Biblio

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2021-04-27
Kuhn, C., Beck, M., Strufe, T..  2020.  Breaking and (Partially) Fixing Provably Secure Onion Routing. 2020 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :168–185.
After several years of research on onion routing, Camenisch and Lysyanskaya, in an attempt at rigorous analysis, defined an ideal functionality in the universal composability model, together with properties that protocols have to meet to achieve provable security. A whole family of systems based their security proofs on this work. However, analyzing HORNET and Sphinx, two instances from this family, we show that this proof strategy is broken. We discover a previously unknown vulnerability that breaks anonymity completely, and explain a known one. Both should not exist if privacy is proven correctly.In this work, we analyze and fix the proof strategy used for this family of systems. After proving the efficacy of the ideal functionality, we show how the original properties are flawed and suggest improved, effective properties in their place. Finally, we discover another common mistake in the proofs. We demonstrate how to avoid it by showing our improved properties for one protocol, thus partially fixing the family of provably secure onion routing protocols.
2021-02-10
Hou, N., Zheng, Y..  2020.  CloakLoRa: A Covert Channel over LoRa PHY. 2020 IEEE 28th International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP). :1—11.
This paper describes our design and implementation of a covert channel over LoRa physical layer (PHY). LoRa adopts a unique modulation scheme (chirp spread spectrum (CSS)) to enable long range communication at low-power consumption. CSS uses the initial frequencies of LoRa chirps to differentiate LoRa symbols, while simply ignoring other RF parameters (e.g., amplitude and phase). Our study reveals that the LoRa physical layer leaves sufficient room to build a covert channel by embedding covert information with a modulation scheme orthogonal to CSS. To demonstrate the feasibility of building a covert channel, we implement CloakLoRa. CloakLoRa embeds covert information into a regular LoRa packet by modulating the amplitudes of LoRa chirps while keeping the frequency intact. As amplitude modulation is orthogonal to CSS, a regular LoRa node receives the LoRa packet as if no secret information is embedded into the packet. Such an embedding method is transparent to all security mechanisms at upper layers in current LoRaWAN. As such, an attacker can create an amplitude modulated covert channel over LoRa without being detected by current LoRaWAN security mechanism. We conduct comprehensive evaluations with COTS LoRa nodes and receive-only software defined radios and experiment results show that CloakLoRa can send covert information over 250m.
2021-02-15
Gladwin, S. J., Gowthami, P. Lakshmi.  2020.  Combined Cryptography and Steganography for Enhanced Security in Suboptimal Images. 2020 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Signal Processing (AISP). :1–5.
Technology has developed to a very great extent, and the use of smart systems has introduced an increasing threat to data security and privacy. Most of the applications are built-in unsecured operating systems, and so there is a growing threat to information cloning, forging tampering counterfeiting, etc.. This will lead to an un-compensatory loss for end-users particularly in banking applications and personal data in social media. A robust and effective algorithm based on elliptic curve cryptography combined with Hill cipher has been proposed to mitigate such threats and increase information security. In this method, ciphertext and DCT coefficients of an image, embedded into the base image based on LSB watermarking. The ciphertext is generated based on the Hill Cipher algorithm. Hill Cipher can, however, be easily broken and has weak security and to add complexity, Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), is combined with Hill cipher. Based on the ECC algorithm, the key is produced, and this key is employed to generate ciphertext through the Hill cipher algorithm. This combination of both steganography and cryptography results in increased authority and ownership of the data for sub-optimal media applications. It is hard to extract the hidden data and the image without the proper key. The performance for hiding text and image into an image data have been analyzed for sub-optimal multimedia applications.
2021-02-10
Huang, H., Wang, X., Jiang, Y., Singh, A. K., Yang, M., Huang, L..  2020.  On Countermeasures Against the Thermal Covert Channel Attacks Targeting Many-core Systems. 2020 57th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC). :1—6.
