Filters: Keyword is cyber-physical system  [Clear All Filters]
Cheng, Z., Chow, M.-Y..  2020.  An Augmented Bayesian Reputation Metric for Trustworthiness Evaluation in Consensus-based Distributed Microgrid Energy Management Systems with Energy Storage. 2020 2nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics for Sustainable Energy Systems (IESES). 1:215–220.
Consensus-based distributed microgrid energy management system is one of the most used distributed control strategies in the microgrid area. To improve its cybersecurity, the system needs to evaluate the trustworthiness of the participating agents in addition to the conventional cryptography efforts. This paper proposes a novel augmented reputation metric to evaluate the agents' trustworthiness in a distributed fashion. The proposed metric adopts a novel augmentation method to substantially improve the trust evaluation and attack detection performance under three typical difficult-to-detect attack patterns. The proposed metric is implemented and validated on a real-time HIL microgrid testbed.
Jin, Z., Yu, P., Guo, S. Y., Feng, L., Zhou, F., Tao, M., Li, W., Qiu, X., Shi, L..  2020.  Cyber-Physical Risk Driven Routing Planning with Deep Reinforcement-Learning in Smart Grid Communication Networks. 2020 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :1278—1283.
In modern grid systems which is a typical cyber-physical System (CPS), information space and physical space are closely related. Once the communication link is interrupted, it will make a great damage to the power system. If the service path is too concentrated, the risk will be greatly increased. In order to solve this problem, this paper constructs a route planning algorithm that combines node load pressure, link load balance and service delay risk. At present, the existing intelligent algorithms are easy to fall into the local optimal value, so we chooses the deep reinforcement learning algorithm (DRL). Firstly, we build a risk assessment model. The node risk assessment index is established by using the node load pressure, and then the link risk assessment index is established by using the average service communication delay and link balance degree. The route planning problem is then solved by a route planning algorithm based on DRL. Finally, experiments are carried out in a simulation scenario of a power grid system. The results show that our method can find a lower risk path than the original Dijkstra algorithm and the Constraint-Dijkstra algorithm.
Moormann, L., Mortel-Fronczak, J. M. van de, Fokkink, W. J., Rooda, J. E..  2020.  Exploiting Symmetry in Dependency Graphs for Model Reduction in Supervisor Synthesis. 2020 IEEE 16th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE). :659–666.
Supervisor synthesis enables the design of supervisory controllers for large cyber-physical systems, with high guarantees for functionality and safety. The complexity of the synthesis problem, however, increases exponentially with the number of system components in the cyber-physical system and the number of models of this system, often resulting in lengthy or even unsolvable synthesis procedures. In this paper, a new method is proposed for reducing the model of the system before synthesis to decrease the required computational time and effort. The method consists of three steps for model reduction, that are mainly based on symmetry in dependency graphs of the system. Dependency graphs visualize the components in the system and the relations between these components. The proposed method is applied in a case study on the design of a supervisory controller for a road tunnel. In this case study, the model reduction steps are described, and results are shown on the effectiveness of model reduction in terms of model size and synthesis time.
Pelissero, N., Laso, P. M., Puentes, J..  2020.  Naval cyber-physical anomaly propagation analysis based on a quality assessed graph. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA). :1–8.
As any other infrastructure relying on cyber-physical systems (CPS), naval CPS are highly interconnected and collect considerable data streams, on which depend multiple command and navigation decisions. Being a data-driven decision system requiring optimized supervisory control on a permanent basis, it is critical to examine the CPS vulnerability to anomalies and their propagation. This paper presents an approach to detect CPS anomalies and estimate their propagation applying a quality assessed graph, which represents the CPS physical and digital subsystems, combined with system variables dependencies and a set of data and information quality measures vectors. Following the identification of variables dependencies and high-risk nodes in the CPS, data and information quality measures reveal how system variables are modified when an anomaly is detected, also indicating its propagation path. Taking as reference the normal state of a naval propulsion management system, four anomalies in the form of cyber-attacks - port scan, programmable logical controller stop, and man in the middle to change the motor speed and operation of a tank valve - were produced. Three anomalies were properly detected and their propagation path identified. These results suggest the feasibility of anomaly detection and estimation of propagation estimation in CPS, applying data and information quality analysis to a system graph.
Zhu, Hong, Xia, Bing, Zhou, Dongxu, Zhang, Ming, Ma, Zhoujun.  2020.  Research on Integrated Model and Interactive Influence of Energy Internet Cyber Physical System. 2020 IEEE Sustainable Power and Energy Conference (iSPEC). :1667–1671.

