Biblio

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2004
Prabhakaran, Manoj, Sahai, Amit.  2004.  New Notions of Security: Achieving Universal Composability Without Trusted Setup. Proceedings of the Thirty-sixth Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing. :242–251.

We propose a modification to the framework of Universally Composable (UC) security [3]. Our new notion involves comparing the real protocol execution with an ideal execution involving ideal functionalities (just as in UC-security), but allowing the environment and adversary access to some super-polynomial computational power. We argue the meaningfulness of the new notion, which in particular subsumes many of the traditional notions of security. We generalize the Universal Composition theorem of [3] to the new setting. Then under new computational assumptions, we realize secure multi-party computation (for static adversaries) without a common reference string or any other set-up assumptions, in the new framework. This is known to be impossible under the UC framework.

2005
Katz, Jonathan, Shin, Ji Sun.  2005.  Modeling Insider Attacks on Group Key-exchange Protocols. Proceedings of the 12th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :180–189.

Protocols for authenticated key exchange (AKE) allow parties within an insecure network to establish a common session key which can then be used to secure their future communication. It is fair to say that group AKE is currently less well understood than the case of two-party AKE; in particular, attacks by malicious insiders –- a concern specific to the group setting –- have so far been considered only in a relatively "ad-hoc" fashion. The main contribution of this work is to address this deficiency by providing a formal, comprehensive model and definition of security for group AKE which automatically encompasses insider attacks. We do so by defining an appropriate ideal functionality for group AKE within the universal composability (UC) framework. As a side benefit, any protocol secure with respect to our definition is secure even when run concurrently with other protocols, and the key generated by any such protocol may be used securely in any subsequent application.In addition to proposing this definition, we show that the resulting notion of security is strictly stronger than the one proposed by Bresson, et al. (termed "AKE-security"), and that our definition implies all previously-suggested notions of security against insider attacks. We also show a simple technique for converting any AKE-secure protocol into one secure with respect to our definition.

2006
Sekine, Junko, Campos-Náñnez, Enrique, Harrald, John R., Abeledo, Hernán.  2006.  A Simulation-Based Approach to Trade-off Analysis of Port Security. Proceedings of the 38th Conference on Winter Simulation. :521–528.

Motivated by the September 11 attacks, we are addressing the problem of policy analysis of supply-chain security. Considering the potential economic and operational impacts of inspection together with the inherent difficulty of assigning a reasonable cost to an inspection failure call for a policy analysis methodology in which stakeholders can understand the trade-offs between the diverse and potentially conflicting objectives. To obtain this information, we used a simulation-based methodology to characterize the set of Pareto optimal solutions with respect to the multiple objectives represented in the decision problem. Our methodology relies on simulation and the response surface method (RSM) to model the relationships between inspection policies and relevant stakeholder objectives in order to construct a set of Pareto optimal solutions. The approach is illustrated with an application to a real-world supply chain.

2007
Yoneyama, Kazuki, Ohta, Kazuo.  2007.  Ring Signatures: Universally Composable Definitions and Constructions. Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM Symposium on Information, Computer and Communications Security. :374–376.

Though anonymity of ring signature schemes has been studied in many literatures for a long time, these papers showed different definitions and there is no consensus. Recently, Bender et al. proposed two new anonymity definitions of ring signature which is stronger than the traditional definition, that are called anonymity against attribution attacks/full key exposure. Also, ring signature schemes have two levels of unforgeability definitions, i.e., existential un-forgeability (eUF) and strong existential unforgeability (sUF). In this paper, we will redefine anonymity and unforgeability definitions from the standpoint of universally composable (UC) security framework. First, we will formulate new ideal functionalities of ring signature schemes for each security levels separately. Next, we will show relations between cryptographic security definitions and our UC definitions. Finally, we will give another proof of the Bender et al.'s ring signature scheme following the UC secure definition by constructing a simulator to an adversary of sUF, which can be adaptable to the case of sUF under the assumption of a standard single sUF signature scheme.