Although it has been demonstrated in multiple studies that serious data leaks could occur to many-core systems thanks to the existence of the thermal covert channels (TCC), little has been done to produce effective countermeasures that are necessary to fight against such TCC attacks. In this paper, we propose a three-step countermeasure to address this critical defense issue. Specifically, the countermeasure includes detection based on signal frequency scanning, positioning affected cores, and blocking based on Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling (DVFS) technique. Our experiments have confirmed that on average 98% of the TCC attacks can be detected, and with the proposed defense, the bit error rate of a TCC attack can soar to 92%, literally shutting down the attack in practical terms. The performance penalty caused by the inclusion of the proposed countermeasures is only 3% for an 8×8 system.
2020-12-21
Qiao, G., Zhao, Y., Liu, S., Ahmed, N..  2020.  The Effect of Acoustic-Shell Coupling on Near-End Self-Interference Signal of In-Band Full-Duplex Underwater Acoustic Communication Modem. 2020 17th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST). :606–610.
In-Band Full-Duplex (IBFD) Underwater Acoustic (UWA) communication technology plays a major role in enhancing the performance of Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWSN). Self-Interference (SI) is one of the main inherent challenges affecting the performance of IBFD UWA communication. To reconstruct the SI signal and counteract the SI effect, this is important to estimate the short range channel through which the SI signal passes. Inaccurate estimation will result in the performance degradation of IBFD UWA communication. From the perspective of engineering implementation, we consider that the UWA communication modem shell has a significant influence on the short-range SI channel, which will limit the efficiency of self-interference cancellation in the analog domain to some degree. Therefore we utilize a simplified model to simulate the influence of the structure of the IBFD UWA communication modem on the receiving end. This paper studies the effect of acoustic-shell coupling on near-end self-interference signal of IBFD UWA communication modem. Some suggestions on the design of shell structure of IBFD UWA communication modem are given.
2021-02-08
Kumar, B. M., Sri, B. R. S., Katamaraju, G. M. S. A., Rani, P., Harinadh, N., Saibabu, C..  2020.  File Encryption and Decryption Using DNA Technology. 2020 2nd International Conference on Innovative Mechanisms for Industry Applications (ICIMIA). :382–385.
Cryptography is the method of transforming the original texted message into an unknown form and in reverse also. It is the process of hiding and forwarding the data in an appropriate form so that only authorized persons can know and can process it. Cryptographic process secures the data from hijacking or transmutation, it is mainly used for users data security. This paper justifies the encryption and decryption using DNA(Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid) sequence. This process includes several intermediate steps, the perception of binary-coded form and generating of arbitrary keys is used to encrypt the message. A common key should be established between the sender and receiver for encryption and decryption process. The common key provides more security to the sequence. In this paper, both the process of binary-coded form and generating of arbitrary keys are used to encrypt the message. It is widely used in an institution and by every individual to hide their data from the muggers and hijackers and provides the data securely, and confidentially over the transmission of information.
2021-04-09
Cui, H., Liu, C., Hong, X., Wu, J., Sun, D..  2020.  An Improved BICM-ID Receiver for the Time-Varying Underwater Acoustic Communications with DDPSK Modulation. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC). :1—4.
Double differential phase shift keying(DDPSK) modulation is an efficient method to compensate the Doppler shifts, whereas the phase noise will be amplified which results in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss. In this paper, we propose a novel receiver architecture for underwater acoustic DSSS communications with Doppler shifts. The proposed method adopts not only the DDPSK modulation to compensate the Doppler shifts, but also the improved bit-interleaved coded modulation with iterative decoding (BICM-ID) algorithm for DDPSK to recover the SNR loss. The improved DDPSK demodulator adopts the multi-symbol estimation to track the channel variation, and an extended trellis diagram is constructed for DDPSK demodulator. Theoretical simulation shows that our system can obtain around 10.2 dB gain over the uncoded performance, and 7.4 dB gain over the hard-decision decoding performance. Besides, the experiment conducted in the Songhua Lake also shows that the proposed receiver can achieve lower BER performance when Doppler shifts exists.
2020-12-14
Goudos, S. K., Diamantoulakis, P. D., Boursianis, A. D., Papanikolaou, V. K., Karagiannidis, G. K..  2020.  Joint User Association and Power Allocation Using Swarm Intelligence Algorithms in Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access Networks. 2020 9th International Conference on Modern Circuits and Systems Technologies (MOCAST). :1–4.
