Biblio

Found 833 results

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2021-05-25
Fang, Ying, Gu, Tianlong, Chang, Liang, Li, Long.  2020.  Algebraic Decision Diagram-Based CP-ABE with Constant Secret and Fast Decryption. 2020 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC). :98–106.
Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) is applied to many data service platforms to provides secure and fine-grained access control. In this paper, a new CP-ABE system based on the algebraic decision diagram (ADD) is presented. The new system makes full use of both the powerful description ability and the high calculating efficiency of ADD to improves the performance and efficiency of algorithms contained in CP-ABE. First, the new system supports both positive and negative attributes in the description of access polices. Second, the size of the secret key is constant and is not affected by the number of attributes. Third, time complexity of the key generation and decryption algorithms are O(1). Finally, this scheme allows visitors to have different access permissions to access shared data or file. At the same time, PV operation is introduced into CP-ABE framework for the first time to prevent resource conflicts caused by read and write operations on shared files. Compared with other schemes, the new scheme proposed in this paper performs better in function and efficiency.
2021-02-01
Behera, S., Prathuri, J. R..  2020.  Application of Homomorphic Encryption in Machine Learning. 2020 2nd PhD Colloquium on Ethically Driven Innovation and Technology for Society (PhD EDITS). :1–2.
The linear regression is a machine learning algorithm used for prediction. But if the input data is in plaintext form then there is a high probability that the sensitive information will get leaked. To overcome this, here we are proposing a method where the input data is encrypted using Homomorphic encryption. The machine learning algorithm can be used on this encrypted data for prediction while maintaining the privacy and secrecy of the sensitive data. The output from this model will be an encrypted result. This encrypted result will be decrypted using a Homomorphic decryption technique to get the plain text. To determine the accuracy of our result, we will compare it with the result obtained after applying the linear regression algorithm on the plain text.
2021-04-27
Niu, S., Chen, L., Liu, W..  2020.  Attribute-Based Keyword Search Encryption Scheme with Verifiable Ciphertext via Blockchains. 2020 IEEE 9th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). 9:849–853.
In order to realize the sharing of data by multiple users on the blockchain, this paper proposes an attribute-based searchable encryption with verifiable ciphertext scheme via blockchain. The scheme uses the public key algorithm to encrypt the keyword, the attribute-based encryption algorithm to encrypt the symmetric key, and the symmetric key to encrypt the file. The keyword index is stored on the blockchain, and the ciphertext of the symmetric key and file are stored on the cloud server. The scheme uses searchable encryption technology to achieve secure search on the blockchain, uses the immutability of the blockchain to ensure the security of the keyword ciphertext, uses verify algorithm guarantees the integrity of the data on the cloud. When the user's attributes need to be changed or the ciphertext access structure is changed, the scheme uses proxy re-encryption technology to implement the user's attribute revocation, and the authority center is responsible for the whole attribute revocation process. The security proof shows that the scheme can achieve ciphertext security, keyword security and anti-collusion. In addition, the numerical results show that the proposed scheme is effective.
Ti, Y., Wu, C., Yu, C., Kuo, S..  2020.  Benchmarking Dynamic Searchable Symmetric Encryption Scheme for Cloud-Internet of Things Applications. IEEE Access. 8:1715–1732.
Recently, the rapid development of Internet of things (IoT) has resulted in the generation of a considerable amount of data, which should be stored. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods that can easily capture, save, and modify these data. The data generated using IoT contain private information; therefore sufficient security features should be incorporated to ensure that potential attackers cannot access the data. Researchers from various fields are attempting to achieve data security. One of the major challenges is that IoT is a paradigm of how each device in the Internet infrastructure is interconnected to a globally dynamic network. When searching in dynamic cloud-stored data, sensitive data can be easily leaked. IoT data storage and retrieval from untrusted cloud servers should be secure. Searchable symmetric encryption (SSE) is a vital technology in the field of cloud storage. SSE allows users to use keywords to search for data in an untrusted cloud server but the keywords and the data content are concealed from the server. However, an SSE database is seldom used by cloud operators because the data stored on the cloud server is often modified. The server cannot update the data without decryption because the data are encrypted by the user. Therefore, dynamic SSE (DSSE) has been developed in recent years to support the aforementioned requirements. Instead of decrypting the data stored by customers, DSSE adds or deletes encrypted data on the server. A number of DSSE systems based on linked list structures or blind storage (a new primitive) have been proposed. From the perspective of functionality, extensibility, and efficiency, these DSSE systems each have their own advantages and drawbacks. The most crucial aspect of a system that is used in the cloud industry is the trade-off between performance and security. Therefore, we compared the efficiency and security of multiple DSSE systems and identified their shortcomings to develop an improved system.