2009
Ingols, Kyle, Chu, Matthew, Lippmann, Richard, Webster, Seth, Boyer, Stephen.  2009.  Modeling Modern Network Attacks and Countermeasures Using Attack Graphs. 2009 Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :117–126.
By accurately measuring risk for enterprise networks, attack graphs allow network defenders to understand the most critical threats and select the most effective countermeasures. This paper describes substantial enhancements to the NetSPA attack graph system required to model additional present-day threats (zero-day exploits and client-side attacks) and countermeasures (intrusion prevention systems, proxy firewalls, personal firewalls, and host-based vulnerability scans). Point-to-point reachability algorithms and structures were extensively redesigned to support "reverse" reachability computations and personal firewalls. Host-based vulnerability scans are imported and analyzed. Analysis of an operational network with 84 hosts demonstrates that client-side attacks pose a serious threat. Experiments on larger simulated networks demonstrated that NetSPA's previous excellent scaling is maintained. Less than two minutes are required to completely analyze a four-enclave simulated network with more than 40,000 hosts protected by personal firewalls.
2011
Cortier, Veronique, Warinschi, Bogdan.  2011.  A Composable Computational Soundness Notion. Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :63–74.

Computational soundness results show that under certain conditions it is possible to conclude computational security whenever symbolic security holds. Unfortunately, each soundness result is usually established for some set of cryptographic primitives and extending the result to encompass new primitives typically requires redoing most of the work. In this paper we suggest a way of getting around this problem. We propose a notion of computational soundness that we term deduction soundness. As for other soundness notions, our definition captures the idea that a computational adversary does not have any more power than a symbolic adversary. However, a key aspect of deduction soundness is that it considers, intrinsically, the use of the primitives in the presence of functions specified by the adversary. As a consequence, the resulting notion is amenable to modular extensions. We prove that a deduction sound implementation of some arbitrary primitives can be extended to include asymmetric encryption and public data-structures (e.g. pairings or list), without repeating the original proof effort. Furthermore, our notion of soundness concerns cryptographic primitives in a way that is independent of any protocol specification language. Nonetheless, we show that deduction soundness leads to computational soundness for languages (or protocols) that satisfy a so called commutation property.

Burmester, Mike, Munilla, Jorge.  2011.  Lightweight RFID Authentication with Forward and Backward Security. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur.. 14:11:1–11:26.

We propose a lightweight RFID authentication protocol that supports forward and backward security. The only cryptographic mechanism that this protocol uses is a pseudorandom number generator (PRNG) that is shared with the backend Server. Authentication is achieved by exchanging a few numbers (3 or 5) drawn from the PRNG. The lookup time is constant, and the protocol can be easily adapted to prevent online man-in-the-middle relay attacks. Security is proven in the UC security framework.

Fhom, Hervais Simo, Bayarou, Kpatcha M..  2011.  Towards a Holistic Privacy Engineering Approach for Smart Grid Systems. 2011IEEE 10th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications. :234–241.

Protecting energy consumers's data and privacy is a key factor for the further adoption and diffusion of smart grid technologies and applications. However, current smart grid initiatives and implementations around the globe tend to either focus on the need for technical security to the detriment of privacy or consider privacy as a feature to add after system design. This paper aims to contribute towards filling the gap between this fact and the accepted wisdom that privacy concerns should be addressed as early as possible (preferably when modeling system's requirements). We present a methodological framework for tackling privacy concerns throughout all phases of the smart grid system development process. We describe methods and guiding principles to help smart grid engineers to elicit and analyze privacy threats and requirements from the outset of the system development, and derive the best suitable countermeasures, i.e. privacy enhancing technologies (PETs), accordingly. The paper also provides a summary of modern PETs, and discusses their context of use and contributions with respect to the underlying privacy engineering challenges and the smart grid setting being considered.

2012
Salehie, Mazeiar, Pasquale, Liliana, Omoronyia, Inah, Nuseibeh, Bashar.  2012.  Adaptive Security and Privacy in Smart Grids: A Software Engineering Vision. 2012 First International Workshop on Software Engineering Challenges for the Smart Grid (SE-SmartGrids). :46–49.

Despite the benefits offered by smart grids, energy producers, distributors and consumers are increasingly concerned about possible security and privacy threats. These threats typically manifest themselves at runtime as new usage scenarios arise and vulnerabilities are discovered. Adaptive security and privacy promise to address these threats by increasing awareness and automating prevention, detection and recovery from security and privacy requirements' failures at runtime by re-configuring system controls and perhaps even changing requirements. This paper discusses the need for adaptive security and privacy in smart grids by presenting some motivating scenarios. We then outline some research issues that arise in engineering adaptive security. We particularly scrutinize published reports by NIST on smart grid security and privacy as the basis for our discussions.

