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Cordeiro, Renato, Gajaria, Dhruv, Limaye, Ankur, Adegbija, Tosiron, Karimian, Nima, Tehranipoor, Fatemeh.  2020.  ECG-Based Authentication Using Timing-Aware Domain-Specific Architecture. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems. 39:3373–3384.
Electrocardiogram (ECG) biometric authentication (EBA) is a promising approach for human identification, particularly in consumer devices, due to the individualized, ubiquitous, and easily identifiable nature of ECG signals. Thus, computing architectures for EBA must be accurate, fast, energy efficient, and secure. In this article, first, we implement an EBA algorithm to achieve 100% accuracy in user authentication. Thereafter, we extensively analyze the algorithm to show the distinct variance in execution requirements and reveal the latency bottleneck across the algorithm's different steps. Based on our analysis, we propose a domain-specific architecture (DSA) to satisfy the execution requirements of the algorithm's different steps and minimize the latency bottleneck. We explore different variations of the DSA, including one that features the added benefit of ensuring constant timing across the different EBA steps, in order to mitigate the vulnerability to timing-based side-channel attacks. Our DSA improves the latency compared to a base ARM-based processor by up to 4.24×, while the constant timing DSA improves the latency by up to 19%. Also, our DSA improves the energy by up to 5.59×, as compared to the base processor.
Nguyen, H. M., Derakhshani, R..  2020.  Eyebrow Recognition for Identifying Deepfake Videos. 2020 International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG). :1—5.
Deepfake imagery that contains altered faces has become a threat to online content. Current anti-deepfake approaches usually do so by detecting image anomalies, such as visible artifacts or inconsistencies. However, with deepfake advances, these visual artifacts are becoming harder to detect. In this paper, we show that one can use biometric eyebrow matching as a tool to detect manipulated faces. Our method could provide an 0.88 AUC and 20.7% EER for deepfake detection when applied to the highest quality deepfake dataset, Celeb-DF.
Bentahar, A., Meraoumia, A., Bendjenna, H., Chitroub, S., Zeroual, A..  2020.  Fuzzy Extractor-Based Key Agreement for Internet of Things. 020 1st International Conference on Communications, Control Systems and Signal Processing (CCSSP). :25–29.
The emergence of the Internet of Things with its constraints obliges researchers in this field to find light and accurate solutions to secure the data exchange. This document presents secure authentication using biometrics coupled with an effective key agreement scheme to save time and energy. In our scheme, the agreed key is used to encrypt transmission data between different IoT actors. While the fuzzy extractor based on the fuzzy vault principle, is used as authentication and as key agreement scheme. Besides, our system incorporates the Reed Solomon and Hamming codes to give some tolerance to errors. The experimental results have been discussed according to several recognition rates and computation times. Indeed, the recognition rate results have been compared to other works to validate our system. Also, we clarify how our system resists to specific transmission attacks without affecting lightness and accuracy.
Sarathy, N., Alsawwaf, M., Chaczko, Z..  2020.  Investigation of an Innovative Approach for Identifying Human Face-Profile Using Explainable Artificial Intelligence. 2020 IEEE 18th International Symposium on Intelligent Systems and Informatics (SISY). :155–160.
Human identification is a well-researched topic that keeps evolving. Advancement in technology has made it easy to train models or use ones that have been already created to detect several features of the human face. When it comes to identifying a human face from the side, there are many opportunities to advance the biometric identification research further. This paper investigates the human face identification based on their side profile by extracting the facial features and diagnosing the feature sets with geometric ratio expressions. These geometric ratio expressions are computed into feature vectors. The last stage involves the use of weighted means to measure similarity. This research addresses the problem of using an eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) approach. Findings from this research, based on a small data-set, conclude that the used approach offers encouraging results. Further investigation could have a significant impact on how face profiles can be identified. Performance of the proposed system is validated using metrics such as Precision, False Acceptance Rate, False Rejection Rate and True Positive Rate. Multiple simulations indicate an Equal Error Rate of 0.89.
Toutara, F., Spathoulas, G..  2020.  A distributed biometric authentication scheme based on blockchain. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :470–475.