Ferreira, B., Portela, B., Oliveira, T., Borges, G., Domingos, H. J., Leitao, J..  2020.  Boolean Searchable Symmetric Encryption with Filters on Trusted Hardware. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. :1–1.
The prevalence and availability of cloud infrastructures has made them the de facto solution for storing and archiving data, both for organizations and individual users. Nonetheless, the cloud's wide spread adoption is still hindered by dependability and security concerns, particularly in applications with large data collections where efficient search and retrieval services are also major requirements. This leads to an increased tension between security, efficiency, and search expressiveness. In this paper we tackle this tension by proposing BISEN, a new provably-secure boolean searchable symmetric encryption scheme that improves these three complementary dimensions by exploring the design space of isolation guarantees offered by novel commodity hardware such as Intel SGX, abstracted as Isolated Execution Environments (IEEs). BISEN is the first scheme to support multiple users and enable highly expressive and arbitrarily complex boolean queries, with minimal information leakage regarding performed queries and accessed data, and verifiability regarding fully malicious adversaries. Furthermore, BISEN extends the traditional SSE model to support filter functions on search results based on generic metadata created by the users. Experimental validation and comparison with the state of art shows that BISEN provides better performance with enriched search semantics and security properties.
2021-01-11
Wang, W.-C., Ho, C.-C., Chang, Y.-M., Chang, Y.-H..  2020.  Challenges and Designs for Secure Deletion in Storage Systems. 2020 Indo – Taiwan 2nd International Conference on Computing, Analytics and Networks (Indo-Taiwan ICAN). :181–189.
Data security has risen to be one of the most critical concerns of computer professionals. Tighter legal requirements now exist for the purpose of protecting user data from unauthorized uses and for both preserving and erasing/sanitizing data records to meet legal compliance requirements. To meet the data security requirement, many secure (data) deletion techniques have been proposed to deal with the data security concerns from different system layers. This paper surveys the state-of-the-art secure deletion techniques that have been designed to pursue higher efficiency, verifiability, and portability for emerging types of hard disk drives and flash-based solid-state drives. Meanwhile, the pros and cons of implementing secure deletion in different system layers are also discussed, so as to assist in pursuing better secure deletion designs for future storage systems.
2021-03-22
Kellogg, M., Schäf, M., Tasiran, S., Ernst, M. D..  2020.  Continuous Compliance. 2020 35th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE). :511–523.
Vendors who wish to provide software or services to large corporations and governments must often obtain numerous certificates of compliance. Each certificate asserts that the software satisfies a compliance regime, like SOC or the PCI DSS, to protect the privacy and security of sensitive data. The industry standard for obtaining a compliance certificate is an auditor manually auditing source code. This approach is expensive, error-prone, partial, and prone to regressions. We propose continuous compliance to guarantee that the codebase stays compliant on each code change using lightweight verification tools. Continuous compliance increases assurance and reduces costs. Continuous compliance is applicable to any source-code compliance requirement. To illustrate our approach, we built verification tools for five common audit controls related to data security: cryptographically unsafe algorithms must not be used, keys must be at least 256 bits long, credentials must not be hard-coded into program text, HTTPS must always be used instead of HTTP, and cloud data stores must not be world-readable. We evaluated our approach in three ways. (1) We applied our tools to over 5 million lines of open-source software. (2) We compared our tools to other publicly-available tools for detecting misuses of encryption on a previously-published benchmark, finding that only ours are suitable for continuous compliance. (3) We deployed a continuous compliance process at AWS, a large cloud-services company: we integrated verification tools into the compliance process (including auditors accepting their output as evidence) and ran them on over 68 million lines of code. Our tools and the data for the former two evaluations are publicly available.
2021-02-10
Mishra, P., Gupta, C..  2020.  Cookies in a Cross-site scripting: Type, Utilization, Detection, Protection and Remediation. 2020 8th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) (ICRITO). :1056—1059.
