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Toutara, F., Spathoulas, G..  2020.  A distributed biometric authentication scheme based on blockchain. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :470–475.

Biometric authentication is the preferred authentication scheme in modern computing systems. While it offers enhanced usability, it also requires cautious handling of sensitive users' biometric templates. In this paper, a distributed scheme that eliminates the requirement for a central node that holds users' biometric templates is presented. This is replaced by an Ethereum/IPFS combination to which the templates of the users are stored in a homomorphically encrypted form. The scheme enables the biometric authentication of the users by any third party service, while the actual biometric templates of the user never leave his device in non encrypted form. Secure authentication of users in enabled, while sensitive biometric data are not exposed to anyone. Experiments show that the scheme can be applied as an authentication mechanism with minimal time overhead.

Kalaiyarasi, G., Balaji, K., Narmadha, T., Naveen, V..  2020.  E-Voting System In Smart Phone Using Mobile Application. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :1466—1469.

The development in the web technologies given growth to the new application that will make the voting process very easy and proficient. The E-voting helps in providing convenient, capture and count the votes in an election. This project provides the description about e-voting using an Android platform. The proposed e-voting system helps the user to cast the vote without visiting the polling booth. The application provides authentication measures in order to avoid fraud voters using the OTP. Once the voting process is finished the results will be available within a fraction of seconds. All the casted vote count is encrypted using AES256 algorithm and stored in the database in order to avoid any outbreaks and revelation of results by third person other than the administrator.

Zhang, Xinman, He, Tingting, Xu, Xuebin.  2019.  Android-Based Smartphone Authentication System Using Biometric Techniques: A Review. 2019 4th International Conference on Control, Robotics and Cybernetics (CRC). :104–108.
As the technological progress of mobile Internet, smartphone based on Android OS accounts for the vast majority of market share. The traditional encryption technology cannot resolve the dilemma in smartphone information leakage, and the Android-based authentication system in view of biometric recognition emerge to offer more reliable information assurance. In this paper, we summarize several biometrics providing their attributes. Furthermore, we also review the algorithmic framework and performance index acting on authentication techniques. Thus, typical identity authentication systems including their experimental results are concluded and analyzed in the survey. The article is written with an intention to provide an in-depth overview of Android-based biometric verification systems to the readers.
Ximenes, Agostinho Marques, Sukaridhoto, Sritrusta, Sudarsono, Amang, Ulil Albaab, Mochammad Rifki, Basri, Hasan, Hidayat Yani, Muhammad Aksa, Chang Choon, Chew, Islam, Ezharul.  2019.  Implementation QR Code Biometric Authentication for Online Payment. 2019 International Electronics Symposium (IES). :676–682.
Based on the Indonesian of Statistics the level of society people in 2019 is grow up. Based on data, the bank conducted a community to simple transaction payment in the market. Bank just used a debit card or credit card for the transaction, but the banks need more investment for infrastructure and very expensive. Based on that cause the bank needs another solution for low-cost infrastructure. Obtained from solutions that, the bank implementation QR Code Biometric authentication Payment Online is one solution that fulfills. This application used for payment in online merchant. The transaction permits in this study lie in the biometric encryption, or decryption transaction permission and QR Code Scan to improve communication security and transaction data. The test results of implementation Biometric Cloud Authentication Platform show that AES 256 agents can be implemented for face biometric encryption and decryption. Code Scan QR to carry out transaction permits with Face verification transaction permits gets the accuracy rate of 95% for 10 sample people and transaction process gets time speed of 53.21 seconds per transaction with a transaction sample of 100 times.
Iftikhar, Jawad, Hussain, Sajid, Mansoor, Khwaja, Ali, Zeeshan, Chaudhry, Shehzad Ashraf.  2019.  Symmetric-Key Multi-Factor Biometric Authentication Scheme. 2019 2nd International Conference on Communication, Computing and Digital systems (C-CODE). :288–292.
Authentication is achieved by using different techniques, like using smart-card, identity password and biometric techniques. Some of the proposed schemes use a single factor for authentication while others combine multiple ways to provide multi-factor authentication for better security. lately, a new scheme for multi-factor authentication was presented by Cao and Ge and claimed that their scheme is highly secure and can withstand against all known attacks. In this paper, it is revealed that their scheme is still vulnerable and have some loopholes in term of reflection attack. Therefore, an improved scheme is proposed to overcome the security weaknesses of Cao and Ge's scheme. The proposed scheme resists security attacks and secure. Formal testing is carried out under a broadly-accepted simulated tool ProVerif which demonstrates that the proposed scheme is well secure.
Abedin, Zain Ul, Guan, Zhitao, Arif, Asad Ullah, Anwar, Usman.  2019.  An Advance Cryptographic Solutions in Cloud Computing Security. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computing, Mathematics and Engineering Technologies (iCoMET). :1–6.