In this paper, we address the problem of joint user association and power allocation for non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) networks with multiple base stations (BSs). A user grouping procedure into orthogonal clusters, as well as an allocation of different physical resource blocks (PRBs) is considered. The problem of interest is mathematically described using the maximization of the weighted sum rate. We apply two different swarm intelligence algorithms, namely, the recently introduced Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO), and the popular Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), in order to solve this problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the above-described problem can be satisfactorily addressed by both algorithms.
2021-01-25
Abusukhon, A., AlZu’bi, S..  2020.  New Direction of Cryptography: A Review on Text-to-Image Encryption Algorithms Based on RGB Color Value. 2020 Seventh International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :235–239.
Data encryption techniques are important for answering the question: How secure is the Internet for sending sensitive data. Keeping data secure while they are sent through the global network is a difficult task. This is because many hackers are fishing these data in order to get some benefits. The researchers have developed various types of encryption algorithms to protect data from attackers. These algorithms are mainly classified into two categories namely symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms. This survey sheds light on the recent work carried out on encrypting a text into an image based on the RGB color value and held a comparison between them based on various factors evolved from the literature.
2021-02-10
Bendary, A., Koksal, C. E..  2020.  Order-Optimal Scaling of Covert Communication over MIMO AWGN Channels. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—9.
Covert communication, i.e., communication with a low probability of detection (LPD), has attracted a huge body of work. Recent studies have concluded that the maximal covert coding rate of the discrete memoryless channels and the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels is diminishing with the blocklength: the maximum information nats that can be transmitted covertly and reliably over such channels is only on the order of the square root of the blocklength. In this paper, we study covert communication over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) AWGN channels. We derive the order-optimal scaling law of the number of covert nats when the maximal covert coding rate of MIMO AWGN channels is diminishing with the blocklength. Furthermore, we provide a comparative discussion for the case in which secrecy and energy undetectability constraints are combined.
2021-05-18
Mir, Ayesha Waqar, Maqbool, Khawaja Qasim.  2020.  Robust Visible Light Communication in Intelligent Transportation System. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :387–391.
Wireless communication in the field of radio frequency (RF) have modernized our society. People experience persistent connection and high-speed data through wireless technologies like Wi-Fi and LTE while browsing the internet. This causes congestion to network; users make it difficult for everyone to access the internet or to communicate reliably on time. The major issues of RF spectrum are intrusion, high latency and it requires an individual transmitter receiver setup in order to function. Dr. Herald Hass came up with an idea of `data through illumination'. Surmounting the drawbacks of RF spectrum, visible light communication (VLC) is more favored technique. In intelligent transportation system (ITS), this evolving technology of VLC has a strong hold in order to connect vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) links wirelessly. Indoor VLC applications have been studied deeply while the field of vehicular VLC (V-VLC) networking is relatively a less researched domain because it has greater level of intrusion and additive ambient light noise is higher in outdoor VLC. Other factors due to which the implementation of VLC faces a lot of hurdles are mostly related to environment such as dust, haze, snow, sunlight, rain, fog, smog and atmospheric disturbances. In this paper, we executed a thorough channel modelling in order to study the effects of clear weather, fog, snow and rain quantitatively with respect to different wavelengths in consideration for an ITS. This makes ITS more robust in nature. The parameters under consideration will be signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), bit error rate (BER) and optical power received (OPR) for different LED wavelengths.
2021-09-16
Yang, Xiaodong, Liu, Rui, Chen, Guilan, Wang, Meiding, Wang, Caifen.  2020.  Security Analysis of a Certificateless Signcryption Mechanism without Bilinear Mapping. 2020 IEEE 4th Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). 1:2431–2434.
Certificateless signcryption mechanism can not only provide security services, such as message integrity, non-repudiation and confidentiality, but also solve the problems of public key certificate management and key escrow. Zhou et al. proposed a certificateless signcryption mechanism without bilinear mapping and gave its security proof under the discrete logarithm problem and the computational Diffie Hellman problem in the random oracle model. However, the analysis show that this scheme has security flaws. That is, attackers can forge legitimate signatures of any messages. Finally, we give the specific attack process.