Energy Internet is a typical cyber-physical system (CPS), in which the disturbance on cyber part may result in the operation risks on the physical part. In order to perform CPS assessment and research the interactive influence between cyber part and physical part, an integrated energy internet CPS model which adopts information flow matrix, energy control flow matrix and information energy hybrid flow matrix is proposed in this paper. The proposed model has a higher computational efficacy compared with simulation based approaches. Then, based on the proposed model, the influence of cyber disturbances such as data dislocation, data delay and data error on the physical part are studied. Finally, a 3 MW PET based energy internet CPS is built using PSCAD/EMTDC software. The simulation results prove the validity of the proposed model and the correctness of the interactive influence analysis.

Ulrich, Jacob, McJunkin, Timothy, Rieger, Craig, Runyon, Michael.  2020.  Scalable, Physical Effects Measurable Microgrid for Cyber Resilience Analysis (SPEMMCRA). 2020 Resilience Week (RWS). :194—201.

The ability to advance the state of the art in automated cybersecurity protections for industrial control systems (ICS) has as a prerequisite of understanding the trade-off space. That is, to enable a cyber feedback loop in a control system environment you must first consider both the security mitigation available, the benefits and the impacts to the control system functionality when the mitigation is used. More damaging impacts could be precipitated that the mitigation was intended to rectify. This paper details networked ICS that controls a simulation of the frequency response represented with the swing equation. The microgrid loads and base generation can be balanced through the control of an emulated battery and power inverter. The simulated plant, which is implemented in Raspberry Pi computers, provides an inexpensive platform to realize the physical effects of cyber attacks to show the trade-offs of available mitigating actions. This network design can include a commercial ICS controller and simple plant or emulated plant to introduce real world implementation of feedback controls, and provides a scalable, physical effects measurable microgrid for cyber resilience analysis (SPEMMCRA).

Evgeny, Pavlenko, Dmitry, Zegzhda, Anna, Shtyrkina.  2019.  Estimating the sustainability of cyber-physical systems based on spectral graph theory. 2019 IEEE International Black Sea Conference on Communications and Networking (BlackSeaCom). :1–5.
Paper proposed an approach to estimating the sustainability of cyber-physical systems based on system state analysis. Authors suggested that sustainability is the system ability to reconfigure for recovering from attacking influences. Proposed a new criterion for cyber-physical systems sustainability assessment based on spectral graph theory. Numerical calculation of the criterion is based on distribution properties of the graph spectrum - the set of eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix corresponding to the graph. Experimental results have shown dependency of change in Δσ, difference between initial value of σstart and final σstop, on working route length, and on graph connectivity was revealed. This parameter is proposed to use as a criterion for CPS sustainability.
Bhat, Sriharsha, Stenius, Ivan, Bore, Nils, Severholt, Josefine, Ljung, Carl, Torroba Balmori, Ignacio.  2019.  Towards a Cyber-Physical System for Hydrobatic AUVs. OCEANS 2019 - Marseille. :1–7.
Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) encompass a network of sensors and actuators that are monitored, controlled and integrated by a computing and communication core. As autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) become more intelligent and connected, new use cases in ocean production, security and environmental monitoring become feasible. Swarms of small, affordable and hydrobatic AUVs can be beneficial in substance cloud tracking and algae farming, and a CPS linking the AUVs with multi-fidelity simulations can improve performance while reducing risks and costs. In this paper, we present a CPS concept tightly linking the AUV network in ROS to virtual validation using Simulink and Gazebo. A robust hardware-software interface using the open-source UAVCAN-ROS bridge is described for enabling hardware-in-the-loop validation. Hardware features of the hydrobatic SAM AUV are described, with a focus on subsystem integration. Results presented include pre-tuning of controllers, validation of mission plans in simulation and real time subsystem performance in tank tests. These first results demonstrate the interconnection between different system elements and offer a proof of concept.
Li, Ming, Hawrylak, Peter, Hale, John.  2019.  Concurrency Strategies for Attack Graph Generation. 2019 2nd International Conference on Data Intelligence and Security (ICDIS). :174-179.