Cryptographically cloud computing may be an innovative safe cloud computing design. Cloud computing may be a huge size dispersed computing model that ambitious by the economy of the level. It integrates a group of inattentive virtualized animatedly scalable and managed possessions like computing control storage space platform and services. External end users will approach to resources over the net victimization fatal particularly mobile terminals, Cloud's architecture structures are advances in on-demand new trends. That are the belongings are animatedly assigned to a user per his request and hand over when the task is finished. So, this paper projected biometric coding to boost the confidentiality in Cloud computing for biometric knowledge. Also, this paper mentioned virtualization for Cloud computing also as statistics coding. Indeed, this paper overviewed the safety weaknesses of Cloud computing and the way biometric coding will improve the confidentiality in Cloud computing atmosphere. Excluding this confidentiality is increased in Cloud computing by victimization biometric coding for biometric knowledge. The novel approach of biometric coding is to reinforce the biometric knowledge confidentiality in Cloud computing. Implementation of identification mechanism can take the security of information and access management in the cloud to a higher level. This section discusses, however, a projected statistics system with relation to alternative recognition systems to date is a lot of advantageous and result oriented as a result of it does not work on presumptions: it's distinctive and provides quick and contact less authentication. Thus, this paper reviews the new discipline techniques accustomed to defend methodology encrypted info in passing remote cloud storage.

Mishra, Menaka, Upadhyay, A.K..  2019.  Need of Private and Public Sector Information Security. 2019 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing, Data Science Engineering (Confluence). :168—173.

In this research paper author surveys the need of data protection from intelligent systems in the private and public sectors. For this, she identifies that the Smart Information Security Intel processes needs to be the suggestive key policy for both sectors of governance either public or private. The information is very sensitive for any organization. When the government offices are concerned, information needs to be abstracted and encapsulated so that there is no information stealing. For this purposes, the art of skill set and new optimized technology needs to be stationed. Author identifies that digital bar-coded air port like security using conveyor belts and digital bar-coded conveyor boxes to scan switched ON articles like internet of things needs to be placed. As otherwise, there can potentially be data, articles or information stealing from the operational sites where access is unauthorized. Such activities shall need to be scrutinized, minutely. The biometric such as fingerprints, iris, voice and face recognition pattern updates in the virtual data tables must be taken to keep data entry-exit log up to-date. The information technicians of the sentinel systems must help catch the anomalies in the professional working time in private and public sectors if there is red flag as indicator. The author in this research paper shall discuss in detail what we shall station, how we shall station and what all measures we might need to undertake to safeguard the stealing of sensitive information from the organizations like administration buildings, government buildings, educational schools, hospitals, courts, private buildings, banks and all other offices nation-wide. The TO-BE new processes shall make the AS-IS office system more information secured, data protected and personnel security stronger.

Sivaram, M., Ahamed A, Mohamed Uvaze, Yuvaraj, D., Megala, G., Porkodi, V., Kandasamy, Manivel.  2019.  Biometric Security and Performance Metrics: FAR, FER, CER, FRR. 2019 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Knowledge Economy (ICCIKE). :770–772.
Biometrics manages the computerized acknowledgment of people dependent on natural and social attributes. The example acknowledgment framework perceives an individual by deciding the credibility of a particular conduct normal for person. The primary rule of biometric framework is recognizable proof and check. A biometric confirmation framework use fingerprints, face, hand geometry, iris, and voice, mark, and keystroke elements of a person to recognize an individual or to check a guaranteed character. Biometrics authentication is a form of identification and access control process which identify individuals in packs that are under reconnaissance. Biometric security system increase in the overall security and individuals no longer have to deal with lost ID Cards or forgotten passwords. It helps much organization to see everyone is at a certain time when something might have happened that needs reviewed. The current issues in biometric system with individuals and many organization facing are personal privacy, expensive, data's may be stolen.
Mohd Ariffin, Noor Afiza, Mohd Sani, Noor Fazlida.  2018.  A Multi-factor Biometric Authentication Scheme Using Attack Recognition and Key Generator Technique for Security Vulnerabilities to Withstand Attacks. 2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security (AINS). :43–48.
Security plays an important role in many authentication applications. Modern era information sharing is boundless and becoming much easier to access with the introduction of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Although this can be considered as a good point, issues such as privacy and data integrity arise due to the lack of control and authority. For this reason, the concept of data security was introduced. Data security can be categorized into two which are secrecy and authentication. In particular, this research was focused on the authentication of data security. There have been substantial research which discusses on multi-factor authentication scheme but most of those research do not entirely protect data against all types of attacks. Most current research only focuses on improving the security part of authentication while neglecting other important parts such as the accuracy and efficiency of the system. Current multifactor authentication schemes were simply not designed to have security, accuracy, and efficiency as their main focus. To overcome the above issue, this research will propose a new multi-factor authentication scheme which is capable to withstand external attacks which are known security vulnerabilities and attacks which are based on user behavior. On the other hand, the proposed scheme still needs to maintain an optimum level of accuracy and efficiency. From the result of the experiments, the proposed scheme was proven to be able to withstand the attacks. This is due to the implementation of the attack recognition and key generator technique together with the use of multi-factor in the proposed scheme.
Saleh, Z., Mashhour, A..  2018.  Using Keystroke Authentication Typing Errors Pattern as Non-Repudiation in Computing Forensics. 2018 International Conference on Innovation and Intelligence for Informatics, Computing, and Technologies (3ICT). :1–6.
Access to information and data is becoming an essential part of nearly every aspect of modern business operation. Unfortunately, accessing information systems comes with increased chances of intrusion and unauthorized access. Acquiring and maintaining evidence from a computer or networks in the current high-tech world is essential in any comprehensive forensic investigation. Software and hardware tools are used to easily manage the evidence and view all relevant files. In an effort to enhance computer access security, keystroke authentication, is one of the biometric solutions that were proposed as a solution for enhancing users' identification. This research proposes using user's keystroke errors to determine guilt during forensics investigations, where it was found that individuals keystroke patters are repeatable and variant from those of others, and that keystroke patterns are impossible to steal or imitate. So, in this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of relying on ``user's mistakes'' as another behavioral biometric keystroke dynamic.
Mohammedi, M., Omar, M., Aitabdelmalek, W., Mansouri, A., Bouabdallah, A..  2018.  Secure and Lightweight Biometric-Based Remote Patient Authentication Scheme for Home Healthcare Systems. 2018 International Symposium on Programming and Systems (ISPS). :1-6.