Farquharson, J., Wang, A., Howard, J..  2012.  Smart Grid Cyber Security and Substation Network Security. 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT). :1–5.

A successful Smart Grid system requires purpose-built security architecture which is explicitly designed to protect customer data confidentiality. In addition to the investment on electric power infrastructure for protecting the privacy of Smart Grid-related data, entities need to actively participate in the NIST interoperability framework process; establish policies and oversight structure for the enforcement of cyber security controls of the data through adoption of security best practices, personnel training, cyber vulnerability assessments, and consumer privacy audits.

2013
Musca, Constantin, Mirica, Emma, Deaconescu, Razvan.  2013.  Detecting and Analyzing Zero-Day Attacks Using Honeypots. 2013 19th International Conference on Control Systems and Computer Science. :543–548.
Computer networks are overwhelmed by self propagating malware (worms, viruses, trojans). Although the number of security vulnerabilities grows every day, not the same thing can be said about the number of defense methods. But the most delicate problem in the information security domain remains detecting unknown attacks known as zero-day attacks. This paper presents methods for isolating the malicious traffic by using a honeypot system and analyzing it in order to automatically generate attack signatures for the Snort intrusion detection/prevention system. The honeypot is deployed as a virtual machine and its job is to log as much information as it can about the attacks. Then, using a protected machine, the logs are collected remotely, through a safe connection, for analysis. The challenge is to mitigate the risk we are exposed to and at the same time search for unknown attacks.
Ivars, Eugene, Armands, Vadim.  2013.  Alias-free compressed signal digitizing and recording on the basis of Event Timer. 2013 21st Telecommunications Forum Telfor (℡FOR). :443–446.

Specifics of an alias-free digitizer application for compressed digitizing and recording of wideband signals are considered. Signal sampling in this case is performed on the basis of picosecond resolution event timing, the digitizer actually is a subsystem of Event Timer A033-ET and specific events that are detected and then timed are the signal and reference sine-wave crossings. The used approach to development of this subsystem is described and some results of experimental studies are given.

Dietrich, Christian J., Rossow, Christian, Pohlmann, Norbert.  2013.  Exploiting Visual Appearance to Cluster and Detect Rogue Software. Proceedings of the 28th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. :1776–1783.

Rogue software, such as Fake A/V and ransomware, trick users into paying without giving return. We show that using a perceptual hash function and hierarchical clustering, more than 213,671 screenshots of executed malware samples can be grouped into subsets of structurally similar images, reflecting image clusters of one malware family or campaign. Based on the clustering results, we show that ransomware campaigns favor prepay payment methods such as ukash, paysafecard and moneypak, while Fake A/V campaigns use credit cards for payment. Furthermore, especially given the low A/V detection rates of current rogue software – sometimes even as low as 11% – our screenshot analysis approach could serve as a complementary last line of defense.

Niu, Yukun, Tan, Xiaobin, Zhou, Zifei, Zheng, Jiangyu, Zhu, Jin.  2013.  Privacy Protection Scheme in Smart Grid Using Rechargeable Battery. Proceedings of the 32nd Chinese Control Conference. :8825–8830.

It can get the user's privacy and home energy use information by analyzing the user's electrical load information in smart grid, and this is an area of concern. A rechargeable battery may be used in the home network to protect user's privacy. In this paper, the battery can neither charge nor discharge, and the power of battery is adjustable, at the same time, we model the real user's electrical load information and the battery power information and the recorded electrical power of smart meters which are processed with discrete way. Then we put forward a heuristic algorithm which can make the rate of information leakage less than existing solutions. We use statistical methods to protect user's privacy, the theoretical analysis and the examples show that our solution makes the scene design more reasonable and is more effective than existing solutions to avoid the leakage of the privacy.

Neureiter, Christian, Eibl, Günther, Veichtlbauer, Armin, Engel, Dominik.  2013.  Towards a Framework for Engineering Smart-Grid-Specific Privacy Requirements. IECON 2013 - 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :4803–4808.

Privacy has become a critical topic in the engineering of electric systems. This work proposes an approach for smart-grid-specific privacy requirements engineering by extending previous general privacy requirements engineering frameworks. The proposed extension goes one step further by focusing on privacy in the smart grid. An alignment of smart grid privacy requirements, dependability issues and privacy requirements engineering methods is presented. Starting from this alignment a Threat Tree Analysis is performed to obtain a first set of generic, high level privacy requirements. This set is formulated mostly on the data instead of the information level and provides the basis for further project-specific refinement.