In accordance to the annual report by the Cisco 2018, web applications are exposed to several security vulnerabilities that are exploited by hackers in various ways. It is becoming more and more frequent, specific and sophisticated. Of all the vulnerabilities, more than 40% of attempts are performed via cross-site scripting (XSS). A number of methods have been postulated to examine such vulnerabilities. Therefore, this paper attempted to address an overview of one such vulnerability: the cookies in the XSS. The objective is to present an overview of the cookies, it's type, vulnerability, policies, discovering, protecting and their mitigation via different tools/methods and via cryptography, artificial intelligence techniques etc. While some future issues, directions, challenges and future research challenges were also being discussed.
2021-08-31
KARA, Ilker, AYDOS, Murat.  2020.  Cyber Fraud: Detection and Analysis of the Crypto-Ransomware. 2020 11th IEEE Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :0764–0769.
Currently as the widespread use of virtual monetary units (like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Litecoin) has begun, people with bad intentions have been attracted to this area and have produced and marketed ransomware in order to obtain virtual currency easily. This ransomware infiltrates the victim's system with smartly-designed methods and encrypts the files found in the system. After the encryption process, the attacker leaves a message demanding a ransom in virtual currency to open access to the encrypted files and warns that otherwise the files will not be accessible. This type of ransomware is becoming more popular over time, so currently it is the largest information technology security threat. In the literature, there are many studies about detection and analysis of this cyber-bullying. In this study, we focused on crypto-ransomware and investigated a forensic analysis of a current attack example in detail. In this example, the attack method and behavior of the crypto-ransomware were analyzed and it was identified that information belonging to the attacker was accessible. With this dimension, we think our study will significantly contribute to the struggle against this threat.
2021-02-15
Reshma, S., Shaila, K., Venugopal, K. R..  2020.  DEAVD - Data Encryption and Aggregation using Voronoi Diagram for Wireless Sensor Networks. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :635–638.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are applied in environmental monitoring, military surveillance, etc., whereas these applications focuses on providing security for sensed data and the nodes are available for a long time. Hence, we propose DEAVD protocol for secure data exchange with limited usage of energy. The DEAVD protocol compresses data to reduces the energy consumption and implements an energy efficient encryption and decryption technique using voronoi diagram paradigm. Thus, there is an improvement in the proposed protocol with respect to security due to the concept adapted during data encryption and aggregation.
2021-02-01
Sendhil, R., Amuthan, A..  2020.  A Descriptive Study on Homomorphic Encryption Schemes for Enhancing Security in Fog Computing. 2020 International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :738–743.
Nowadays, Fog Computing gets more attention due to its characteristics. Fog computing provides more advantages in related to apply with the latest technology. On the other hand, there is an issue about the data security over processing of data. Fog Computing encounters many security challenges like false data injection, violating privacy in edge devices and integrity of data, etc. An encryption scheme called Homomorphic Encryption (HME) technique is used to protect the data from the various security threats. This homomorphic encryption scheme allows doing manipulation over the encrypted data without decrypting it. This scheme can be implemented in many systems with various crypto-algorithms. This homomorphic encryption technique is mainly used to retain the privacy and to process the stored encrypted data on a remote server. This paper addresses the terminologies of Fog Computing, work flow and properties of the homomorphic encryption algorithm, followed by exploring the application of homomorphic encryption in various public key cryptosystems such as RSA and Pailier. It focuses on various homomorphic encryption schemes implemented by various researchers such as Brakerski-Gentry-Vaikuntanathan model, Improved Homomorphic Cryptosystem, Upgraded ElGamal based Algebric homomorphic encryption scheme, In-Direct rapid homomorphic encryption scheme which provides integrity of data.
2021-02-08
Pandey, A., Mahajan, D., Gupta, S., Rastogi, i.  2020.  Detection of Blind Signature Using Recursive Sum. 2020 6th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication (ICSC). :262–265.
Digital signatures are suitable technology for public key encryption. Acceptance (non-repudiation) of digital messages and data origin authentication are one of the main usage of digital signature. Digital signature's security mainly depends on the keys (public and private). These keys are used to generate and validate digital signatures. In digital signature signing process is performed using signer's secret key. However, any attacker can present a blinded version of message encrypted with signer's public key and can get the original message. Therefore, this paper proposed a novel method to identify blinded version of digital signature. The proposed method has been tested mathematically and found to be more efficient to detect blind signatures.