The network attack graph is a powerful tool for analyzing network security, but the generation of a large-scale graph is non-trivial. The main challenge is from the explosion of network state space, which greatly increases time and storage costs. In this paper, three parallel algorithms are proposed to generate scalable attack graphs. An OpenMP-based programming implementation is used to test their performance. Compared with the serial algorithm, the best performance from the proposed algorithms provides a 10X speedup.

Huang, Hsiang-Hung, Toprasertpong, Kasidit, Delamarre, Amaury, Watanabe, Kentaroh, Sugiyama, Masakazu, Nakano, Yoshiaki.  2019.  Numerical Demonstration of Trade-off between Carrier Confinement Effect and Carrier Transport for Multiple-Quantum-Well Based High-Efficiency InGaP Solar Cells. 2019 Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW). :1-2.

To promote InGaP solar cell efficiency toward the theoretical limit, one promising approach is to incorporate multiple quantum wells (MQWs) into the InGaP host and improve its open-circuit voltage by facilitating radiative carrier recombination owing to carrier confinement. In this research, we demonstrate numerically that a strain-balanced (SB) In1-xGaxP/In1-yGayP MQW enhances confined carrier density while degrades the effective carrier mobility. However, a smart design of the MQW structure is possible by considering quantitatively the trade-off between carrier confinement effect and carrier transport, and MQW can be advantageous over the InGaP bulk material for boosting photovoltaic efficiency.

Medury, Aditya Sankar, Kansal, Harshit.  2019.  Quantum Confinement Effects and Electrostatics of Planar Nano-Scale Symmetric Double-Gate SOI MOSFETs. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC). :1-3.

The effects of quantum confinement on the charge distribution in planar Double-Gate (DG) SOI (Siliconon-Insulator) MOSFETs were examined, for sub-10 nm SOI film thicknesses (tsi $łeq$ 10 nm), by modeling the potential experienced by the charge carriers as that of an an-harmonic oscillator potential, consistent with the inherent structural symmetry of nanoscale symmetric DGSOI MOSFETs. By solving the 1-D Poisson's equation using this potential, the results obtained were validated through comparisons with TCAD simulations. The present model satisfactorily predicted the electron density and channel charge density for a wide range of SOI channel thicknesses and gate voltages.

Balduccini, Marcello, Griffor, Edward, Huth, Michael, Vishik, Claire, Wollman, David, Kamongi, Patrick.  2019.  Decision Support for Smart Grid: Using Reasoning to Contextualize Complex Decision Making. 2019 7th Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES). :1—6.

The smart grid is a complex cyber-physical system (CPS) that poses challenges related to scale, integration, interoperability, processes, governance, and human elements. The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and its government, university and industry collaborators, developed an approach, called CPS Framework, to reasoning about CPS across multiple levels of concern and competency, including trustworthiness, privacy, reliability, and regulatory. The approach uses ontology and reasoning techniques to achieve a greater understanding of the interdependencies among the elements of the CPS Framework model applied to use cases. This paper demonstrates that the approach extends naturally to automated and manual decision-making for smart grids: we apply it to smart grid use cases, and illustrate how it can be used to analyze grid topologies and address concerns about the smart grid. Smart grid stakeholders, whose decision making may be assisted by this approach, include planners, designers and operators.

Shang, Chengya, Bao, Xianqiang, Fu, Lijun, Xia, Li, Xu, Xinghua, Xu, Chengcheng.  2019.  A Novel Key-Value Based Real-Time Data Management Framework for Ship Integrated Power Cyber-Physical System. 2019 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT Asia). :854–858.
The new generation ship integrated power system (IPS) realizes high level informatization for various physical equipments, and gradually develops to a cyber-physical system (CPS). The future trend is collecting ship big data to achieve data-driven intelligence for IPS. However, traditional relational data management framework becomes inefficient to handle the real-time data processing in ship integrated power cyber-physics system. In order to process the large-scale real-time data that collected from numerous sensors by field bus of IPS devices within acceptable latency, especially for handling the semi-structured and non-structured data. This paper proposes a novel key-value data model based real-time data management framework, which enables batch processing and distributed deployment to acquire time-efficiency as well as system scalable. We implement a real-time data management prototype system based on an open source in-memory key-value store. Finally, the evaluation results from the prototype verify the advantages of novel framework compared with traditional solution.
Luo, Shaojie, Zhang, Lichen, Guo, Nannan.  2019.  Architecture of Cyber-Physical Systems Based on Cloud. 2019 IEEE 5th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :251—257.

