While quantum computing is still in its early stage of development, large-scale quantum computers promise to be able to solve certain problems much more quickly than any classical computer using the best currently known algorithms. Quantum algorithms, such as Simon's algorithm, run faster than any possible probabilistic classical algorithm. For the Science of Security, the speed, capacity, and flexibility of qubits over digital processing offers still greater promise. They are a hard problem of interest to cryptography. The research work presented here was published in the first half of 2014. Elements discussed include cryptography, proxy signatures, key distribution, reversible logic, and cloud computing,

- Kirsten Eisentrager, Sean Hallgren, Alexei Kitaev, Fang Song, "
**A Quantum Algorithm For Computing The Unit Group Of An Arbitrary Degree Number Field,**" STOC '14 Proceedings of the 46th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, May 2014, Pages 293-302. (ID#:14-1733) URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2591796.2591860&coll=DL&dl=GUIDE&CFID=390360820&CFTOKEN=56962601 Computing the group of units in a field of algebraic numbers is one of the central tasks of computational algebraic number theory. It is believed to be hard classically, which is of interest for cryptography. In the quantum setting, efficient algorithms were previously known for fields of constant degree. We give a quantum algorithm that is polynomial in the degree of the field and the logarithm of its discriminant. This is achieved by combining three new results. The first is a classical algorithm for computing a basis for certain ideal lattices with doubly exponentially large generators. The second shows that a Gaussian-weighted superposition of lattice points, with an appropriate encoding, can be used to provide a unique representation of a real-valued lattice. The third is an extension of the hidden subgroup problem to continuous groups and a quantum algorithm for solving the HSP over the group Rn. Keywords: computational algebraic number theory, quantum algorithms, unit group, cryptography

- Walter O. Krawec, "
**Using Evolutionary Techniques To Analyze The Security Of Quantum Key Distribution Protocols,**" GECCO Comp '14 Proceedings of the 2014 Conference Companion On Genetic And Evolutionary Computation Companion, July 2014, Pages 171-172. (ID#:14-1734) URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2598394.2598410&coll=DL&dl=GUIDE&CFID=390360820&CFTOKEN=56962601 In this paper, we describe a new real coded GA which may be used to analyze the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols by estimating the maximally tolerated error rate - an important statistic and, for many newer more complicated protocols, still unknown. Our algorithm takes advantage of several nice features of QKD protocols to simplify the search process and was evaluated on several protocols and can even detect security flaws in a protocol thus showing our algorithm's usefulness in protocol design. Keywords: quantum computing, quantum key distribution

- Singh, H.; Sachdev, A, "
**The Quantum Way of Cloud Computing**," Optimization, Reliability, and Information Technology (ICROIT), 2014 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.397,400, 6-8 Feb. 2014. (ID#:14-1735) URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6798362&isnumber=6798279 Quantum Computing and Cloud Computing are the technologies which have the capability to shape the future of computing. Quantum computing focuses on creating super-fast computers using the concepts of quantum physics whereas Cloud computing allows the computing power to be provided as a service. This paper presents a theoretical approach towards the possibility of a Quantum-Cloud i.e. quantum computing as a service. This will combine the fields of quantum computing and cloud computing, resulting into an evolutionary technology. Also, this paper discusses the possible advantages of this in the near future. Keywords: cloud computing; quantum computing; cloud computing; quantum computing; super-fast computers; Cryptography; Hardware; Quantum computing; Cloud Computing; Quantum Cloud; Quantum Computing; Qubit

- Ali Javadi Abhari, Shruti Patil, Daniel Kudrow, Jeff Heckey, Alexey Lvov, Frederic T. Chong, Margaret Martonosi, "
**ScaffCC: a Framework For Compilation And Analysis Of Quantum Computing Programs**," CF '14 Proceedings of the 11th ACM Conference on Computing Frontiers, May 2014, Article No. 1. (ID#:14-1736) URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2597917.2597939&coll=DL&dl=GUIDE&CFID=390360820&CFTOKEN=56962601 Quantum computing is a promising technology for high-performance computation, but requires mature tool flows that can map large-scale quantum programs onto targeted hardware. In this paper, we present a scalable compiler for large-scale quantum applications, and show the opportunities for reducing compilation and analysis time, as well as output code size. We discuss the similarities and differences between compiling for a quantum computer as opposed to a classical computer, and present a state-of-the-art approach for compilation of classical circuits into quantum circuits. Our work also highlights the importance of high-level quantum compilation for logical circuit translation, quantitative analysis of algorithms, and optimization of circuit lengths. Keywords: compilers, quantum computation, reversible logic