2021-01-18
Tsareva, P., Voronova, A., Vetrov, B., Ivanov, A..  2020.  Digital Dynamic Chaos-Based Encryption System in a Research Project of the Department of Marine Electronics. 2020 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :538–541.
The problems of synthesis of a digital data encryption system based on dynamic chaos in a research project carried out at the Department of Marine Electronics (SMTU) are considered. A description is made of the problems of generating a chaotic (random) signal in computer systems with calculations with finite accuracy.
2021-08-31
Bajpai, Pranshu, Enbody, Richard.  2020.  An Empirical Study of API Calls in Ransomware. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Electro Information Technology (EIT). :443–448.
Modern cryptographic ransomware pose a severe threat to the security of individuals and organizations. Targeted ransomware attacks exhibit refinement in attack vectors owing to the manual reconnaissance performed by the perpetrators for infiltration. The result is an impenetrable lock on multiple hosts within the organization which allows the cybercriminals to demand hefty ransoms. Reliance on prevention strategies is not sufficient and a firm comprehension of implementation details is necessary to develop effective solutions that can thwart ransomware after preventative strategies have failed. Ransomware depend heavily on the abstraction offered by Windows APIs. This paper provides a detailed review of the common API calls in ransomware. We propose four classes of API calls that can be used for profiling and generating effective API call relationships useful in automated detection. Finally, we present counts and visualizations pertaining to API call extraction from real-world ransomware that demonstrate that even advanced variants from different families carry similarities in implementation.
2021-03-29
Feng, G., Zhang, C., Si, Y., Lang, L..  2020.  An Encryption and Decryption Algorithm Based on Random Dynamic Hash and Bits Scrambling. 2020 International Conference on Communications, Information System and Computer Engineering (CISCE). :317–320.
This paper proposes a stream cipher algorithm. Its main principle is conducting the binary random dynamic hash with the help of key. At the same time of calculating the hash mapping address of plaintext, change the value of plaintext through bits scrambling, and then map it to the ciphertext space. This encryption method has strong randomness, and the design of hash functions and bits scrambling is flexible and diverse, which can constitute a set of encryption and decryption methods. After testing, the code evenness of the ciphertext obtained using this method is higher than that of the traditional method under some extreme conditions..
2021-08-31
AlSabeh, Ali, Safa, Haidar, Bou-Harb, Elias, Crichigno, Jorge.  2020.  Exploiting Ransomware Paranoia For Execution Prevention. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Ransomware attacks cost businesses more than \$75 billion/year, and it is predicted to cost \$6 trillion/year by 2021. These numbers demonstrate the havoc produced by ransomware on a large number of sectors and urge security researches to tackle it. Several ransomware detection approaches have been proposed in the literature that interchange between static and dynamic analysis. Recently, ransomware attacks were shown to fingerprint the execution environment before they attack the system to counter dynamic analysis. In this paper, we exploit the behavior of contemporary ransomware to prevent its attack on real systems and thus avoid the loss of any data. We explore a set of ransomware-generated artifacts that are launched to sniff the surrounding. Furthermore, we design, develop, and evaluate an approach that monitors the behavior of a program by intercepting the called Windows APIs. Consequently, we determine in real-time if the program is trying to inspect its surrounding before the attack, and abort it immediately prior to the initiation of any malicious encryption or locking. Through empirical evaluations using real and recent ransomware samples, we study how ransomware and benign programs inspect the environment. Additionally, we demonstrate how to prevent ransomware with a low false positive rate. We make the developed approach available to the research community at large through GitHub to strongly promote cyber security defense operations and for wide-scale evaluations and enhancements.
2021-02-08
Kumar, B. M., Sri, B. R. S., Katamaraju, G. M. S. A., Rani, P., Harinadh, N., Saibabu, C..  2020.  File Encryption and Decryption Using DNA Technology. 2020 2nd International Conference on Innovative Mechanisms for Industry Applications (ICIMIA). :382–385.
Cryptography is the method of transforming the original texted message into an unknown form and in reverse also. It is the process of hiding and forwarding the data in an appropriate form so that only authorized persons can know and can process it. Cryptographic process secures the data from hijacking or transmutation, it is mainly used for users data security. This paper justifies the encryption and decryption using DNA(Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid) sequence. This process includes several intermediate steps, the perception of binary-coded form and generating of arbitrary keys is used to encrypt the message. A common key should be established between the sender and receiver for encryption and decryption process. The common key provides more security to the sequence. In this paper, both the process of binary-coded form and generating of arbitrary keys are used to encrypt the message. It is widely used in an institution and by every individual to hide their data from the muggers and hijackers and provides the data securely, and confidentially over the transmission of information.