Cyber-Physical System (CPS) and Cloud Computing are emerging and important research fields in recent years. It is a current trend that CPS combines with Cloud Computing. Compared with traditional CPS, Cloud can improve its performance, but Cloud failures occur occasionally. The existing cloud-based CPS architectures rely too much on the Cloud, ignoring the risk and problems caused by Cloud failures, thus making the reliability of CPS not guaranteed. In order to solve the risk and problems above, spare parts are involved based on the research of cloud-based CPS. An architecture of cloud-based CPS with spare parts is proposed and two solutions for spare parts are designed. Agricultural intelligent temperature control system is used as an example to model and simulate the proposed architecture and solutions using Simulink. The simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed architecture and solutions, which enhance the reliability of cloud-based CPS.

Chen, Yu-Cheng, Mooney, Vincent, Grijalva, Santiago.  2019.  A Survey of Attack Models for Cyber-Physical Security Assessment in Electricity Grid. 2019 IFIP/IEEE 27th International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI-SoC). :242–243.
This paper surveys some prior work regarding attack models in a cyber-physical system and discusses the potential benefits. For comparison, the full paper will model a bad data injection attack scenario in power grid using the surveyed prior work.
Guo, Shengjian, Wu, Meng, Wang, Chao.  2018.  Adversarial Symbolic Execution for Detecting Concurrency-Related Cache Timing Leaks. Proceedings of the 2018 26th ACM Joint Meeting on European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering. :377-388.
The timing characteristics of cache, a high-speed storage between the fast CPU and the slow memory, may reveal sensitive information of a program, thus allowing an adversary to conduct side-channel attacks. Existing methods for detecting timing leaks either ignore cache all together or focus only on passive leaks generated by the program itself, without considering leaks that are made possible by concurrently running some other threads. In this work, we show that timing-leak-freedom is not a compositional property: a program that is not leaky when running alone may become leaky when interleaved with other threads. Thus, we develop a new method, named adversarial symbolic execution, to detect such leaks. It systematically explores both the feasible program paths and their interleavings while modeling the cache, and leverages an SMT solver to decide if there are timing leaks. We have implemented our method in LLVM and evaluated it on a set of real-world ciphers with 14,455 lines of C code in total. Our experiments demonstrate both the efficiency of our method and its effectiveness in detecting side-channel leaks.
Dcruz, Hans John, Kaliaperumal, Baskaran.  2018.  Analysis of Cyber-Physical Security in Electric Smart Grid : Survey and challenges. 2018 6th International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC). :1–6.
With the advancement in technology, inclusion of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the conventional Electrical Power Grid has become evident. The combination of communication system with physical system makes it cyber-physical system (CPS). Though the advantages of this improvement in technology are numerous, there exist certain issues with the system. Security and privacy concerns of a CPS are a major field and research and the insight of which is content of this paper.
Liu, Daiping, Zhang, Mingwei, Wang, Haining.  2018.  A Robust and Efficient Defense Against Use-after-Free Exploits via Concurrent Pointer Sweeping. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1635-1648.
Applications in C/C++ are notoriously prone to memory corruptions. With significant research efforts devoted to this area of study, the security threats posed by previously popular vulnerabilities, such as stack and heap overflows, are not as serious as before. Instead, we have seen the meteoric rise of attacks exploiting use-after-free (UaF) vulnerabilities in recent years, which root in pointers pointing to freed memory (i.e., dangling pointers). Although various approaches have been proposed to harden software against UaF, none of them can achieve robustness and efficiency at the same time. In this paper, we present a novel defense called pSweeper to robustly protect against UaF exploits with low overhead, and pinpoint the root-causes of UaF vulnerabilities with one safe crash. The success of pSweeper lies in its two unique and innovative design ideas, concurrent pointer sweeping (CPW) and object origin tracking (OOT). CPW exploits the increasingly available multi-cores on modern PCs and outsources the heavyweight security checks and enforcement to dedicated threads that can run on spare cores. Specifically, CPW iteratively sweeps all live pointers in a concurrent thread to find dangling pointers. This design is quite different from previous work that requires to track every pointer propagation to maintain accurate point-to relationship between pointers and objects. OOT can help to pinpoint the root-causes of UaF by informing developers of how a dangling pointer is created, i.e., how the problematic object is allocated and freed. We implement a prototype of pSweeper and validate its efficacy in real scenarios. Our experimental results show that pSweeper is effective in defeating real-world UaF exploits and efficient when deployed in production runs.
Guo, Y., Gong, Y., Njilla, L. L., Kamhoua, C. A..  2018.  A Stochastic Game Approach to Cyber-Physical Security with Applications to Smart Grid. IEEE INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :33-38.
This paper proposes a game-theoretic approach to analyze the interactions between an attacker and a defender in a cyber-physical system (CPS) and develops effective defense strategies. In a CPS, the attacker launches cyber attacks on a number of nodes in the cyber layer, trying to maximize the potential damage to the underlying physical system while the system operator seeks to defend several nodes in the cyber layer to minimize the physical damage. Given that CPS attacking and defending is often a continual process, a zero-sum Markov game is proposed in this paper to model these interactions subject to underlying uncertainties of real-world events and actions. A novel model is also proposed in this paper to characterize the interdependence between the cyber layer and the physical layer in a CPS and quantify the impact of the cyber attack on the physical damage in the proposed game. To find the Nash equilibrium of the Markov game, we design an efficient algorithm based on value iteration. The proposed general approach is then applied to study the wide-area monitoring and protection issue in smart grid. Extensive simulations are conducted based on real-world data, and results show the effectiveness of the defending strategies derived from the proposed approach.
Nguyen, Viet, Ibrahim, Mohamed, Truong, Hoang, Nguyen, Phuc, Gruteser, Marco, Howard, Richard, Vu, Tam.  2018.  Body-Guided Communications: A Low-Power, Highly-Confined Primitive to Track and Secure Every Touch. Proceedings of the 24th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking. :353-368.