- Sarker, Ankur; M.Shamiul Amin; Bose, Avishek; Islam, Nafisah, "
**An optimized design of binary comparator circuit in quantum computing**," Informatics, Electronics & Vision (ICIEV), 2014 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,5, 23-24 May 2014. (ID#:14-1737) URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6850768&isnumber=6850678 Reversible logic; transforms logic signal in a way that allows the original input signals to be recovered from the produced outputs, has attracted great attention because of its application in diverse areas such as quantum computing, low power computing, nanotechnology, DNA computing, quantum dot cellular automata, optical computing. In this paper, we design low power binary comparators using reversible logic gates. Firstly, single bit binary reversible comparator circuits are designed using different reversible gates along with proposed gate named Newly Proposed Gate. Then, these procedures are generalized for constructing binary n-bit reversible comparator circuit. The design synthesis consists of two parts: Comparator Cell and Propagator Cell. An algorithm, based on our proposed design, shows that proposed circuit reduces overall cost and it outperforms than existing sequential comparator circuits. Also, comparing with existing tree-based comparator circuit, proposed design reduces quantum cost, garbage output and gate count in a significance level which means better improvement as cost of any quantum circuit is directly associated with quantum cost, garbage output and gate count. Keywords: Algorithm design and analysis; Clocks; Conferences; Informatics; Logic gates; Quantum computing; Vectors; binary comparator; low power computing; quantum computing; reversible logic gates

- Rigui Zhou, Jian Cao, "
**Quantum Novel Genetic Algorithm Based On Parallel Subpopulation Computing And Its Application**," Artificial Intelligence Review, Volume 41 Issue 3, March 2014, Pages 359-371. (ID#:14-1738) URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2580951.2580962&coll=DL&dl=GUIDE&CFID=390360820&CFTOKEN=56962601 The authors of this paper present an original quantum genetic algorithm, based on subpopulation parallel computing, which aims to improve genetic computing methods by changes to quantum coding and rotation angle. This paper compares the new algorithm with its traditional counterpart, with details and resulting discovery discussed. Keywords: Quantum genetic algorithm, Space division, Subpopulation parallel computing

- Cody Jones, "
**Distillation Protocols For Fourier States In Quantum Computing**," Quantum Information & Computation, Volume 14 Issue 7&8, May 2014, Pages 560-576. (ID#:14-1739) URL:http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2638682.2638684&coll=DL&dl=GUIDE&CFID=390360820&CFTOKEN=56962601 This paper details a proposed lowest-overhead method for Fourier states, by using distillation protocols for constructing the fundamental, n-qubit Fourier state. Protocol analysis, using methods from digital signal processing, are discussed. Keywords: QEC, quantum computation

- A. Manju, M. J. Nigam, "
**Applications of Quantum Inspired Computational Intelligence: A Survey**," Artificial Intelligence Review, Volume 42 Issue 1, June 2014, Pages 79-156. (ID#:14-1740) URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2629835.2629882&coll=DL&dl=GUIDE&CFID=390360820&CFTOKEN=56962601 This paper surveys numerous applications of Quantum inspired computational intelligence (QCI) techniques, discussing challenges and obstacles, with a view to help researchers understand QCI as a problem-solving application. Keywords: Computational intelligence, Quantum computing, Quantum mechanics

- Andris Ambainis, Ronald Wolf, "
**How Low Can Approximate Degree and Quantum Query Complexity be for Total Boolean Functions?**," Computational Complexity, Volume 23 Issue 2, June 2014, Pages 305-322. (ID#:14-1741) URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2630022.2630056&coll=DL&dl=GUIDE&CFID=390360820&CFTOKEN=56962601 This paper discusses "approximate degree" and "bounded-error" quantum query complexity, upon both of which Boolean functions depend. Keywords: 06E30, 41A10, 68Q12, 68Q17, Boolean functions, Quantum computing, computational complexity, polynomial approximations, quantum algorithms