Biometric authentication is the preferred authentication scheme in modern computing systems. While it offers enhanced usability, it also requires cautious handling of sensitive users' biometric templates. In this paper, a distributed scheme that eliminates the requirement for a central node that holds users' biometric templates is presented. This is replaced by an Ethereum/IPFS combination to which the templates of the users are stored in a homomorphically encrypted form. The scheme enables the biometric authentication of the users by any third party service, while the actual biometric templates of the user never leave his device in non encrypted form. Secure authentication of users in enabled, while sensitive biometric data are not exposed to anyone. Experiments show that the scheme can be applied as an authentication mechanism with minimal time overhead.

Ibrahim, A. K., Hagras, E. A. A. A., Alfhar, A., El-Kamchochi, H. A..  2020.  Dynamic Chaotic Biometric Identity Isomorphic Elliptic Curve (DCBI-IEC) for Crypto Images. 2020 2nd International Conference on Computer Communication and the Internet (ICCCI). :119–125.

In this paper, a novel Dynamic Chaotic Biometric Identity Isomorphic Elliptic Curve (DCBI-IEC) has been introduced for Image Encryption. The biometric digital identity is extracted from the user fingerprint image as fingerprint minutia data incorporated with the chaotic logistic map and hence, a new DCBDI-IEC has been suggested. DCBI-IEC is used to control the key schedule for all encryption and decryption processing. Statistical analysis, differential analysis and key sensitivity test are performed to estimate the security strengths of the proposed DCBI-IEC system. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is robust against common signal processing attacks and provides a high security level for image encryption application.

Alamri, M., Mahmoodi, S..  2020.  Facial Profiles Recognition Using Comparative Facial Soft Biometrics. 2020 International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG). :1—4.

This study extends previous advances in soft biometrics and describes to what extent soft biometrics can be used for facial profile recognition. The purpose of this research is to explore human recognition based on facial profiles in a comparative setting based on soft biometrics. Moreover, in this work, we describe and use a ranking system to determine the recognition rate. The Elo rating system is employed to rank subjects by using their face profiles in a comparative setting. The crucial features responsible for providing useful information describing facial profiles have been identified by using relative methods. Experiments based on a subset of the XM2VTSDB database demonstrate a 96% for recognition rate using 33 features over 50 subjects.

Guo, H., Wang, Z., Wang, B., Li, X., Shila, D. M..  2020.  Fooling A Deep-Learning Based Gait Behavioral Biometric System. 2020 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :221—227.

We leverage deep learning algorithms on various user behavioral information gathered from end-user devices to classify a subject of interest. In spite of the ability of these techniques to counter spoofing threats, they are vulnerable to adversarial learning attacks, where an attacker adds adversarial noise to the input samples to fool the classifier into false acceptance. Recently, a handful of mature techniques like Fast Gradient Sign Method (FGSM) have been proposed to aid white-box attacks, where an attacker has a complete knowledge of the machine learning model. On the contrary, we exploit a black-box attack to a behavioral biometric system based on gait patterns, by using FGSM and training a shadow model that mimics the target system. The attacker has limited knowledge on the target model and no knowledge of the real user being authenticated, but induces a false acceptance in authentication. Our goal is to understand the feasibility of a black-box attack and to what extent FGSM on shadow models would contribute to its success. Our results manifest that the performance of FGSM highly depends on the quality of the shadow model, which is in turn impacted by key factors including the number of queries allowed by the target system in order to train the shadow model. Our experimentation results have revealed strong relationships between the shadow model and FGSM performance, as well as the effect of the number of FGSM iterations used to create an attack instance. These insights also shed light on deep-learning algorithms' model shareability that can be exploited to launch a successful attack.

elazm, L. A. Abou, Ibrahim, S., Egila, M. G., Shawkey, H., Elsaid, M. K. H., El-Shafai, W., El-Samie, F. E. Abd.  2020.  Hardware Implementation of Cancellable Biometric Systems. 2020 Fourth International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :1145–1152.

The use of biometrics in security applications may be vulnerable to several challenges of hacking. Thus, the emergence of cancellable biometrics becomes a suitable solution to this problem. This paper presents a one-way cancellable biometric transform that depends on 3D chaotic maps for face and fingerprint encryption. It aims to avoid cloning of original biometrics and allow the templates used by each user in different applications to be variable. The permutations achieved with the chaotic maps guarantee high security of the biometric templates, especially with the 3D implementation of the encryption algorithm. In addition, the paper presents a hardware implementation for this framework. The proposed algorithm also achieves good performance in the presence of low and moderate levels of noise. An experimental version of the proposed cancellable biometric system has been applied on FPGA model. The obtained results achieve a powerful performance of the proposed cancellable biometric system.