The growing number of devices we interact with require a convenient yet secure solution for user identification, authorization and authentication. Current approaches are cumbersome, susceptible to eavesdropping and relay attacks, or energy inefficient. In this paper, we propose a body-guided communication mechanism to secure every touch when users interact with a variety of devices and objects. The method is implemented in a hardware token worn on user's body, for example in the form of a wristband, which interacts with a receiver embedded inside the touched device through a body-guided channel established when the user touches the device. Experiments show low-power (uJ/bit) operation while achieving superior resilience to attacks, with the received signal at the intended receiver through the body channel being at least 20dB higher than that of an adversary in cm range.

Barry, Ibrahima Djenabou, Yokota, Mitsuhiro, Razak, Angger Abdul.  2018.  Design of a New Type of Square Lattice Photonic Crystal Fiber with Flattened Dispersion and Low Confinement Loss. 2018 Electrical Power, Electronics, Communications, Controls and Informatics Seminar (EECCIS). :229-233.

A new kind of Square Lattice Photonic Crystal Fiber (SLPCF) is proposed, the first ring is formed by elliptical holes filled with ethanol. To regulate the dispersion and the confinement loss we put a circular air-holes with small diameters into the third ring of the cladding area. The diameter of the core is arranged as d2=2*A-d, where A is the pitch and d diameter of the air-holes. After simulations, we got a dispersion low as 0.0494 (ps/Km. nm) and a confinement loss also low as 2.6×10-7(dB/m) at a wavelength of 1.55 $μ$m. At 0.8 $μ$m we obtained a nonlinearity high as 60.95 (1/km. w) and a strong guiding light. Also, we compare the filled ethanol elliptical holes with the air filled elliptical holes of our proposed square lattice photonic crystal fiber. We use as a simulation method in this manuscript the two-dimensional FDTD method. The utilization of the proposed fiber is in the telecommunication transmission because of its low dispersion and low loss at the c-band and in the nonlinear applications.

