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Ligia Nistor, Darya Kurilova, Stephanie Balzer, Benjamin Chung, Alex Potanin, Jonathan Aldrich.  2013.  Wyvern: a simple, typed, and pure object-oriented language. MASPEGHI '13 Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on MechAnisms for SPEcialization, Generalization and inHerItance.

The simplest and purest practical object-oriented language designs today are seen in dynamically-typed languages, such as Smalltalk and Self. Static types, however, have potential benefits for productivity, security, and reasoning about programs. In this paper, we describe the design of Wyvern, a statically typed, pure object-oriented language that attempts to retain much of the simplicity and expressiveness of these iconic designs.

Our goals lead us to combine pure object-oriented and functional abstractions in a simple, typed setting. We present a foundational object-based language that we believe to be as close as one can get to simple typed lambda calculus while keeping object-orientation. We show how this foundational language can be translated to the typed lambda calculus via standard encodings. We then define a simple extension to this language that introduces classes and show that classes are no more than sugar for the foundational object-based language. Our future intention is to demonstrate that modules and other object-oriented features can be added to our language as not more than such syntactical extensions while keeping the object-oriented core as pure as possible.

The design of Wyvern closely follows both historical and modern ideas about the essence of object-orientation, suggesting a new way to think about a minimal, practical, typed core language for objects.

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Darya Kurilova, Alex Potanin, Jonathan Aldrich.  2014.  Wyvern: Impacting Software Security via Programming Language Design. PLATEAU '14 Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Evaluation and Usability of Programming Languages and Tools.

Breaches of software security affect millions of people, and therefore it is crucial to strive for more secure software systems. However, the effect of programming language design on software security is not easily measured or studied. In the absence of scientific insight, opinions range from those that claim that programming language design has no effect on security of the system, to those that believe that programming language design is the only way to provide “high-assurance software.” In this paper, we discuss how programming language design can impact software security by looking at a specific example: the Wyvern programming language. We report on how the design of the Wyvern programming language leverages security principles, together with hypotheses about how usability impacts security, in order to prevent command injection attacks. Furthermore, we discuss what security principles we considered in Wyvern’s design. 

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Cyrus Omar, Benjamin Chung, Darya Kurilova, Alex Potanin, Jonathan Aldrich.  2013.  Type-directed, whitespace-delimited parsing for embedded DSLs. GlobalDSL '13 Proceedings of the First Workshop on the Globalization of Domain Specific Languages.

Domain-specific languages improve ease-of-use, expressiveness and verifiability, but defining and using different DSLs within a single application remains difficult. We introduce an approach for embedded DSLs where 1) whitespace delimits DSL-governed blocks, and 2) the parsing and type checking phases occur in tandem so that the expected type of the block determines which domain-specific parser governs that block. We argue that this approach occupies a sweet spot, providing high expressiveness and ease-of-use while maintaining safe composability. We introduce the design, provide examples and describe an ongoing implementation of this strategy in the Wyvern programming language. We also discuss how a more conventional keyword-directed strategy for parsing of DSLs can arise as a special case of this type-directed strategy. 

Cyrus Omar, Darya Kurilova, Ligia Nistor, Benjamin Chung, Alex Potanin, Jonathan Aldrich.  2014.  Safely Composable Type-Specific Languages. Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on ECOOP 2014 --- Object-Oriented Programming.

Programming languages often include specialized syntax for common datatypes e.g. lists and some also build in support for specific specialized datatypes e.g. regular expressions, but user-defined types must use general-purpose syntax. Frustration with this causes developers to use strings, rather than structured data, with alarming frequency, leading to correctness, performance, security, and usability issues. Allowing library providers to modularly extend a language with new syntax could help address these issues. Unfortunately, prior mechanisms either limit expressiveness or are not safely composable: individually unambiguous extensions can still cause ambiguities when used together. We introduce type-specific languages TSLs: logic associated with a type that determines how the bodies of generic literals, able to contain arbitrary syntax, are parsed and elaborated, hygienically. The TSL for a type is invoked only when a literal appears where a term of that type is expected, guaranteeing non-interference. We give evidence supporting the applicability of this approach and formally specify it with a bidirectionally typed elaboration semantics for the Wyvern programming language.