Naganuma, K., Suzuki, T., Yoshino, M., Takahashi, K., Kaga, Y., Kunihiro, N..  2020.  New Secret Key Management Technology for Blockchains from Biometrics Fuzzy Signature. 2020 15th Asia Joint Conference on Information Security (AsiaJCIS). :54–58.

Blockchain technology is attracting attention as an innovative system for decentralized payments in fields such as financial area. On the other hand, in a decentralized environment, management of a secret key used for user authentication and digital signature becomes a big issue because if a user loses his/her secret key, he/she will also lose assets on the blockchain. This paper describes the secret key management issues in blockchain systems and proposes a solution using a biometrics-based digital signature scheme. In our proposed system, a secret key to be used for digital signature is generated from the user's biometric information each time and immediately deleted from the memory after using it. Therefore, our blockchain system has the advantage that there is no need for storage for storing secret keys throughout the system. As a result, the user does not have a risk of losing the key management devices and can prevent attacks from malware that steals the secret key.

Jindal, A. K., Shaik, I., Vasudha, V., Chalamala, S. R., Ma, R., Lodha, S..  2020.  Secure and Privacy Preserving Method for Biometric Template Protection using Fully Homomorphic Encryption. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1127–1134.

The rapid proliferation of biometrics has led to growing concerns about the security and privacy of the biometric data (template). A biometric uniquely identifies an individual and unlike passwords, it cannot be revoked or replaced since it is unique and fixed for every individual. To address this problem, many biometric template protection methods using fully homomorphic encryption have been proposed. But, most of them (i) are computationally expensive and practically infeasible (ii) do not support operations over real valued biometric feature vectors without quantization (iii) do not support packing of real valued feature vectors into a ciphertext (iv) require multi-shot enrollment of users for improved matching performance. To address these limitations, we propose a secure and privacy preserving method for biometric template protection using fully homomorphic encryption. The proposed method is computationally efficient and practically feasible, supports operations over real valued feature vectors without quantization and supports packing of real valued feature vectors into a single ciphertext. In addition, the proposed method enrolls the users using one-shot enrollment. To evaluate the proposed method, we use three face datasets namely LFW, FEI and Georgia tech face dataset. The encrypted face template (for 128 dimensional feature vector) requires 32.8 KB of memory space and it takes 2.83 milliseconds to match a pair of encrypted templates. The proposed method improves the matching performance by 3 % when compared to state-of-the-art, while providing high template security.

Ishak, Z., Rajendran, N., Al-Sanjary, O. I., Razali, N. A. Mat.  2020.  Secure Biometric Lock System for Files and Applications: A Review. 2020 16th IEEE International Colloquium on Signal Processing Its Applications (CSPA). :23–28.

A biometric system is a developing innovation which is utilized in different fields like forensics and security system. Finger recognition is the innovation that confirms the personality of an individual which relies upon the way that everybody has unique fingerprints. Fingerprint biometric systems are smaller in size, simple to utilize and have low power. This proposed study focuses on fingerprint biometric systems and how such a system would be implemented. If implemented, this system would have multifactor authentication strategies and improvised features based on encryption algorithms. The scanner that will be used is Biometric Fingerprint Sensor that is connected to system which determines the authorization and access control rights. All user access information is gathered by the system where the administrators can retrieve and analyse the information. This system has function of being up to date with the data changes like displaying the name of the individual for controlling security of the system.

Razaque, A., Amsaad, F., Almiani, M., Gulsezim, D., Almahameed, M. A., Al-Dmour, A., Khan, M. J., Ganda, R..  2020.  Successes and Failures in Exploring Biometric Algorithms in NIST Open Source Software and Data. 2020 Seventh International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :231—234.