Jog, Suraj, Wang, Jiaming, Hassanieh, Haitham, Choudhury, Romit Roy.  2018.  Enabling Dense Spatial Reuse in mmWave Networks. Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2018 Conference on Posters and Demos. :18-20.

Millimeter Wave (mmWave) networks can deliver multi-Gbps wireless links that use extremely narrow directional beams. This provides us with a new way to exploit spatial reuse in order to scale network throughput. In this work, we present MilliNet, the first millimeter wave network that can exploit dense spatial reuse to allow many links to operate in parallel in a confined space and scale the wireless throughput with the number of clients. Results from a 60 GHz testbed show that MilliNet can deliver a total wireless network data rate of more than 38 Gbps for 10 clients which is 5.8× higher than current 802.11 mmWave standards.

Gritti, Clémentine, Molva, Refik, Önen, Melek.  2018.  Lightweight Secure Bootstrap and Message Attestation in the Internet of Things. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. :775-782.

Internet of Things (IoT) offers new opportunities for business, technology and science but it also raises new challenges in terms of security and privacy, mainly because of the inherent characteristics of this environment: IoT devices come from a variety of manufacturers and operators and these devices suffer from constrained resources in terms of computation, communication and storage. In this paper, we address the problem of trust establishment for IoT and propose a security solution that consists of a secure bootstrap mechanism for device identification as well as a message attestation mechanism for aggregate response validation. To achieve both security requirements, we approach the problem in a confined environment, named SubNets of Things (SNoT), where various devices depend on it. In this context, devices are uniquely and securely identified thanks to their environment and their role within it. Additionally, the underlying message authentication technique features signature aggregation and hence, generates one compact response on behalf of all devices in the subnet.

Chowdhury, Mokter M., Fan, Harrison D. E., Chang, Mike, Dridi, Kais, Voon, Kevin, Sawatzky, George A., Nojeh, Alireza.  2018.  The Role of Lateral Confinement in the Localized Heating of Thermionic Emitters Based on Carbon Nanotube Forests. 2018 31st International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference (IVNC). :1-2.

When vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays (CNT forests) are heated by optical, electrical, or any other means, heat confinement in the lateral directions (i.e. perpendicular to the CNTs' axes), which stems from the anisotropic structure of the forest, is expected to play an important role. It has been found that, in spite of being primarily conductive along the CNTs' axes, focusing a laser beam on the sidewall of a CNT forest can lead to a highly localized hot region-an effect known as ``Heat Trap''-and efficient thermionic emission. This unusual heat confinement phenomenon has applications where the spread of heat has to be minimized, but electrical conduction is required, notably in energy conversion (e.g. vacuum thermionics and thermoelectrics). However, despite its strong scientific and practical importance, the existence and role of the lateral heat confinement in the Heat Trap effect have so far been elusive. In this work, for the first time, by using a rotating elliptical laser beam, we directly observe the existence of this lateral heat confinement and its corresponding effects on the unusual temperature rise during the Heat Trap effect.

Dutta, Raj Gautam, Yu, Feng, Zhang, Teng, Hu, Yaodan, Jin, Yier.  2018.  Security for Safety: A Path Toward Building Trusted Autonomous Vehicles. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer-Aided Design. :92:1-92:6.

Automotive systems have always been designed with safety in mind. In this regard, the functional safety standard, ISO 26262, was drafted with the intention of minimizing risk due to random hardware faults or systematic failure in design of electrical and electronic components of an automobile. However, growing complexity of a modern car has added another potential point of failure in the form of cyber or sensor attacks. Recently, researchers have demonstrated that vulnerability in vehicle's software or sensing units could enable them to remotely alter the intended operation of the vehicle. As such, in addition to safety, security should be considered as an important design goal. However, designing security solutions without the consideration of safety objectives could result in potential hazards. Consequently, in this paper we propose the notion of security for safety and show that by integrating safety conditions with our system-level security solution, which comprises of a modified Kalman filter and a Chi-squared detector, we can prevent potential hazards that could occur due to violation of safety objectives during an attack. Furthermore, with the help of a car-following case study, where the follower car is equipped with an adaptive-cruise control unit, we show that our proposed system-level security solution preserves the safety constraints and prevent collision between vehicle while under sensor attack.