2021-04-27
Song, X., Dong, C., Yuan, D., Xu, Q., Zhao, M..  2020.  Forward Private Searchable Symmetric Encryption with Optimized I/O Efficiency. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. 17:912–927.
Recently, several practical attacks raised serious concerns over the security of searchable encryption. The attacks have brought emphasis on forward privacy, which is the key concept behind solutions to the adaptive leakage-exploiting attacks, and will very likely to become a must-have property of all new searchable encryption schemes. For a long time, forward privacy implies inefficiency and thus most existing searchable encryption schemes do not support it. Very recently, Bost (CCS 2016) showed that forward privacy can be obtained without inducing a large communication overhead. However, Bost's scheme is constructed with a relatively inefficient public key cryptographic primitive, and has poor I/O performance. Both of the deficiencies significantly hinder the practical efficiency of the scheme, and prevent it from scaling to large data settings. To address the problems, we first present FAST, which achieves forward privacy and the same communication efficiency as Bost's scheme, but uses only symmetric cryptographic primitives. We then present FASTIO, which retains all good properties of FAST, and further improves I/O efficiency. We implemented the two schemes and compared their performance with Bost's scheme. The experiment results show that both our schemes are highly efficient.
2021-05-25
Taha, Mohammad Bany, Chowdhury, Rasel.  2020.  GALB: Load Balancing Algorithm for CP-ABE Encryption Tasks in E-Health Environment. 2020 Fifth International Conference on Research in Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (ICRCICN). :165–170.
Security of personal data in the e-healthcare has always been challenging issue. The embedded and wearable devices used to collect these personal and critical data of the patients and users are sensitive in nature. Attribute-Based Encryption is believed to provide access control along with data security for distributed data among multiple parties. These resources limited devices do have the capabilities to secure the data while sending to the cloud but instead it increases the overhead and latency of running the encryption algorithm. On the top of if confidentiality is required, which will add more latency. In order to reduce latency and overhead, we propose a new load balancing algorithm that will distribute the data to nearby devices with available resources to encrypt the data and send it to the cloud. In this article, we are proposing a load balancing algorithm for E-Health system called (GALB). Our algorithm is based on Genetic Algorithm (GA). Our algorithm (GALB) distribute the tasks that received to the main gateway between the devices on E-health environment. The distribution strategy is based on the available resources in the devices, the distance between the gateway and the those devices, and the complexity of the task (size) and CP-ABE encryption policy length. In order to evaluate our algorithm performance, we compare the near optimal solution proposed by GALB with the optimal solution proposed by LP.
2021-04-08
Deng, L., Luo, J., Zhou, J., Wang, J..  2020.  Identity-based Secret Sharing Access Control Framework for Information-Centric Networking. 2020 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :507–511.
Information-centric networking (ICN) has played an increasingly important role in the next generation network design. However, to make better use of request-response communication mode in the ICN network, revoke user privileges more efficiently and protect user privacy more safely, an effective access control mechanism is needed. In this paper, we propose IBSS (identity-based secret sharing), which achieves efficient content distribution by using improved Shamir's secret sharing method. At the same time, collusion attacks are avoided by associating polynomials' degree with the number of users. When authenticating user identity and transmitting content, IBE and IBS are introduced to achieve more efficient and secure identity encryption. From the experimental results, the scheme only introduces an acceptable delay in file retrieval, and it can request follow-up content very efficiently.
2021-04-27
Uthayashangar, S., Abinaya, J., Harshini, V., Jayavardhani, R..  2020.  Image And Text Encrypted Data With Authorized Deduplication In Cloud. 2020 International Conference on System, Computation, Automation and Networking (ICSCAN). :1—5.
In this paper, the role re-encryption is used to avoid the privacy data lekage and also to avoid the deduplication in a secure role re-encryption system(SRRS). And also it checks for the proof of ownership for to identify whether the user is authorized user or not. This is for the efficiency. Role re-encrytion method is to share the access key for the corresponding authorized user for accessing the particular file without the leakage of privacy data. In our project we are using both the avoidance of text and digital images. For example we have the personal images in our mobile, handheld devices, and in the desktop etc., So, as these images have to keep secure and so we are using the encryption for to increase the high security. The text file also important for the users now-a-days. It has to keep secure in a cloud server. Digital images have to be protected over the communication, however generally personal identification details like copies of pan card, Passport, ATM, etc., to store on one's own pc. So, we are protecting the text file and image data for avoiding the duplication in our proposed system.