- Walter O. Krawec, "
**An Algorithm For Evolving Multiple Quantum Operators For Arbitrary Quantum Computational Problems,**" GECCO Comp '14 Proceedings of the 2014 Conference Companion On Genetic And Evolutionary Computation Companion, July 2014, Pages 59-60. (ID#:14-1742) URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2598394.2598408&coll=DL&dl=GUIDE&CFID=390360820&CFTOKEN=56962601 We design and analyze a real-coded genetic algorithm for the use in evolving collections of quantum unitary operators (not circuits) which act on pure or mixed states over arbitrary quantum systems while interacting with fixed, problem specific operators (e.g., oracle calls) and intermediate partial measurements. Our algorithm is general enough so as to allow its application to multiple, very different, areas of quantum computation research. Keywords: quantum algorithms, quantum computing, real coded genetic algorithm

- Siddhartha Bhattacharyya, Pankaj Pal, Sandip Bhowmik, "
**A Quantum Multilayer Self Organizing Neural Network for Object Extraction from a Noisy Background**," CSNT '14 Proceedings of the 2014 Fourth International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies, April 2014, Pages 512-517. (ID#:14-1743) URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2624304.2624898&coll=DL&dl=GUIDE&CFID=390360820&CFTOKEN=56962601 Proper extraction of objects from a noisy perspective is an upheaval task in the computer vision research community. Several intelligent research paradigms have been focused on this aspect over the years. Notable among them is the multilayer self organizing neural network (MLSONN) architecture assisted by fuzzy measure guided back propagation of errors. In this article, we propose a quantum version of the MLSONN architecture which operates using single qubit rotation gates. The proposed QMLSONN architecture comprises three processing layers viz., input, hidden and output layers. The nodes of the processing layers are represented by qubits and the interconnection weights are represented by quantum gates. A quantum measurement at the output layer destroys the quantum states of the processed information thereby inducing incorporation of linear indices of fuzziness as the network system errors used to adjust network interconnection weights through a proposed quantum back propagation algorithm. Results of application of the QMLSONN are demonstrated on a synthetic and a real life spanner image with various degrees of Gaussian noise. A comparative study with the performance of the classical MLSONN architecture reveals the time efficiency of the proposed QMLSONN architecture. Keywords: Object extraction, Multilayer Self Organizing Neural Network, Quantum Computing, Quantum Multilayer Self Organizing Neural Network

- Michael Elkin, Hartmut Klauck, Danupon Nanongkai, Gopal Pandurangan, "
**Can Quantum Communication Speed Up Distributed Computation?**," PODC '14 Proceedings of the 2014 ACM Symposium On Principles Of Distributed Computing, July 2014, Pages 166-175. (ID#:14-1744) URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2611462.2611488&coll=DL&dl=GUIDE&CFID=390360820&CFTOKEN=56962601 The focus of this paper is on quantum distributed computation, where we investigate whether quantum communication can help in speeding up distributed network algorithms. Our main result is that for certain fundamental network problems such as minimum spanning tree, minimum cut, and shortest paths, quantum communication does not help in substantially speeding up distributed algorithms for these problems compared to the classical setting. In order to obtain this result, we extend the technique of Das Sarma et al. [SICOMP 2012] to obtain a uniform approach to prove non-trivial lower bounds for quantum distributed algorithms for several graph optimization (both exact and approximate versions) as well as verification problems, some of which are new even in the classical setting, e.g. tight randomized lower bounds for Hamiltonian cycle and spanning tree verification, answering an open problem of Das Sarma et al., and a lower bound in terms of the weight aspect ratio, matching the upper bounds of Elkin [STOC 2004]. Our approach introduces the Server model and Quantum Simulation Theorem which together provide a connection between distributed algorithms and communication complexity. The Server model is the standard two-party communication complexity model augmented with additional power; yet, most of the hardness in the two-party model is carried over to this new model. The Quantum Simulation Theorem carries this hardness further to quantum distributed computing. Our techniques, except the proof of the hardness in the Server model, require very little knowledge in quantum computing, and this can help overcoming a usual impediment in proving bounds on quantum distributed algorithms. In particular, if one can prove a lower bound for distributed algorithms for a certain problem using the technique of Das Sarma et al., it is likely that such lower bound can be extended to the quantum setting using tools provided in this paper and without the need of knowledge in quantum computing. Keywords: congest model, distributed computing, graph algorithms, lower bound, quantum communication, time complexity

