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Luis G. Nardin, Tina Balke-Visser, Nirav Ajmeri, Anup K. Kalia, Jaime S. Sichman, Munindar P. Singh.  2016.  Classifying Sanctions and Designing a Conceptual Sanctioning Process for Socio-Technical Systems. The Knowledge Engineering Review. 31:1–25.

We understand a socio-technical system (STS) as a cyber-physical system in which two or more autonomous parties interact via or about technical elements, including the parties’ resources and actions. As information technology begins to pervade every corner of human life, STSs are becoming ever more common, and the challenge of governing STSs is becoming increasingly important. We advocate a normative basis for governance, wherein norms represent the standards of correct behaviour that each party in an STS expects from others. A major benefit of focussing on norms is that they provide a socially realistic view of interaction among autonomous parties that abstracts low-level implementation details. Overlaid on norms is the notion of a sanction as a negative or positive reaction to potentially any violation of or compliance with an expectation. Although norms have been well studied as regards governance for STSs, sanctions have not. Our understanding and usage of norms is inadequate for the purposes of governance unless we incorporate a comprehensive representation of sanctions.

Luis Caires, Jorge Perez, Frank Pfenning, Bernardo Toninho.  2013.  Behavioral Polymorphism and Parametricity in Session-Based Communication. European Symposium on Programming 2013. 7792:330-349.

We investigate a notion of behavioral genericity in the context of session type disciplines. To this end, we develop a logically motivated theory of parametric polymorphism, reminiscent of the Girard-Reynolds polymorphic λ-calculus, but casted in the setting of concurrent processes. In our theory, polymorphism accounts for the exchange of abstract communication protocols and dynamic instantiation of heterogeneous interfaces, as opposed to the exchange of data types and dynamic instantiation of individual message types. Our polymorphic session-typed process language satisfies strong forms of type preservation and global progress, is strongly normalizing, and enjoys a relational parametricity principle. Combined, our results confer strong correctness guarantees for communicating systems. In particular, parametricity is key to derive non-trivial results about internal protocol independence, a concurrent analogous of representation independence, and non-interference properties of modular, distributed systems.

Luis Caires, Frank Pfenning, Bernardo Toninho.  2014.  Linear Logic Propositions as Session Types.

Throughout the years, several typing disciplines for the π-calculus have been proposed. Arguably, the most widespread of these typing disciplines consists of session types. Session types describe the input/output behavior of processes and traditionally provide strong guarantees about this behavior (i.e., deadlock freedom and fidelity). While these systems exploit a fundamental notion of linearity, the precise connection between linear logic and session types has not been well understood. This paper proposes a type system for the π-calculus that corresponds to a standard sequent calculus presentation of intuitionistic linear logic, interpreting linear propositions as session types and thus providing a purely logical account of all key features and properties of session types. We show the deep correspondence between linear logic and session types by exhibiting a tight operational correspondence between cut elimination steps and process reductions. We also discuss an alternative presentation of linear session types based on classical linear logic, and compare our development with other more traditional session type systems. 

Luis Caires, Jorge Perez, Frank Pfenning, Bernardo Toninho.  2013.  Logic-Based Domain-Aware Session Types.

Software services and governing communication protocols are increasingly domain-aware. Domains can have multiple interpretations, such as the principals on whose behalf processes act or the location at which parties reside. Domains impact protocol compliance and access control, two central issues to overall functionality and correctness in distributed systems. This paper proposes a session-typed process framework for domain-aware communication-centric systems based on a CurryHoward interpretation of linear logic, here augmented with nominals from hybrid logic indicating domains. These nominals are explicit in the process expressions and govern domain migration, subject to a parametric accessibility relation familiar from the Kripke semantics for modal logic. Flexible access relationships among domains can be elegantly defined and statically enforced. The framework can also account for scenarios in which domain information is discovered only at runtime. Due to the logical origins of our systems, well-typed processes enjoy session fidelity, global progress, and termination. Moreover, well-typed processes always respect the accessibility relation and satisfy a form of domain parametricity, two properties crucial to show that domain-related properties of concrete programs are satisfied. 

Limin Jia, Shayak Sen, Deepak Garg, Anupam Datta.  2015.  A Logic of Programs with Interface-Confined Code. 2015 IEEE 28th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF).

Interface-confinement is a common mechanism that secures untrusted code by executing it inside a sandbox. The sandbox limits (confines) the code's interaction with key system resources to a restricted set of interfaces. This practice is seen in web browsers, hypervisors, and other security-critical systems. Motivated by these systems, we present a program logic, called System M, for modeling and proving safety properties of systems that execute adversary-supplied code via interface-confinement. In addition to using computation types to specify effects of computations, System M includes a novel invariant type to specify the properties of interface-confined code. The interpretation of invariant type includes terms whose effects satisfy an invariant. We construct a step-indexed model built over traces and prove the soundness of System M relative to the model. System M is the first program logic that allows proofs of safety for programs that execute adversary-supplied code without forcing the adversarial code to be available for deep static analysis. System M can be used to model and verify protocols as well as system designs. We demonstrate the reasoning principles of System M by verifying the state integrity property of the design of Memoir, a previously proposed trusted computing system.