With the emergence of advanced technology, the user authentication methods have also been improved. Authenticating the user, several secure and efficient approaches have been introduced, but the biometric authentication method is considered much safer as compared to password-driven methods. In this paper, we explore the risks, concerns, and methods by installing well-known open-source software used in Unibiometric analysis by the partners of The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Not only are the algorithms used all open source but it comes with test data and several internal open source utilities necessary to process biometric data.

Kirkbride, P., Dewan, M. A. Akber, Lin, F..  2020.  Game-Like Captchas for Intrusion Detection. 2020 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :312—315.

In this paper, we consider a novel method of mining biometric data for user authentication by replacing traditional captchas with game-like captchas. The game-like captchas present the user with a short game in which they attempt to get a high score. The data produced from a user's game play will be used to produce a behavior biometric based on user interactions, such as mouse movement, click patterns and game choices. The baseline expectation of interactive behavior will be used as a single factor in an intrusion detection system providing continuous authentication, considering the factors such as IP address, location, time of use, website interactions, and behavior anomalies. In addition to acting as a source of data, game-like captchas are expected to deter bots and automated systems from accessing web-based services and improving the user experience for the end-users who have become accustomed to monotonous alternatives, such as Google's re-captcha.

Sibahee, M. A. A., Lu, S., Abduljabbar, Z. A., Liu, E. X., Ran, Y., Al-ashoor, A. A. J., Hussain, M. A., Hussien, Z. A..  2020.  Promising Bio-Authentication Scheme to Protect Documents for E2E S2S in IoT-Cloud. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC). :1—6.

Document integrity and origin for E2E S2S in IoTcloud have recently received considerable attention because of their importance in the real-world fields. Maintaining integrity could protect decisions made based on these message/image documents. Authentication and integrity solutions have been conducted to recognise or protect any modification in the exchange of documents between E2E S2S (smart-to-smart). However, none of the proposed schemes appear to be sufficiently designed as a secure scheme to prevent known attacks or applicable to smart devices. We propose a robust scheme that aims to protect the integrity of documents for each users session by integrating HMAC-SHA-256, handwritten feature extraction using a local binary pattern, one-time random pixel sequence based on RC4 to randomly hide authentication codes using LSB. The proposed scheme can provide users with one-time bio-key, robust message anonymity and a disappearing authentication code that does not draw the attention of eavesdroppers. Thus, the scheme improves the data integrity for a users messages/image documents, phase key agreement, bio-key management and a one-time message/image document code for each users session. The concept of stego-anonymity is also introduced to provide additional security to cover a hashed value. Finally, security analysis and experimental results demonstrate and prove the invulnerability and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

H, R. M., Shrinivasa, R, C., M, D. R., J, A. N., S, K. R. N..  2020.  Biometric Authentication for Safety Lockers Using Cardiac Vectors. 2020 International Conference on Power, Energy, Control and Transmission Systems (ICPECTS). :1—5.

Security has become the vital component of today's technology. People wish to safeguard their valuable items in bank lockers. With growing technology most of the banks have replaced the manual lockers by digital lockers. Even though there are numerous biometric approaches, these are not robust. In this work we propose a new approach for personal biometric identification based on features extracted from ECG.