- Shaohua Tang, Lingling Xu, "
**Towards Provably Secure Proxy Signature Scheme Based On Isomorphisms of Polynomials**," Future Generation Computer Systems, Volume 30, January, 2014, Pages 91-97. (ID#:14-1745) URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2562354.2562819&coll=DL&dl=GUIDE&CFID=390360820&CFTOKEN=56962601 This paper proposes a proxy signature scheme based on the Isomorphism of Polynomials (IP) challenge, under the umbrella of Multivariate Public Key Cryptography (MPKC). This signature scheme would ideally be able to resist projected quantum computing attacks, a particularly constructive gain in understanding provable security for MPKCs. Keywords: Isomorphism of Polynomials, Multivariate Public Key Cryptography, Post-Quantum Cryptography, Provable security, Proxy signature

- Alshammari, Hamoud; Elleithy, Khaled; Almgren, Khaled; Albelwi, Saleh, "
**Group signature entanglement in e-voting system**," Systems, Applications and Technology Conference (LISAT), 2014 IEEE Long Island , vol., no., pp.1,4, 2-2 May 2014. (ID#:14-1746) URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6845186&isnumber=6845183 In any security system, there are many security issues that are related to either the sender or the receiver of the message. Quantum computing has proven to be a plausible approach to solving many security issues such as eavesdropping, replay attack and man-in-the-middle attack. In the e-voting system, one of these issues has been solved, namely, the integrity of the data (ballot). In this paper, we propose a scheme that solves the problem of repudiation that could occur when the voter denies the value of the ballot either for cheating purposes or for a real change in the value by a third party. By using an entanglement concept between two parties randomly, the person who is going to verify the ballots will create the entangled state and keep it in a database to use it in the future for the purpose of the non-repudiation of any of these two voters. Keywords: Authentication; Electronic voting; Protocols; Quantum computing; Quantum entanglement; Receivers; E-voting System; Entangled State; Entanglement; Quantum Computing; Qubit

- Bennett, C.H.; Devetak, I; Harrow, AW.; Shor, P.W.; Winter, A, "
**The Quantum Reverse Shannon Theorem and Resource Tradeoffs for Simulating Quantum Channels,**" Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on , vol.60, no.5, pp.2926,2959, May 2014. (ID#:14-1747) URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6757002&isnumber=6800061 Dual to the usual noisy channel coding problem, where a noisy (classical or quantum) channel is used to simulate a noiseless one, reverse Shannon theorems concern the use of noiseless channels to simulate noisy ones, and more generally the use of one noisy channel to simulate another. For channels of nonzero capacity, this simulation is always possible, but for it to be efficient, auxiliary resources of the proper kind and amount are generally required. In the classical case, shared randomness between sender and receiver is a sufficient auxiliary resource, regardless of the nature of the source, but in the quantum case, the requisite auxiliary resources for efficient simulation depend on both the channel being simulated, and the source from which the channel inputs are coming. For tensor power sources (the quantum generalization of classical memoryless sources), entanglement in the form of standard ebits (maximally entangled pairs of qubits) is sufficient, but for general sources, which may be arbitrarily correlated or entangled across channel inputs, additional resources, such as entanglement-embezzling states or backward communication, are generally needed. Combining existing and new results, we establish the amounts of communication and auxiliary resources needed in both the classical and quantum cases, the tradeoffs among them, and the loss of simulation efficiency when auxiliary resources are absent or insufficient. In particular, we find a new single-letter expression for the excess forward communication cost of coherent feedback simulations of quantum channels (i.e., simulations in which the sender retains what would escape into the environment in an ordinary simulation), on nontensor-power sources in the presence of unlimited ebits but no other auxiliary resource. Our results on tensor power sources establish a strong converse to the entanglement-assisted capacity theorem. Keywords: channel capacity; channel coding; quantum communication; quantum entanglement ;auxiliary resources; backward communication; channel capacity; channel inputs; coherent feedback simulations; communication resources; entanglement-assisted capacity theorem; entanglement-embezzling states; forward communication cost; information theory; memoryless source quantum generalization; noiseless channels; noisy channel coding problem; nontensor-power sources;quantum channel simulation; quantum reverse Shannon theorem; resource tradeoffs; standard ebits; tensor power sources; Channel capacity; Channel coding; Noise measurement; Quantum entanglement; Receivers; Standards; Quantum computing; channel capacity ;information theory; quantum entanglement; rate-distortion