2021-04-08
Ekşim, A., Demirci, T..  2020.  Ultimate Secrecy in Cooperative and Multi-hop Wireless Communications. 2020 XXXIIIrd General Assembly and Scientific Symposium of the International Union of Radio Science. :1–4.
In this work, communication secrecy in cooperative and multi-hop wireless communications for various radio frequencies are examined. Attenuation lines and ranges of both detection and ultimate secrecy regions were calculated for cooperative communication channel and multi-hop channel with various number of hops. From results, frequency ranges with the highest potential to apply bandwidth saving method known as frequency reuse were determined and compared to point-to-point channel. Frequencies with the highest attenuation were derived and their ranges of both detection and ultimate secrecy are calculated. Point-to-point, cooperative and multi-hop channels were compared in terms of ultimate secrecy ranges. Multi-hop channel measurements were made with different number of hops and the relation between the number of hops and communication security is examined. Ultimate secrecy ranges were calculated up to 1 Terahertz and found to be less than 13 meters between 550-565 GHz frequency range. Therefore, for short-range wireless communication systems such as indoor and in-device communication systems (board-to-board or chip-to-chip communications), it is shown that various bands in the Terahertz band can be used to reuse the same frequency in different locations to obtain high security and high bandwidth.
2021-09-16
Ali, Ikram, Lawrence, Tandoh, Omala, Anyembe Andrew, Li, Fagen.  2020.  An Efficient Hybrid Signcryption Scheme With Conditional Privacy-Preservation for Heterogeneous Vehicular Communication in VANETs. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. 69:11266–11280.
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) ensure improvement in road safety and traffic management by allowing the vehicles and infrastructure that are connected to them to exchange safety messages. Due to the open wireless communication channels, security and privacy issues are a major concern in VANETs. A typical attack consists of a malicious third party intercepting, modifying and retransmitting messages. Heterogeneous vehicular communication in VANETs occurs when vehicles (only) or vehicles and other infrastructure communicate using different cryptographic techniques. To address the security and privacy issues in heterogeneous vehicular communication, some heterogeneous signcryption schemes have been proposed. These schemes simultaneously satisfy the confidentiality, authentication, integrity and non-repudiation security requirements. They however fail to properly address the efficiency with respect to the computational cost involved in unsigncrypting ciphertexts, which is often affected by the speeds at which vehicles travel in VANETs. In this paper, we propose an efficient conditional privacy-preserving hybrid signcryption (CPP-HSC) scheme that uses bilinear pairing to satisfy the security requirements of heterogeneous vehicular communication in a single logical step. Our scheme ensures the transmission of a message from a vehicle with a background of an identity-based cryptosystem (IBC) to a receiver with a background of a public-key infrastructure (PKI). Furthermore, it supports a batch unsigncryption method, which allows the receiver to speed up the process by processing multiple messages simultaneously. The security of our CPP-HSC scheme ensures the indistinguishability against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack (IND-CCA2) under the intractability assumption of q-bilinear Diffie-Hellman inversion (q-BDHI) problem and the existential unforgeability against adaptive chosen message attack (EUF-CMA) under the intractability assumption of q-strong Diffie-Hellman (q-SDH) problem in the random oracle model (ROM). The performance analysis indicates that our scheme has an improvement over the existing related schemes with respect to the computational cost without an increase in the communication cost.
2021-01-18
Singh, G., Garg, S..  2020.  Fuzzy Elliptic Curve Cryptography based Cipher Text Policy Attribute based Encryption for Cloud Security. 2020 International Conference on Intelligent Engineering and Management (ICIEM). :327–330.

Cipher Text Policy Attribute Based Encryption which is a form of Public Key Encryption has become a renowned approach as a Data access control scheme for data security and confidentiality. It not only provides the flexibility and scalability in the access control mechanisms but also enhances security by fuzzy fined-grained access control. However, schemes are there which for more security increases the key size which ultimately leads to high encryption and decryption time. Also, there is no provision for handling the middle man attacks during data transfer. In this paper, a light-weight and more scalable encryption mechanism is provided which not only uses fewer resources for encoding and decoding but also improves the security along with faster encryption and decryption time. Moreover, this scheme provides an efficient key sharing mechanism for providing secure transfer to avoid any man-in-the-middle attacks. Also, due to fuzzy policies inclusion, chances are there to get approximation of user attributes available which makes the process fast and reliable and improves the performance of legitimate users.