Belman, Amith K., Paul, Tirthankar, Wang, Li, Iyengar, S. S., Śniatała, Paweł, Jin, Zhanpeng, Phoha, Vir V., Vainio, Seppo, Röning, Juha.  2020.  Authentication by Mapping Keystrokes to Music: The Melody of Typing. 2020 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Signal Processing (AISP). :1—6.
Expressing Keystroke Dynamics (KD) in form of sound opens new avenues to apply sound analysis techniques on KD. However this mapping is not straight-forward as varied feature space, differences in magnitudes of features and human interpretability of the music bring in complexities. We present a musical interface to KD by mapping keystroke features to music features. Music elements like melody, harmony, rhythm, pitch and tempo are varied with respect to the magnitude of their corresponding keystroke features. A pitch embedding technique makes the music discernible among users. Using the data from 30 users, who typed fixed strings multiple times on a desktop, shows that these auditory signals are distinguishable between users by both standard classifiers (SVM, Random Forests and Naive Bayes) and humans alike.
Liu, Jian, Chen, Yingying, Dong, Yudi, Wang, Yan, Zhao, Tiannming, Yao, Yu-Dong.  2020.  Continuous User Verification via Respiratory Biometrics. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1—10.
The ever-growing security issues in various mobile applications and smart devices create an urgent demand for a reliable and convenient user verification method. Traditional verification methods request users to provide their secrets (e.g., entering passwords and collecting fingerprints). We envision that the essential trend of user verification is to free users from active participation in the verification process. Toward this end, we propose a continuous user verification system, which re-uses the widely deployed WiFi infrastructure to capture the unique physiological characteristics rooted in user's respiratory motions. Different from the existing continuous verification approaches, posing dependency on restricted scenarios/user behaviors (e.g., keystrokes and gaits), our system can be easily integrated into any WiFi infrastructure to provide non-intrusive continuous verification. Specifically, we extract the respiration-related signals from the channel state information (CSI) of WiFi. We then derive the user-specific respiratory features based on the waveform morphology analysis and fuzzy wavelet transformation of the respiration signals. Additionally, a deep learning based user verification scheme is developed to identify legitimate users accurately and detect the existence of spoofing attacks. Extensive experiments involving 20 participants demonstrate that the proposed system can robustly verify/identify users and detect spoofers under various types of attacks.
Cao, Yetong, Zhang, Qian, Li, Fan, Yang, Song, Wang, Yu.  2020.  PPGPass: Nonintrusive and Secure Mobile Two-Factor Authentication via Wearables. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1917—1926.
{Mobile devices are promising to apply two-factor authentication in order to improve system security and enhance user privacy-preserving. Existing solutions usually have certain limits of requiring some form of user effort, which might seriously affect user experience and delay authentication time. In this paper, we propose PPGPass, a novel mobile two-factor authentication system, which leverages Photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors in wrist-worn wearables to extract individual characteristics of PPG signals. In order to realize both nonintrusive and secure, we design a two-stage algorithm to separate clean heartbeat signals from PPG signals contaminated by motion artifacts, which allows verifying users without intentionally staying still during the process of authentication. In addition, to deal with non-cancelable issues when biometrics are compromised, we design a repeatable and non-invertible method to generate cancelable feature templates as alternative credentials, which enables to defense against man-in-the-middle attacks and replay attacks. To the best of our knowledge, PPGPass is the first nonintrusive and secure mobile two-factor authentication based on PPG sensors in wearables. We build a prototype of PPGPass and conduct the system with comprehensive experiments involving multiple participants. PPGPass can achieve an average F1 score of 95.3%, which confirms its high effectiveness, security, and usability}.
Malek, Z. S., Trivedi, B., Shah, A..  2020.  User behavior Pattern -Signature based Intrusion Detection. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :549—552.

Technology advancement also increases the risk of a computer's security. As we can have various mechanisms to ensure safety but still there have flaws. The main concerned area is user authentication. For authentication, various biometric applications are used but once authentication is done in the begging there was no guarantee that the computer system is used by the authentic user or not. The intrusion detection system (IDS) is a particular procedure that is used to identify intruders by analyzing user behavior in the system after the user logged in. Host-based IDS monitors user behavior in the computer and identify user suspicious behavior as an intrusion or normal behavior. This paper discusses how an expert system detects intrusions using a set of rules as a pattern recognized engine. We propose a PIDE (Pattern Based Intrusion Detection) model, which is verified previously implemented SBID (Statistical Based Intrusion Detection) model. Experiment results indicate that integration of SBID and PBID approach provides an extensive system to detect intrusion.

Sammoud, A., Chalouf, M. A., Hamdi, O., Montavont, N., Bouallegue, A..  2020.  A secure three-factor authentication and biometrics-based key agreement scheme for TMIS with user anonymity. 2020 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :1916—1921.

E- Health systems, specifically, Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS), are deployed in order to provide patients with specific diseases with healthcare services that are usually based on remote monitoring. Therefore, making an efficient, convenient and secure connection between users and medical servers over insecure channels within medical services is a rather major issue. In this context, because of the biometrics' characteristics, many biometrics-based three factor user authentication schemes have been proposed in the literature to secure user/server communication within medical services. In this paper, we make a brief study of the most interesting proposals. Then, we propose a new three-factor authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS. Our scheme tends not only to fix the security drawbacks of some studied related work, but also, offers additional significant features while minimizing resource consumption. In addition, we perform a formal verification using the widely accepted formal security verification tool AVISPA to demonstrate that our proposed scheme is secure. Also, our comparative performance analysis reveals that our proposed scheme provides a lower resource consumption compared to other related work's proposals.