- Qawaqneh, Zakariya; Elleithy, Khaled; Alotaibi, Bandar; Alotaibi, Munif, "
**A new hardware quantum-based encryption algorithm**," Systems, Applications and Technology Conference (LISAT), 2014 IEEE Long Island , vol., no., pp.1,5, 2-2 May 2014. (ID#:14-1748) URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6845201&isnumber=6845183 Cryptography is entering a new age since the first steps that have been made towards quantum computing, which also poses a threat to the classical cryptosystem in general. In this paper, we introduce a new novel encryption technique and algorithm to improve quantum cryptography. The aim of the suggested scheme is to generate a digital signature in quantum computing. An arbitrated digital signature is introduced instead of the directed digital signature to avoid the denial of sending the message from the sender and pretending that the sender's private key was stolen or lost and the signature has been forged. The onetime pad operation that most quantum cryptography algorithms that have been proposed in the past is avoided to decrease the possibility of the channel eavesdropping. The presented algorithm in this paper uses quantum gates to do the encryption and decryption processes. In addition, new quantum gates are introduced, analyzed, and investigated in the encryption and decryption processes. The authors believe the gates that are used in the proposed algorithm improve the security for both classical and quantum computing. (Against)The proposed gates in the paper have plausible properties that position them as suitable candidates for encryption and decryption processes in quantum cryptography. To demonstrate the security features of the algorithm, it was simulated using MATLAB simulator, in particular through the Quack Quantum Library. Keywords: Encryption; Logic gates; Protocols; Quantum computing; Quantum mechanics; algorithms; quantum; quantum cryptography; qubit key; secure communications

- Alshowkan, Muneer; Elleithy, Khaled, "
**Authenticated multiparty secret key sharing using quantum entanglement swapping**," American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE Zone 1), 2014 Zone 1 Conference of the , vol., no., pp.1,6, 3-5 April 2014. (ID#:14-1749) URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6820637&isnumber=6820618 In this paper we propose a new protocol for multiparty secret key sharing by using quantum entanglement swapping. Quantum Entanglement swapping is a process that allows two non-interacting quantum systems to be entangled. Further, to increase the security level and to make sure that the users are legitimate, authentication for both parties will be required by a trusted third party. In this protocol, a trusted third party will authenticate the sender and the receiver and help them forming a secret key. Furthermore, the proposed protocol will perform entanglement swapping between the sender and the receiver. The result from the entanglement swapping will be an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair that will help them in forming and sending the secret key without having the sender to send any physical quantum states to the receiver. This protocol will provide the required authentication of all parties to the trusted party and it will provide the required secure method in transmitting the secret key. Keywords: Authentication; Logic gates; Protocols; Quantum computing; Quantum entanglement; Receivers; Teleportation; EPR; cryptography; entanglement; multiparty; quantum swapping