2014
Kästner, Christian, Pfeffer, Jürgen.  2014.  Limiting Recertification in Highly Configurable Systems: Analyzing Interactions and Isolation Among Configuration Options. Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security. :23:1–23:2.

In highly configurable systems the configuration space is too big for (re-)certifying every configuration in isolation. In this project, we combine software analysis with network analysis to detect which configuration options interact and which have local effects. Instead of analyzing a system as Linux and SELinux for every combination of configuration settings one by one (>102000 even considering compile-time configurations only), we analyze the effect of each configuration option once for the entire configuration space. The analysis will guide us to designs separating interacting configuration options in a core system and isolating orthogonal and less trusted configuration options from this core.

Christian Kästner, Jurgen Pfeffer.  2014.  Analyzing Interactions and Isolation among Configuration Options. HotSoS '14 Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security.

In highly configurable systems the configuration space is too big for (re-)certifying every configuration in isolation. In this project, we combine software analysis with network analysis to detect which configuration options interact and which have local effects. Instead of analyzing a system as Linux and SELinux for every combination of configuration settings one by one (>102000 even considering compile-time configurations only), we analyze the effect of each configuration option once for the entire configuration space. The analysis will guide us to designs separating interacting configuration options in a core system and isolating orthogonal and less trusted configuration options from this core. 

Christian Kästner, Jurgen Pfeffer.  2014.  Limiting Recertification in Highly Configurable Systems Analyzing Interactions and Isolation among Configuration Options. HotSoS '14 Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security.

In highly configurable systems the configuration space is too big for (re-)certifying every configuration in isolation. In this project, we combine software analysis with network analysis to detect which configuration options interact and which have local effects. Instead of analyzing a system as Linux and SELinux for every combination of configuration settings one by one (>102000 even considering compile-time configurations only), we analyze the effect of each configuration option once for the entire configuration space. The analysis will guide us to designs separating interacting configuration options in a core system and isolating orthogonal and less trusted configuration options from this core. 

Kaestner, Christian, Pfeffer, Juergen.  2014.  Limiting Recertification in Highly Configurable Systems: Analyzing Interactions and Isolation among Configuration Options. HotSoS '14 Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security.

In highly configurable systems the configuration space is too big for (re-)certifying every configuration in isolation. In this project, we combine software analysis with network analysis to detect which configuration options interact and which have local effects. Instead of analyzing a system as Linux and SELinux for every combination of configuration settings one by one (>102000 even considering compile-time configurations only), we analyze the effect of each configuration option once for the entire configuration space. The analysis will guide us to designs separating interacting configuration options in a core system and isolating orthogonal and less trusted configuration options from this core.

2015
Clark, Shane S., Paulos, Aaron, Benyo, Brett, Pal, Partha, Schantz, Richard.  2015.  Empirical Evaluation of the A3 Environment: Evaluating Defenses Against Zero-Day Attacks. 2015 10th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :80–89.
A3 is an execution management environment that aims to make network-facing applications and services resilient against zero-day attacks. A3 recently underwent two adversarial evaluations of its defensive capabilities. In one, A3 defended an App Store used in a Capture the Flag (CTF) tournament, and in the other, a tactically relevant network service in a red team exercise. This paper describes the A3 defensive technologies evaluated, the evaluation results, and the broader lessons learned about evaluations for technologies that seek to protect critical systems from zero-day attacks.
Heckman, M. R., Schell, R. R., Reed, E. E..  2015.  A Multi-Level Secure File Sharing Server and Its Application to a Multi-Level Secure Cloud. MILCOM 2015 - 2015 IEEE Military Communications Conference. :1224–1229.
Contemporary cloud environments are built on low-assurance components, so they cannot provide a high level of assurance about the isolation and protection of information. A ``multi-level'' secure cloud environment thus typically consists of multiple, isolated clouds, each of which handles data of only one security level. Not only are such environments duplicative and costly, data ``sharing'' must be implemented by massive, wasteful copying of data from low-level domains to high-level domains. The requirements for certifiable, scalable, multi-level cloud security are threefold: 1) To have trusted, high-assurance components available for use in creating a multi-level secure cloud environment; 2) To design a cloud architecture that efficiently uses the high-assurance components in a scalable way, and 3) To compose the secure components within the scalable architecture while still verifiably maintaining the system security properties. This paper introduces a trusted, high-assurance file server and architecture that satisfies all three requirements. The file server is built on mature technology that was previously certified and deployed across domains from TS/SCI to Unclassified and that supports high-performance, low-to-high and high-to-low file sharing with verifiable security.
Omar, Cyrus, Wang, Chenglong, Aldrich, Jonathan.  2015.  Composable and Hygienic Typed Syntax Macros. Proceedings of the 30th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. :1986–1991.