Recently, the home healthcare system has emerged as one of the most useful technology for e-healthcare. Contrary to classical recording methods of patient's medical data, which are, based on paper documents, nowadays all this sensitive data can be managed and forwarded through digital systems. These make possible for both patients and healthcare workers to access medical data or receive remote medical treatment using wireless interfaces whenever and wherever. However, simplifying access to these sensitive and private data can directly put patient's health and life in danger. In this paper, we propose a secure and lightweight biometric-based remote patient authentication scheme using elliptic curve encryption through which two mobile healthcare system communication parties could authenticate each other in public mobile healthcare environments. The security and performance analysis demonstrate that our proposal achieves better security than other concurrent schemes, with lower storage, communication and computation costs.

Alzahrani, A. A. K., Alfosail, M. K., Aldossary, M. M., Almuhaidib, M. M., Alqahtani, S. T., Saqib, N. A., Alissa, K. A., Almubairik, N. A..  2018.  Secure Sign: Signing Document Online. 2018 21st Saudi Computer Society National Computer Conference (NCC). :1–3.
The use of technology is increasing nowadays. On the other hand, most governments and legal offices still do not use technology to implement simple things such as signing a document because they still rely on face-to-face to ensure the authenticity of the signatory. Several challenges may come while signing documents online such as, how to authenticate the signing parties and how to ensure that signing parties will not deny their signatures in future? These challenges are addressed by SecureSign system that attach the signatories' identity with their fingerprints. SecureSign was implemented in C\# and Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio, with integrating fingerprint reader and electronic signature tablet. The SecureSign system achieves the main security goals which are confidentiality, authentication, non-repudiation and integrity. It will have an impact on society and business environments positively as it will reduce fraud and forgery, and help in controlling the process of signing either in contracts or confidential papers. SecureSign have Successfully achieved confidentiality by encrypting data using AES algorithm, authentication by using user fingerprint, nonrepudiation by associating the user ID with his fingerprint, and integrity by embedding QR barcode within the document and hashing its content.
Yin, Delina Beh Mei, Omar, Shariman, Talip, Bazilah A., Muklas, Amalia, Norain, Nur Afiqah Mohd, Othman, Abu Talib.  2017.  Fusion of Face Recognition and Facial Expression Detection for Authentication: A Proposed Model. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication. :21:1–21:8.