- Ashikhmin, A, "
**Fidelity Lower Bounds for Stabilizer and CSS Quantum Codes**," Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on , vol.60, no.6, pp.3104,3116, June 2014. (ID#:14-1750) URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6763069&isnumber=6816018 In this paper, we estimate the fidelity of stabilizer and CSS codes. First, we derive a lower bound on the fidelity of a stabilizer code via its quantum enumerator. Next, we find the average quantum enumerators of the ensembles of finite length stabilizer and CSS codes. We use the average quantum enumerators for obtaining lower bounds on the average fidelity of these ensembles. We further improve the fidelity bounds by estimating the quantum enumerators of expurgated ensembles of stabilizer and CSS codes. Finally, we derive fidelity bounds in the asymptotic regime when the code length tends to infinity. These results tell us which code rate we can afford for achieving a target fidelity with codes of a given length. The results also show that in symmetric depolarizing channel a typical stabilizer code has better performance, in terms of fidelity and code rate, compared with a typical CSS codes, and that balanced CSS codes significantly outperform other CSS codes. Asymptotic results demonstrate that CSS codes have a fundamental performance loss compared with stabilizer codes. Keywords: Arrays; Cascading style sheets ;Linear codes; Quantum computing; Quantum mechanics; Standards; Vectors; CSS codes; fidelity bounds; quantum codes; stabilizer codes

- Elmannai, Wafa; Elleithy, Khaled; Pande, Varun; Geddeda, Elham, "
**Quantum security using property of a quantum wave function**," Systems, Applications and Technology Conference (LISAT), 2014 IEEE Long Island , vol., no., pp.1,5, 2-2 May 2014. (ID#:14-1751) URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6845217&isnumber=6845183 Security over communication is totally essential especially for critical applications such as Military, Education and Financial applications. Unfortunately, many security mechanisms can be broken with new developments in classical computers. Quantum computers are capable of performing high speed simultaneous computations rather than sequentially as the case in classical computers do. In order to break a symmetric encryption algorithm, the attacker needs to find all the potential key combinations to get the right one. In this paper, we are introducing a secure protocol that considers the Qubit as a wave function. The beauty of the work is that the proposed protocol is based on time stamp that can only be broken by the correct set of time value, wave function, Qubit position, and other attributes such as: velocity, and phase of the Qubit. Moreover, using quantum tunneling makes the proposed protocol stronger by providing a very strong secure password protection mechanism using just one Qubit. Keywords: Computer science; Computers; Educational institutions; Protocols; Quantum computing; Security; Wave functions; Quantum Security; Quantum Wave Function; Qubit position; quantum tunneling

- Tillich, J.-P.; Zemor, G., "
**Quantum LDPC Codes With Positive Rate and Minimum Distance Proportional to the Square Root of the Blocklengt**h," Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on , vol.60, no.2, pp.1193,1202, Feb. 2014. (ID#:14-1752) URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6671468&isnumber=6714461 The current best asymptotic lower bound on the minimum distance of quantum LDPC codes with a fixed non-zero rate is logarithmic in the blocklength. We propose a construction of quantum LDPC codes with fixed non-zero rate and prove that the minimum distance grows proportionally to the square root of the blocklength. Keywords: parity check codes; quantum communication; asymptotic lower bound; fixed nonzero rate; quantum LDPC codes; Cascading style sheets; Decoding; Parity check codes; Quantum computing; Quantum mechanics; Sparse matrices; Vectors; CSS codes; LDPC codes; quantum codes

- Mogos, Gabriela, "
**Cubic Quantum Security**," Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI), 2014 International Conference on , vol.2, no., pp.249,252, 10-13 March 2014. (ID#:14-1753) URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6822341&isnumber=6822285 Quantum cryptography provides us new methods of securing the communications. As compared to classical cryptography, which implies different mathematical algorithms to secure the information, quantum cryptography focuses on the physical support of the information. The process of information transmission or stocking is realized by the intermediation of a physical support, for example the photons transmitted by optical fiber or the electrons from the electricity. Communication security can be regarded as securing the physical support of the carrier of the information - in our case the photons from the optical fiber. Consequently, how and what an attacker can find out depends exclusively on the laws of physics. The paper presents a symmetrical encryption method based on the method of mixture used by the rubik's cube. Keywords: Encryption; Photonics; Physics; Protocols; Quantum computing; quantum cryptography; qubits; symmetric cryptography