2021-09-16
Shen, Jian, Gui, Ziyuan, Chen, Xiaofeng, Zhang, Jun, Xiang, Yang.  2020.  Lightweight and Certificateless Multi-Receiver Secure Data Transmission Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. :1–1.
The rapid development of low-power integrated circuits, wireless communication, intelligent sensors and microelectronics has allowed the realization of wireless body area networks (WBANs), which can monitor patients' vital body parameters remotely in real time to offer timely treatment. These vital body parameters are related to patients' life and health; and these highly private data are subject to many security threats. To guarantee privacy, many secure communication protocols have been proposed. However, most of these protocols have a one-to-one structure in extra-body communication and cannot support multidisciplinary team (MDT). Hence, we propose a lightweight and certificateless multi-receiver secure data transmission protocol for WBANs to support MDT treatment in this paper. In particular, a novel multi-receiver certificateless generalized signcryption (MR-CLGSC) scheme is proposed that can adaptively use only one algorithm to implement one of three cryptographic primitives: signature, encryption or signcryption. Then, a multi-receiver secure data transmission protocol based on the MR-CLGSC scheme with many security properties, such as data integrity and confidentiality, non-repudiation, anonymity, forward and backward secrecy, unlinkability and data freshness, is designed. Both security analysis and performance analysis show that the proposed protocol for WBANs is secure, efficient and highly practical.
2021-03-15
Chai, L., Ren, P., Du, Q..  2020.  A Secure Transmission Scheme Based on Efficient Transmission Fountain Code. 2020 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :600–604.

Improving the security of data transmission in wireless channels is a key and challenging problem in wireless communication. This paper presents a data security transmission scheme based on high efficiency fountain code. If the legitimate receiver can decode all the original files before the eavesdropper, it can guarantee the safe transmission of the data, so we use the efficient coding scheme of the fountain code to ensure the efficient transmission of the data, and add the feedback mechanism to the transmission of the fountain code so that the coding scheme can be updated dynamically according to the decoding situation of the legitimate receiver. Simulation results show that the scheme has high security and transmitter transmission efficiency in the presence of eavesdropping scenarios.

2021-06-30
He, Kexun, Qin, Kongjian, Wang, Changyuan, Fang, Xiyu.  2020.  Research on Cyber Security Test Method for GNSS of Intelligent Connected Vehicle. 2020 International Conference on Computer Information and Big Data Applications (CIBDA). :200—203.
Intelligent connected vehicle cyber security has attracted widespread attention this year. The safety of GNSS information is related to the safety of cars and has become a key technology. This paper researches the cyber security characteristics of intelligent connected vehicle navigation and positioning by analyzing the signal receiving mode of navigation and positioning on the vehicle terminal. The article expounds the principles of deceiving and interfering cyber security that lead to the safety of GNSS information. This paper studies the key causes of cyber security. Based on key causes, the article constructs a GNSS cyber security test method by combining a navigation signal simulator and an interference signal generator. The results shows that the method can realize the security test of the GNSS information of the vehicle terminal. This method provides a test method for the navigation terminal defense cyber security capability for a vehicle terminal, and fills a gap in the industry for the vehicle terminal information security test.
2021-05-13
Madanchi, Mehdi, Abolhassani, Bahman.  2020.  Authentication and Key Agreement Based Binary Tree for D2D Group Communication. 2020 28th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE). :1—5.

