly, and developers to use the latest Solidity compiler to avoid missing security patches.
Nieto-Chaupis, H..  2020.  Hyper Secure Cognitive Radio Communications in an Internet of Space Things Network Based on the BB84 Protocol. 2020 Intermountain Engineering, Technology and Computing (IETC). :1–5.
Once constellation of satellites are working in a collaborative manner, the security of their messages would have to be highly secure from all angles of scenarios by which the praxis of eavesdropping constitutes a constant thread for the instability of the different tasks and missions. In this paper we employ the Bennet-Brassard commonly known as the BB84 protocol in conjunction to the technique of Cognitive Radio applied to the Internet of Space Things to build a prospective technology to guarantee the communications among geocentric orbital satellites. The simulations have yielded that for a constellation of 5 satellites, the probability of successful of completion the communication might be of order of 75% ±5%.
Bouzegag, Y., Teguig, D., Maali, A., Sadoudi, S..  2020.  On the Impact of SSDF Attacks in Hard Combination Schemes in Cognitive Radio Networks. 020 1st International Conference on Communications, Control Systems and Signal Processing (CCSSP). :19–24.
One of the critical threats menacing the Cooperative Spectrum Sensing (CSS) in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) is the Spectrum Sensing Data Falsification (SSDF) reports, which can deceive the decision of Fusion Center (FC) about the Primary User (PU) spectrum accessibility. In CSS, each CR user performs Energy Detection (ED) technique to detect the status of licensed frequency bands of the PU. This paper investigates the performance of different hard-decision fusion schemes (OR-rule, AND-rule, and MAJORITY-rule) in the presence of Always Yes and Always No Malicious User (AYMU and ANMU) over Rayleigh and Gaussian channels. More precisely, comparative study is conducted to evaluate the impact of such malicious users in CSS on the performance of various hard data combining rules in terms of miss detection and false alarm probabilities. Furthermore, computer simulations are carried out to show that the hard-decision fusion scheme with MAJORITY-rule is the best among hard-decision combination under AYMU attacks, OR-rule has the best detection performance under ANMU.
2021-03-01
Lim, S., Ko, Y..  2020.  Intellectual Priority-based Low Latency Data Delivery Scheme for Multi-interface and Multi-channel Devices in Multi-hop Wireless Mesh Networks. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Big Data and Smart Computing (BigComp). :417–419.
In multi-hop wireless mesh networks, the end-to-end delay for a packet is getting longer as the relaying hops to the destination are increasing. The real-time packet such as the urgent safety message should be delivered within the stipulated deadline. Most previous studies have been focused to find out the optimal route to the destination. We propose an intellectual priority-based packet transmission scheme for multi-interface devices in multi-hop wireless mesh networks.
2020-12-14
Kyaw, A. T., Oo, M. Zin, Khin, C. S..  2020.  Machine-Learning Based DDOS Attack Classifier in Software Defined Network. 2020 17th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON). :431–434.
Due to centralized control and programmable capability of the SDN architecture, network administrators can easily manage and control the whole network through the centralized controller. According to the SDN architecture, the SDN controller is vulnerable to distributed denial of service (DDOS) attacks. Thus, a failure of SDN controller is a major leak for security concern. The objectives of paper is therefore to detect the DDOS attacks and classify the normal or attack traffic in SDN network using machine learning algorithms. In this proposed system, polynomial SVM is applied to compare to existing linear SVM by using scapy, which is packet generation tool and RYU SDN controller. According to the experimental result, polynomial SVM achieves 3% better accuracy and 34% lower false alarm rate compared to Linear SVM.
2021-02-23
Adat, V., Parsamehr, R., Politis, I., Tselios, C., Kotsopoulos, S..  2020.  Malicious user identification scheme for network coding enabled small cell environment. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1—6.
Reliable communication over the wireless network with high throughput is a major target for the next generation communication technologies. Network coding can significantly improve the throughput efficiency of the network in a cooperative environment. The small cell technology and device to device communication make network coding an ideal candidate for improved performance in the fifth generation of communication networks. However, the security concerns associated with network coding needs to be addressed before any practical implementations. Pollution attacks are considered one of the most threatening attacks in the network coding environment. Although there are different integrity schemes to detect polluted packets, identifying the exact adversary in a network coding environment is a less addressed challenge. This paper proposes a scheme for identifying and locating adversaries in a dense, network coding enabled environment of mobile nodes. It also discusses a non-repudiation protocol that will prevent adversaries from deceiving the network.
2021-03-09
Omprakash, S. H., Suthar, M. K..  2020.  Mitigation Technique for Black hole Attack in Mobile Ad hoc Network. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–5.
Mobile Ad hoc Network is a very important key technology for device to device communication without any support of extra infrastructure. As it is being used as a mode of communication in various fields, protecting the network from various attacks becomes more important. In this research paper, we have created a real network scenario using random mobility of nodes and implemented Black hole Attack and Gray hole Attack, which degrades the performance of the network. In our research, we have found a novel mitigation technique which is efficient to mitigate both the attack from the network.
2021-02-01
Chong, K. S., Yap, C. N., Tew, Z. H..  2020.  Multi-Key Homomorphic Encryption Create new Multiple Logic Gates and Arithmetic Circuit. 2020 8th International Symposium on Digital Forensics and Security (ISDFS). :1–4.