Wang, Yazhou, Li, Bing, Zhang, Yan, Wu, Jiaxin, Yuan, Pengwei, Liu, Guimiao.  2020.  A Biometric Key Generation Mechanism for Authentication Based on Face Image. 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Signal and Image Processing (ICSIP). :231—235.
Facial biometrics have the advantages of high reliability, strong distinguishability and easily acquired for authentication. Therefore, it is becoming wildly used in identity authentication filed. However, there are stability, security and privacy issues in generating face key, which brings great challenges to face biometric authentication. In this paper, we propose a biometric key generation scheme based on face image. On the one hand, a deep neural network model for feature extraction is used to improve the stability of identity authentication. On the other hand, a key generation mechanism is designed to generate random biometric key while hiding original facial biometrics to enhance security and privacy of user authentication. The results show the FAR reach to 0.53% and the FRR reach to 0.57% in LFW face database, which achieves the better performance of biometric identification, and the proposed method is able to realize randomness of the generated biometric keys by NIST statistical test suite.
Obaidat, Muath, Brown, Joseph.  2020.  Two Factor Hash Verification (TFHV): A Novel Paradigm for Remote Authentication. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1—4.
Current paradigms for client-server authentication often rely on username/password schemes. Studies show such schemes are increasingly vulnerable to heuristic and brute-force attacks. This is either due to poor practices by users such as insecure weak passwords, or insecure systems by server operators. A recurring problem in any system which retains information is insecure management policies for sensitive information, such as logins and passwords, by both hosts and users. Increased processing power on the horizon also threatens the security of many popular hashing algorithms. Furthermore, increasing reliance on applications that exchange sensitive information has resulted in increased urgency. This is demonstrated by a large number of mobile applications being deemed insecure by Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) standards. This paper proposes a secure alternative technique of authentication that retains the current ecosystem, while minimizes attack vectors without inflating responsibilities on users or server operators. Our proposed authentication scheme uses layered encryption techniques alongside a two-part verification process. In addition, it provides dynamic protection for preventing against common cyber-attacks such as replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Results show that our proposed authentication mechanism outperform other schemes in terms of deployability and resilience to cyber-attacks, without inflating transaction's speed.
Bronzin, T., Prole, B., Stipić, A., Pap, K..  2020.  Individualization of Anonymous Identities Using Artificial Intelligence (AI). 2020 43rd International Convention on Information, Communication and Electronic Technology (MIPRO). :1058–1063.

Individualization of anonymous identities using artificial intelligence - enables innovative human-computer interaction through the personalization of communication which is, at the same time, individual and anonymous. This paper presents possible approach for individualization of anonymous identities in real time. It uses computer vision and artificial intelligence to automatically detect and recognize person's age group, gender, human body measures, proportions and other specific personal characteristics. Collected data constitutes the so-called person's biometric footprint and are linked to a unique (but still anonymous) identity that is recorded in the computer system, along with other information that make up the profile of the person. Identity anonymization can be achieved by appropriate asymmetric encryption of the biometric footprint (with no additional personal information being stored) and integrity can be ensured using blockchain technology. Data collected in this manner is GDPR compliant.

Muñoz, C. M. Blanco, Cruz, F. Gómez, Valero, J. S. Jimenez.  2020.  Software architecture for the application of facial recognition techniques through IoT devices. 2020 Congreso Internacional de Innovación y Tendencias en Ingeniería (CONIITI). :1–5.

The facial recognition time by time takes more importance, due to the extend kind of applications it has, but it is still challenging when faces big variations in the characteristics of the biometric data used in the process and especially referring to the transportation of information through the internet in the internet of things context. Based on the systematic review and rigorous study that supports the extraction of the most relevant information on this topic [1], a software architecture proposal which contains basic security requirements necessary for the treatment of the data involved in the application of facial recognition techniques, oriented to an IoT environment was generated. Concluding that the security and privacy considerations of the information registered in IoT devices represent a challenge and it is a priority to be able to guarantee that the data circulating on the network are only accessible to the user that was designed for this.