Emerging device-to-device (D2D) communication in 5th generation (5G) mobile communication networks and internet of things (loTs) provides many benefits in improving network capabilities such as energy consumption, communication delay and spectrum efficiency. D2D group communication has the potential for improving group-based services including group games and group discussions. Providing security in D2D group communication is the main challenge to make their wide usage possible. Nevertheless, the issue of security and privacy of D2D group communication has been less addressed in recent research work. In this paper, we propose an authentication and key agreement tree group-based (AKATGB) protocol to realize a secure and anonymous D2D group communication. In our protocol, a group of D2D users are first organized in a tree structure, authenticating each other without disclosing their identities and without any privacy violation. Then, D2D users negotiate to set a common group key for establishing a secure communication among themselves. Security analysis and performance evaluation of the proposed protocol show that it is effective and secure.

2021-03-09
Sibahee, M. A. A., Lu, S., Abduljabbar, Z. A., Liu, E. X., Ran, Y., Al-ashoor, A. A. J., Hussain, M. A., Hussien, Z. A..  2020.  Promising Bio-Authentication Scheme to Protect Documents for E2E S2S in IoT-Cloud. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC). :1—6.

Document integrity and origin for E2E S2S in IoTcloud have recently received considerable attention because of their importance in the real-world fields. Maintaining integrity could protect decisions made based on these message/image documents. Authentication and integrity solutions have been conducted to recognise or protect any modification in the exchange of documents between E2E S2S (smart-to-smart). However, none of the proposed schemes appear to be sufficiently designed as a secure scheme to prevent known attacks or applicable to smart devices. We propose a robust scheme that aims to protect the integrity of documents for each users session by integrating HMAC-SHA-256, handwritten feature extraction using a local binary pattern, one-time random pixel sequence based on RC4 to randomly hide authentication codes using LSB. The proposed scheme can provide users with one-time bio-key, robust message anonymity and a disappearing authentication code that does not draw the attention of eavesdroppers. Thus, the scheme improves the data integrity for a users messages/image documents, phase key agreement, bio-key management and a one-time message/image document code for each users session. The concept of stego-anonymity is also introduced to provide additional security to cover a hashed value. Finally, security analysis and experimental results demonstrate and prove the invulnerability and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

2021-05-18
Cho, Sunghwan, Chen, Gaojie, Coon, Justin P..  2020.  Enhancing Security in VLC Systems Through Beamforming. GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1–6.
This paper proposes a novel zero-forcing (ZF) beamforming strategy that can simultaneously cope with active and passive eavesdroppers (EDs) in visible light communication systems. A related optimization problem is formulated to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the legitimate user (UE) while suppressing the SNR of active ED to zero and constraining the average SNR of passive EDs. The proposed beamforming directs the transmission along a particular eigenmode related to the null space of the active ED channel and the intensity of the passive ED point process. An inverse free preconditioned Krylov subspace projection method is used to find the eigenmode. The numerical results show that the proposed ZF beamforming scheme yields better performance relative to a traditional ZF beamforming scheme in the sense of increasing the SNR of the UE and reducing the secrecy outage probability.
2021-07-27
Bentafat, Elmahdi, Rathore, M. Mazhar, Bakiras, Spiridon.  2020.  Privacy-Preserving Traffic Flow Estimation for Road Networks. GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1–6.
Future intelligent transportation systems necessitate a fine-grained and accurate estimation of vehicular traffic flows across critical paths of the underlying road network. This task is relatively trivial if we are able to collect detailed trajectories from every moving vehicle throughout the day. Nevertheless, this approach compromises the location privacy of the vehicles and may be used to build accurate profiles of the corresponding individuals. To this end, this work introduces a privacy-preserving protocol that leverages roadside units (RSUs) to communicate with the passing vehicles, in order to construct encrypted Bloom filters stemming from the vehicle IDs. The aggregate Bloom filters are encrypted with a threshold cryptosystem and can only be decrypted by the transportation authority in collaboration with multiple trusted entities. As a result, the individual communications between the vehicles and the RSUs remain secret. The decrypted Bloom filters reveal the aggregate traffic information at each RSU, but may also serve as a means to compute an approximation of the traffic flow between any pair of RSUs, by simply estimating the number of common vehicles in their respective Bloom filters. We performed extensive simulation experiments with various configuration parameters and demonstrate that our protocol reduces the estimation error considerably when compared to the current state-of-the-art approaches. Furthermore, our implementation of the underlying cryptographic primitives illustrates the feasibility, practicality, and scalability of the system.