Syntax extension mechanisms are powerful, but reasoning about syntax extensions can be difficult. Recent work on type-specific languages (TSLs) addressed reasoning about composition, hygiene and typing for extensions introducing new literal forms. We supplement TSLs with typed syntax macros (TSMs), which, unlike TSLs, are explicitly invoked to give meaning to delimited segments of arbitrary syntax. To maintain a typing discipline, we describe two avors of term-level TSMs: synthetic TSMs specify the type of term that they generate, while analytic TSMs can generate terms of arbitrary type, but can only be used in positions where the type is otherwise known. At the level of types, we describe a third avor of TSM that generates a type of a specified kind along with its TSL and show interesting use cases where the two mechanisms operate in concert.

Knirsch, Fabian, Engel, Dominik, Frincu, Marc, Prasanna, Viktor.  2015.  Model-Based Assessment for Balancing Privacy Requirements and Operational Capabilities in the Smart Grid. 2015 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.

The smart grid changes the way energy is produced and distributed. In addition both, energy and information is exchanged bidirectionally among participating parties. Therefore heterogeneous systems have to cooperate effectively in order to achieve a common high-level use case, such as smart metering for billing or demand response for load curtailment. Furthermore, a substantial amount of personal data is often needed for achieving that goal. Capturing and processing personal data in the smart grid increases customer concerns about privacy and in addition, certain statutory and operational requirements regarding privacy aware data processing and storage have to be met. An increase of privacy constraints, however, often limits the operational capabilities of the system. In this paper, we present an approach that automates the process of finding an optimal balance between privacy requirements and operational requirements in a smart grid use case and application scenario. This is achieved by formally describing use cases in an abstract model and by finding an algorithm that determines the optimum balance by forward mapping privacy and operational impacts. For this optimal balancing algorithm both, a numeric approximation and - if feasible - an analytic assessment are presented and investigated. The system is evaluated by applying the tool to a real-world use case from the University of Southern California (USC) microgrid.

Das, Subhasis, Aamodt, Tor M., Dally, William J..  2015.  Reuse Distance-Based Probabilistic Cache Replacement. ACM Trans. Archit. Code Optim.. 12:33:1–33:22.

This article proposes Probabilistic Replacement Policy (PRP), a novel replacement policy that evicts the line with minimum estimated hit probability under optimal replacement instead of the line with maximum expected reuse distance. The latter is optimal under the independent reference model of programs, which does not hold for last-level caches (LLC). PRP requires 7% and 2% metadata overheads in the cache and DRAM respectively. Using a sampling scheme makes DRAM overhead negligible, with minimal performance impact. Including detailed overhead modeling and equal cache areas, PRP outperforms SHiP, a state-of-the-art LLC replacement algorithm, by 4% for memory-intensive SPEC-CPU2006 benchmarks.

Xie, Yuanpeng, Jiang, Yixin, Liao, Runfa, Wen, Hong, Meng, Jiaxiao, Guo, Xiaobin, Xu, Aidong, Guan, Zewu.  2015.  User Privacy Protection for Cloud Computing Based Smart Grid. 2015 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China - Workshops (CIC/ICCC). :7–11.

The smart grid aims to improve the efficiency, reliability and safety of the electric system via modern communication system, it's necessary to utilize cloud computing to process and store the data. In fact, it's a promising paradigm to integrate smart grid into cloud computing. However, access to cloud computing system also brings data security issues. This paper focuses on the protection of user privacy in smart meter system based on data combination privacy and trusted third party. The paper demonstrates the security issues for smart grid communication system and cloud computing respectively, and illustrates the security issues for the integration. And we introduce data chunk storage and chunk relationship confusion to protect user privacy. We also propose a chunk information list system for inserting and searching data.