The paper presents a novel model of hybrid biometric-based authentication. Currently, the recognition accuracy of a single biometric verification system is often much reduced due to many factors such as the environment, user mode and physiological defects of an individual. Apparently, the enrolment of static biometric is highly vulnerable to impersonation attack. Due to the fact of single biometric authentication only offers one factor of verification, we proposed to hybrid two biometric attributes that consist of physiological and behavioural trait. In this study, we utilise the static and dynamic features of a human face. In order to extract the important features from a face, the primary steps taken are image pre-processing and face detection. Apparently, to distinguish between a genuine user or an imposter, the first authentication is to verify the user's identity through face recognition. Solely depending on a single modal biometric is possible to lead to false acceptance when two or more similar face features may result in a relatively high match score. However, it is found the False Acceptance Rate is 0.55% whereas the False Rejection Rate is 7%. By reason of the security discrepancies in the mentioned condition, therefore we proposed a fusion method whereby a genuine user will select a facial expression from the seven universal expression (i.e. happy, sad, anger, disgust, surprise, fear and neutral) as enrolled earlier in the database. For the proof of concept, it is proven in our results that even there are two or more users coincidently have the same face features, the selected facial expression will act as a password to be prominently distinguished a genuine or impostor user.

Prakash, Y. W., Biradar, V., Vincent, S., Martin, M., Jadhav, A..  2017.  Smart bluetooth low energy security system. 2017 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking (WiSPNET). :2141–2146.

The need for security in today's world has become a mandatory issue to look after. With the increase in a number of thefts, it has become a necessity to implement a smart security system. Due to the high cost of the existing smart security systems which use conventional Bluetooth and other wireless technologies and their relatively high energy consumption, implementing a security system with low energy consumption at a low cost has become the need of the hour. The objective of the paper is to build a cost effective and low energy consumption security system using the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology. This system will help the user to monitor and manage the security of the house even when the user is outside the house with the help of webpage. This paper presents the design and implementation of a security system using PSoC 4 BLE which can automatically lock and unlock the door when the user in the vicinity and leaving the vicinity of the door respectively by establishing a wireless connection between the physical lock and the smartphone. The system also captures an image of a person arriving at the house and transmits it wirelessly to a webpage. The system also notifies the user of any intrusion by sending a message and the image of the intruder to the webpage. The user can also access the door remotely on the go from the website.

Khalaf, Emad Taha, Mohammed, Muamer N., Sulaiman, Norrozila.  2016.  Iris Template Protection Based on Enhanced Hill Cipher. Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Communication and Information Systems. :53–57.

Biometric is uses to identify authorized person based on specific physiological or behavioral features. Template protection is a crucial requirement when designing an authentication system, where the template could be modified by attacker. Hill Cipher is a block cipher and symmetric key algorithm it has several advantages such as simplicity, high speed and high throughput can be used to protect Biometric Template. Unfortunately, Hill Cipher has some disadvantages such as takes smaller sizes of blocks, very simple and vulnerable for exhaustive key search attack and known plain text attack, also the key matrix which entered should be invertible. This paper proposed an enhancement to overcome these drawbacks of Hill Cipher by using a large and random key with large data block, beside overcome the Invertible-key Matrix problem. The efficiency of encryption has been checked out by Normalized Correlation Coefficient (NCC) and running time.

Alotaibi, S., Furnell, S., Clarke, N..  2015.  Transparent authentication systems for mobile device security: A review. 2015 10th International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST). :406–413.

Sensitive data such as text messages, contact lists, and personal information are stored on mobile devices. This makes authentication of paramount importance. More security is needed on mobile devices since, after point-of-entry authentication, the user can perform almost all tasks without having to re-authenticate. For this reason, many authentication methods have been suggested to improve the security of mobile devices in a transparent and continuous manner, providing a basis for convenient and secure user re-authentication. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and literature review on transparent authentication systems for mobile device security. This review indicates a need to investigate when to authenticate the mobile user by focusing on the sensitivity level of the application, and understanding whether a certain application may require a protection or not.

Raut, R.D., Kulkarni, S., Gharat, N.N..  2014.  Biometric Authentication Using Kekre's Wavelet Transform. Electronic Systems, Signal Processing and Computing Technologies (ICESC), 2014 International Conference on. :99-104.

This paper proposes an enhanced method for personal authentication based on finger Knuckle Print using Kekre's wavelet transform (KWT). Finger-knuckle-print (FKP) is the inherent skin patterns of the outer surface around the phalangeal joint of one's finger. It is highly discriminable and unique which makes it an emerging promising biometric identifier. Kekre's wavelet transform is constructed from Kekre's transform. The proposed system is evaluated on prepared FKP database that involves all categories of FKP. The total database of 500 samples of FKP. This paper focuses the different image enhancement techniques for the pre-processing of the captured images. The proposed algorithm is examined on 350 training and 150 testing samples of database and shows that the quality of database and pre-processing techniques plays important role to recognize the individual. The experimental result calculate the performance parameters like false acceptance rate (FAR), false rejection rate (FRR), True Acceptance rate (TAR), True rejection rate (TRR). The tested result demonstrated the improvement in EER (Error Equal Rate) which is very much important for authentication. The experimental result using Kekre's algorithm along with image enhancement shows that the finger knuckle recognition rate is better than the conventional method.