This is a feasibility study on homomorphic encryption using the MK-TFHE library in daily computing using cloud services. Logic gates OR, AND, XOR, XNOR, NOR were created. A basic set of arithmetic operations namely - addition, subtraction, multiplication and division were also created. This research is a continuation of a previous work and this peeks into the newly created logic gates on these arithmetic operations.
2021-03-15
Besser, K., Lonnstrom, A., Jorswieck, E. A..  2020.  Neural Network Wiretap Code Design for Multi-Mode Fiber Optical Channels. ICASSP 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :8738–8742.
The design of reliable and secure codes with finite block length is an important requirement for industrial machine type communications. In this work, we develop an autoencoder for the multi-mode fiber wiretap channel taking into account the error performance at the legitimate receiver and the information leakage at potential eavesdroppers. The estimate of the mutual information leakage includes AWGN and fading channels. The code design is tailored to the specific channel setup where the eavesdropper experiences a mode dependent loss. Numerical simulations illustrate the performance and show a Pareto improvement of the proposed scheme compared to the state-of-the-art polar wiretap codes.
2021-02-15
Chen, Z., Chen, J., Meng, W..  2020.  A New Dynamic Conditional Proxy Broadcast Re-Encryption Scheme for Cloud Storage and Sharing. 2020 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :569–576.
Security of cloud storage and sharing is concerned for years since a semi-trusted party, Cloud Server Provider (CSP), has access to user data on cloud server that may leak users' private data without constraint. Intuitively, an efficient solution of protecting cloud data is to encrypt it before uploading to the cloud server. However, a new requirement, data sharing, makes it difficult to manage secret keys among data owners and target users. Therefore conditional proxy broadcast re-encryption technology (CPBRE) is proposed in recent years to provide data encryption and sharing approaches for cloud environment. It enables a data owner to upload encrypted data to the cloud server and a third party proxy can re-encrypted cloud data under certain condition to a new ciphertext so that target users can decrypt re-encrypted data using their own private key. But few CPBRE schemes are applicable for a dynamic cloud environment. In this paper, we propose a new dynamic conditional proxy broadcast reencryption scheme that can be dynamic in system user setting and target user group. The initialization phase does not require a fixed system user setup so that users can join or leave the system in any time. And data owner can dynamically change the group of user he wants to share data with. We also provide security analysis which proves our scheme to be secure against CSP, and performance analysis shows that our scheme exceeds other schemes in terms of functionality and resource cost.
2021-02-23
Kamal, A., Dahshan, H., Elbayoumy, A. D..  2020.  A New Homomorphic Message Authentication Code Scheme for Network Coding. 2020 3rd International Conference on Information and Computer Technologies (ICICT). :520—524.
Network coding (NC) can significantly increase network performance and make lossy networks more reliable. Since the middle nodes modify the packets during their path to destination, integrity of the original packets cannot be checked using classical methods (MACs, Signatures, etc). Though, pollution attacks are the most common threat to network coded systems, where an infected node can inject the data flow of a network with a number of false packets and ban the receiver from properly decoding the packets. A lot of work in the security of NC in resisting pollution attacks has been investigated in recent years, majority have the same security parameter 1/q. A Homomorphic MAC scheme is presented earlier to resist pollution attacks with a security level 1/qˆl, In this paper, we will show that the mentioned scheme is subject to known-plaintext attacks. This is due to that part of the key can be revealed in an initial process. Also, the whole key could be revealed if the key is used more than once. Then, a modification to the mentioned scheme is proposed to overcome this issue. Besides, the MAC length is adjustable according to the required security level and not variable according to the vector's length which will accordingly increase the performance and efficiency of the scheme.
2021-02-10
Bendary, A., Koksal, C. E..  2020.  Order-Optimal Scaling of Covert Communication over MIMO AWGN Channels. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—9.
Covert communication, i.e., communication with a low probability of detection (LPD), has attracted a huge body of work. Recent studies have concluded that the maximal covert coding rate of the discrete memoryless channels and the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels is diminishing with the blocklength: the maximum information nats that can be transmitted covertly and reliably over such channels is only on the order of the square root of the blocklength. In this paper, we study covert communication over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) AWGN channels. We derive the order-optimal scaling law of the number of covert nats when the maximal covert coding rate of MIMO AWGN channels is diminishing with the blocklength. Furthermore, we provide a comparative discussion for the case in which secrecy and energy undetectability constraints are combined.
2020-12-15
Cribbs, M., Romero, R., Ha, T..  2020.  Orthogonal STBC Set Building and Physical Layer Security Application. 2020 IEEE 21st International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC). :1—5.
Given a selected complex orthogonal space-time block code (STBC), transformation algorithms are provided to build a set, S, of unique orthogonal STBCs with cardinality equal to \textbackslashtextbarS\textbackslashtextbar = 2r+c+k-1·r!·c!, where r, c, and k are the number of rows, columns, and data symbols in the STBC matrix, respectively. A communications link is discussed that encodes data symbols with a chosen STBC from the set known only to the transmitter and intended receiver as a means of providing physical layer security (PLS). Expected bit error rate (BER) and informationtheoretic results for an eavesdropper with a priori knowledge of the communications link parameters with the exception of the chosen STBC are presented. Monte Carlo simulations are provided to confirm the possible BER results expected when decoding the communications link with alternative STBCs from the set. Application of the transformation algorithms provided herein are shown to significantly increase the brute force decoding complexity of an eavesdropper compared to a related work in the literature.