Limin Jia, Shayak Sen, Deepak Garg, Anupam Datta.  2015.  System M: A Program Logic for Code Sandboxing and Identification.

Security-sensitive applications that execute untrusted code often check the code’s integrity by comparing its syntax to a known good value or sandbox the code to contain its effects. System M is a new program logic for reasoning about such security-sensitive applications. System M extends Hoare Type Theory (HTT) to trace safety properties and, additionally, contains two new reasoning principles. First, its type system internalizes logical equality, facilitating reasoning about applications that check code integrity. Second, a con- finement rule assigns an effect type to a computation based solely on knowledge of the computation’s sandbox. We prove the soundness of System M relative to a step-indexed trace-based semantic model. We illustrate both new reasoning principles of System M by verifying the main integrity property of the design of Memoir, a previously proposed trusted computing system for ensuring state continuity of isolated security-sensitive applications. 

Ligia Nistor, Darya Kurilova, Stephanie Balzer, Benjamin Chung, Alex Potanin, Jonathan Aldrich.  2013.  Wyvern: a simple, typed, and pure object-oriented language. MASPEGHI '13 Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on MechAnisms for SPEcialization, Generalization and inHerItance.

The simplest and purest practical object-oriented language designs today are seen in dynamically-typed languages, such as Smalltalk and Self. Static types, however, have potential benefits for productivity, security, and reasoning about programs. In this paper, we describe the design of Wyvern, a statically typed, pure object-oriented language that attempts to retain much of the simplicity and expressiveness of these iconic designs.

Our goals lead us to combine pure object-oriented and functional abstractions in a simple, typed setting. We present a foundational object-based language that we believe to be as close as one can get to simple typed lambda calculus while keeping object-orientation. We show how this foundational language can be translated to the typed lambda calculus via standard encodings. We then define a simple extension to this language that introduces classes and show that classes are no more than sugar for the foundational object-based language. Our future intention is to demonstrate that modules and other object-oriented features can be added to our language as not more than such syntactical extensions while keeping the object-oriented core as pure as possible.

The design of Wyvern closely follows both historical and modern ideas about the essence of object-orientation, suggesting a new way to think about a minimal, practical, typed core language for objects.

Lichao Sun, Zhiqiang Li, Qiben Yan, Witawas Srisa-an, Yu Pan.  2016.  SigPID: Significant Permission Identification for Android Malware Detection. 11th International Conference on Malicious and Unwanted Software (MALCON 2016).

A recent report indicates that a newly developed mali- cious app for Android is introduced every 11 seconds.  To combat this alarming rate of malware creation,  we need a scalable malware detection approach that is effective and efficient. In this paper, we introduce SIGPID, a malware detection system based on permission  analysis to cope with the rapid increase in the number of Android malware. In- stead of analyzing all 135 Android permissions, our ap- proach applies 3-level pruning by mining the permission data to identify only significant permissions that can be ef- fective in distinguishing benign and malicious apps. SIG- PID then utilizes classification algorithms to classify differ- ent families of malware and benign apps. Our evaluation finds that only 22 out of 135 permissions are significant. We then compare the performance of our approach, using only

22 permissions, against a baseline approach that analyzes all permissions. The results indicate that when Support Vec- tor Machine (SVM) is used as the classifier, we can achieve over 90% of precision, recall, accuracy, and F-measure, which  are about the same as those produced by the base- line approach while incurring the analysis times that are 4 to 32 times smaller that those of using all 135 permissions. When we compare the detection effectiveness of SIGPID to those of other approaches, SIGPID can detect 93.62% of malware in the data set, and 91.4% unknown malware.

Lee, Da Young, Vouk, Mladen A., Williams, Laurie.  2013.  Using software reliability models for security assessment — Verification of assumptions. IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW), 2013. :pp23-24.

Can software reliability models be used to assess software security? One of the issues is that security problems are relatively rare under “normal” operational profiles, while “classical” reliability models may not be suitable for use in attack conditions. We investigated a range of Fedora open source software security problems to see if some of the basic assumptions behind software reliability growth models hold for discovery of security problems in non-attack situations. We find that in some cases, under “normal” operational use, security problem detection process may be described as a Poisson process. In those cases, we can use appropriate classical software reliability growth models to assess “security reliability” of that software in non-attack situations.We analyzed security problem discovery rate for RedHat Fedora. We find that security problems are relatively rare, their rate of discovery appears to be relatively constant under “normal” (non-attack) conditions. Discovery process often appears to satisfy Poisson assumption opening doors to use of classical reliability models. We illustrated using Yamada S-shaped model fit to v15 that in some cases such models may be effective in predicting the number of remaining security problems, and thus may offer a way of assessing security “quality” of the software product (although not necessarily its behavior under an attack).