2021-03-22
Song, Z., Matsumura, R., Takahashi, Y., Nanjo, Y., Kusaka, T., Nogami, Y., Matsumoto, T..  2020.  An Implementation and Evaluation of a Pairing on Elliptic Curves with Embedding Degree 14. 2020 35th International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications (ITC-CSCC). :293–298.
As the computer architecture technology evolves, communication protocols have been demanded not only having reliable security but also flexible functionality. Advanced cryptography has been expected as a new generation cryptography which suffices such the requirements. A pairing is one of the key technologies of the cryptography and the pairing has been known as having a substantial amount of construction parameters. Recently, the elliptic curve with embedding degree 14 is evaluated as one of the efficient curves for pairing. In the paper, we implement an optimal ate pairing on the elliptic curve by applying several variants of multiplication algorithms of extension field of degree 7 on multiple devices. The best multiplication algorithm among the candidates is derived. Besides, for efficient calculations, we propose a pseudo 7-sparse algorithm and a fast calculation method of final exponentiation. As a result, we discover the proper multiplication algorithm bases on the rate of addition and multiplications on several different computer platforms. Our proposed pseudo 7-sparse algorithm is approximately 1.54% faster than a regular algorithm on almost all tested platforms. Eventually, for the total execution time of pairing we record 9.33ms on Corei5-9500.
2021-01-18
Santos, T. A., Magalhães, E. P., Basílio, N. P., Nepomuceno, E. G., Karimov, T. I., Butusov, D. N..  2020.  Improving Chaotic Image Encryption Using Maps with Small Lyapunov Exponents. 2020 Moscow Workshop on Electronic and Networking Technologies (MWENT). :1–4.
Chaos-based encryption is one of the promising cryptography techniques that can be used. Although chaos-based encryption provides excellent security, the finite precision of number representation in computers affects decryption accuracy negatively. In this paper, a way to mitigate some problems regarding finite precision is analyzed. We show that the use of maps with small Lyapunov exponents can improve the performance of chaotic encryption scheme, making it suitable for image encryption.
2021-02-08
Saleh, A. H., Yousif, A. S., Ahmed, F. Y. H..  2020.  Information Hiding for Text Files by Adopting the Genetic Algorithm and DNA Coding. 2020 IEEE 10th Symposium on Computer Applications Industrial Electronics (ISCAIE). :220–223.
Hiding information is a process to hide data or include it in different digital media such as image, audio, video, and text. However, there are many techniques to achieve the process of hiding information in the image processing, in this paper, a new method has been proposed for hidden data mechanism (which is a text file), then a transposition cipher method has been employed for encryption completed. It can be used to build an encrypted text and also to increase security against possible attacks while sending it over the World Wide Web. A genetic algorithm has been affected in the adjustment of the encoded text and DNA in the creation of an encrypted text that is difficult to detect and then include in the image and that affected the image visual quality. The proposed method outperforms the state of arts in terms of efficiently retrieving the embedded messages. Performance evaluation has been recorded high visual quality scores for the (SNR (single to noise ratio), PSNR (peak single to noise ratio) and MSE (mean square error).
2021-04-08
Guo, T., Zhou, R., Tian, C..  2020.  On the Information Leakage in Private Information Retrieval Systems. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 15:2999—3012.
We consider information leakage to the user in private information retrieval (PIR) systems. Information leakage can be measured in terms of individual message leakage or total leakage. Individual message leakage, or simply individual leakage, is defined as the amount of information that the user can obtain on any individual message that is not being requested, and the total leakage is defined as the amount of information that the user can obtain about all the other messages except the one being requested. In this work, we characterize the tradeoff between the minimum download cost and the individual leakage, and that for the total leakage, respectively. Coding schemes are proposed to achieve these optimal tradeoffs, which are also shown to be optimal in terms of the message size. We further characterize the optimal tradeoff between the minimum amount of common randomness and the total leakage. Moreover, we show that under individual leakage, common randomness is in fact unnecessary when there are more than two messages.