2021-09-07
Sasahara, Hampei, Sarıta\c s, Serkan, Sandberg, Henrik.  2020.  Asymptotic Security of Control Systems by Covert Reaction: Repeated Signaling Game with Undisclosed Belief. 2020 59th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :3243–3248.
This study investigates the relationship between resilience of control systems to attacks and the information available to malicious attackers. Specifically, it is shown that control systems are guaranteed to be secure in an asymptotic manner by rendering reactions against potentially harmful actions covert. The behaviors of the attacker and the defender are analyzed through a repeated signaling game with an undisclosed belief under covert reactions. In the typical setting of signaling games, reactions conducted by the defender are supposed to be public information and the measurability enables the attacker to accurately trace transitions of the defender's belief on existence of a malicious attacker. In contrast, the belief in the game considered in this paper is undisclosed and hence common equilibrium concepts can no longer be employed for the analysis. To surmount this difficulty, a novel framework for decision of reasonable strategies of the players in the game is introduced. Based on the presented framework, it is revealed that any reasonable strategy chosen by a rational malicious attacker converges to the benign behavior as long as the reactions performed by the defender are unobservable to the attacker. The result provides an explicit relationship between resilience and information, which indicates the importance of covertness of reactions for designing secure control systems.
2021-01-25
Thinn, A. A., Thwin, M. M. S..  2020.  A Hybrid Solution for Confidential Data Transfer Using PKI, Modified AES Algorithm and Image as a Secret Key. 2020 IEEE Conference on Computer Applications(ICCA). :1–4.
Nowadays the provision of online services by government or business organizations has become a standard and necessary operation. Transferring data including the confidential or sensitive information via Internet or insecure network and exchange of them is also increased day by day. As a result, confidential information leakage and cyber threats are also heightened. Confidential information trading became one of the most profitable businesses. Encrypting the data is a solution to secure the data from being exposed. In this paper, we would like to propose a solution for the secure transfer of data using symmetric encryption, asymmetric encryption technologies and Key Generation Server as a mixed hybrid solution. A Symmetric encryption, modified AES algorithm, is used to encrypt data. Digital certificate is used both for data encryption and digital signing to assure data integrity. Key generation server is used to generate the second secret key from the publicly recognized information of a person and this key is used as a second secret key in the modified AES. The proposed hybrid solution can be utilized in any applications that require high confidentiality, integrity of data and non-repudiation.
Sehatbakhsh, N., Yilmaz, B. B., Zajic, A., Prvulovic, M..  2020.  A New Side-Channel Vulnerability on Modern Computers by Exploiting Electromagnetic Emanations from the Power Management Unit. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA). :123—138.

This paper presents a new micro-architectural vulnerability on the power management units of modern computers which creates an electromagnetic-based side-channel. The key observations that enable us to discover this sidechannel are: 1) in an effort to manage and minimize power consumption, modern microprocessors have a number of possible operating modes (power states) in which various sub-systems of the processor are powered down, 2) for some of the transitions between power states, the processor also changes the operating mode of the voltage regulator module (VRM) that supplies power to the affected sub-system, and 3) the electromagnetic (EM) emanations from the VRM are heavily dependent on its operating mode. As a result, these state-dependent EM emanations create a side-channel which can potentially reveal sensitive information about the current state of the processor and, more importantly, the programs currently being executed. To demonstrate the feasibility of exploiting this vulnerability, we create a covert channel by utilizing the changes in the processor's power states. We show how such a covert channel can be leveraged to exfiltrate sensitive information from a secured and completely isolated (air-gapped) laptop system by placing a compact, inexpensive receiver in proximity to that system. To further show the severity of this attack, we also demonstrate how such a covert channel can be established when the target and the receiver are several meters away from each other, including scenarios where the receiver and the target are separated by a wall. Compared to the state-of-the-art, the proposed covert channel has \textbackslashtextgreater3x higher bit-rate. Finally, to demonstrate that this new vulnerability is not limited to being used as a covert channel, we demonstrate how it can be used for attacks such as keystroke logging.