- von Maurich, I; Guneysu, T., "
**Lightweight code-based cryptography: QC-MDPC McEliece encryption on reconfigurable devices,**" Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition (DATE), 2014 , vol., no., pp.1,6, 24-28 March 2014. (ID#:14-1754) URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6800252&isnumber=6800201 With the break of RSA and ECC cryptosystems in an era of quantum computing, asymmetric code-based cryptography is an established alternative that can be a potential replacement. A major drawback are large keys in the range between 50kByte to several MByte that prevented real-world applications of code-based cryptosystems so far. A recent proposal by Misoczki et al. showed that quasi-cyclic moderate density parity-check (QC-MDPC) codes can be used in McEliece encryption - reducing the public key to just 0.6 kByte to achieve a 80-bit security level. Despite of reasonably small key sizes that could also enable small designs, previous work only report highperformance implementations with high resource consumptions of more than 13,000 slices on a large Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA for a combined en-/decryption unit. In this work we focus on lightweight implementations of code-based cryptography and demonstrate that McEliece encryption using QC-MDPC codes can be implemented with a significantly smaller resource footprint - still achieving reasonable performance sufficient for many applications, e.g., challenge-response protocols or hybrid firmware encryption. More precisely, our design requires just 68 slices for the encryption and around 150 slices for the decryption unit and is able to en-/decrypt an input block in 2.2ms and 13.4 ms, respectively. Keywords: cyclic codes; field programmable gate arrays; parity check codes; public key cryptography; quantum computing; reconfigurable architectures; ECC cryptosystems; QC-MDPC McEliece encryption; QC-MDPC codes; RSA cryptosystems; Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA; combined encryption-decryption unit; lightweight code-based cryptography; quantum computing; quasicyclic moderate density parity-check codes; reconfigurable devices; resource consumption; resource footprint; security level; word length 80 bit; Decoding; Elliptic curve cryptography; Encryption; Field programmable gate arrays; Generators; Vectors

- Lobino, M.; Laing, A; Pei Zhang; Aungskunsiri, K.; Martin-Lopez, E.; Wabnig, J.; Nock, R.W.; Munns, J.; Bonneau, D.; Pisu Jiang; Hong Wei Li; Rarity, J.G.; Niskanen, AO.; Thompson, M.G.; O'Brien, J.L., "
**Quantum key distribution with integrated optics**," Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC), 2014 19th Asia and South Pacific , vol., no., pp.795,799, 20-23 Jan. 2014. (ID#:14-1755) URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6742987&isnumber=6742831 We report on a quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment where a client with an on-chip polarisation rotator can access a server through a telecom-fibre link. Large resources such as photon source and detectors are situated at server-side. We employ a reference frame independent QKD protocol for polarisation qubits and show that it overcomes detrimental effects of drifting fibre birefringence in a polarisation maintaining fibre. Keywords: birefringence; integrated optics; optical fibre communication; optical fibre polarisation; optical rotation; quantum communication; quantum computing; quantum cryptography; QKD; detectors; fibre birefringence; integrated optics; on-chip polarisation rotator; photon source; polarisation maintaining fibre; polarisation qubits; quantum key distribution; telecom-fibre link; Detectors; Educational institutions; Electronic mail; Noise; Photonics; Protocols; Servers

- de Jesus Lopes Soares, E.; Alencar Mendonca, F.; Viana Ramos, R., "
**Quantum Random Number Generator Using Only One Single-Photon Detector,**" Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE , vol.26, no.9, pp.851,853, May1, 2014. (ID#:14-1756) URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6729066&isnumber=6783816 Quantum random number generators (QRNGs) have important applications in cryptographic protocols, games, and lotteries, among others. In contrast with software-based pseudorandom number generators, the number sequence generated is truly random. Most QRNGs found in the literature are based on single-photon sources and detectors. In this letter, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a QRNG that uses only one single-photon detector and weak coherent or thermal states as light source. Keywords: light coherence; photodetectors; quantum computing; quantum optics; random number generation; QRNG; coherent states; light source; quantum random number generator; single-photon detector; thermal states; Detectors; Generators; Light sources; Logic gates; Optical detectors; Photonics; Radiation detectors; Quantum random number generator; coherent and thermal states; single-photon detector

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