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Eric Yuan, Naeem Esfahani, Sam Malek.  2014.  Automated Mining of Software Component Interactions for Self-Adaptation. SEAMS 2014 Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems. :27-36.

A self-adaptive software system should be able to monitor and analyze its runtime behavior and make adaptation decisions accordingly to meet certain desirable objectives. Traditional software adaptation techniques and recent “models@runtime” approaches usually require an a priori model for a system’s dynamic behavior. Oftentimes the model is difficult to define and labor-intensive to maintain, and tends to get out of date due to adaptation and architecture decay. We propose an alternative approach that does not require defining the system’s behavior model beforehand, but instead involves mining software component interactions from system execution traces to build a probabilistic usage model, which is in turn used to analyze, plan, and execute adaptations. Our preliminary evaluation of the approach against an Emergency Deployment System shows that the associations mining model can be used to effectively address a variety of adaptation needs, including (1) safely applying dynamic changes to a running software system without creating inconsistencies, (2) identifying potentially malicious (abnormal) behavior for self-protection, and (3) our ongoing research on improving deployment of software components in a distributed setting for performance self-optimization.

Tingting Yu, Witawas Srisa-an, Gregg Rothermel.  2017.  An automated framework to support testing for process-level race conditions. Software: Testing, Verification, and Reliability .

Race conditions are difficult to detect because they usually occur only under specific execution interleavings. Numerous program analysis and testing techniques have been proposed to detect race conditions between threads on single applications. However, most of these techniques neglect races that occur at the process level due to complex system event interactions. This article presents a framework, SIMEXPLORER, that allows engineers to effectively test for process-level race conditions. SIMEXPLORER first uses dynamic analysis techniques to observe system execution, identify program locations of interest, and report faults related to oracles. Next, it uses virtualization to achieve the fine-grained controllability needed to exercise event interleavings that are likely to expose races. We evaluated the effectiveness of SIMEXPLORER on 24 real-world applications containing both known and unknown process-level race conditions. Our results show that SIMEXPLORER is effective at detecting these race conditions, while incurring an overhead that is acceptable given its effectiveness improvements.

Jaspreet Bhatia, Morgan Evans, Sudarshan Wadkar, Travis Breaux.  2016.  Automated Extraction of Regulated Information Types using Hyponymy Relations. 2016 RE: Requirements Engineering Conference.

Requirements analysts can model regulated data practices to identify and reason about risks of noncompliance. If terminology is inconsistent or ambiguous, however, these models and their conclusions will be unreliable. To study this problem, we investigated an approach to automatically construct an information type ontology by identifying information type hyponymy in privacy policies using Tregex patterns. Tregex is a utility to match regular expressions against constituency parse trees, which are hierarchical expressions of natural language clauses, including noun and verb phrases. We discovered the Tregex patterns by applying content analysis to 15 privacy policies from three domains (shopping, telecommunication and social networks) to identify all instances of information type hyponymy. From this dataset, three semantic and four syntactic categories of hyponymy emerged based on category completeness and word-order. Among these, we identified and empirically evaluated 26 Tregex patterns to automate the extraction of hyponyms from privacy policies. The patterns identify information type hypernym-hyponym pairs with an average precision of 0.83 and recall of 0.52 across our dataset of 15 policies. 

Vangaveeti, Anoosha.  2015.  An Assessment of Security Problems in Open Source Software. Computer Science. MS

An Assessment of Security Problems in Open Source Software: Improving software security through changes in software design and development processes appears to be a very hard problem. For example, well documented security issues such as Structured Query Language injection, after more than a decade, still tops most vulnerability lists. Security priority is often subdued due to constraints such as time-to-market and resources. Furthermore, security process outcomes are hard to quantify and even harder to predict or relate to process improvement activities. In part this is because of the nature of the security faults - they are in statistical terms "rare" and often very complex compared to "regular" non-security faults. In part it is the irregular and unpredictable nature of the security threats and attacks that puts the software under attack into states it was not designed for and subjects it to what would be considered "nonoperational" use. In many cases it is the human component of the system that fails - for example, due to phishing or due to incorrect use of a software product. On the other hand, we have decades of experience developing reliable software (admittedly subject to similar resource, cost and time constraints). The central question of interest in this thesis is to what extent can we leverage some of the software reliability engineering (SRE) models, processes, and metrics that work in the "classical" operational space to develop predictive software security engineering assessment and development elements. Specific objectives are a) to investigate use of (possibly modified) SRE practices to characterize security properties of software, and b) assess how software design and development processes could be enhanced to avoid, eliminate and tolerate security problems and attacks.We are particularly interested in open source software security, the conditions under which SRE practices may be useful, and the information that this can provide about the security quality of a software product. We examined public information about security problem reports for open source Fedora and RHEL series of software releases, Chromium project and Android project. The data that we analyzed was primarily about security problems reported from post-release in-the-field use of the products. What can we learn about the non-operational processes (and possible threats) related to security problems? One aspect is classification of security problems based on the traits that contribute to the injection of problems into code, whether due to poor practices or limited knowledge (epistemic errors), or due to random accidental events (aleatoric errors). Knowing the distribution can help understand attack space and help improve development processes and testing of the next version. For example, in the case of Fedora, the distribution of security problems found post-release was consistent across two different releases of the software. The security problem discovery rate appears to be roughly constant but much lower (ten to a hundred times lower) than the initial non-security problem discovery rate. Similarly, in the case of RHEL, the distribution of security problems found post-release was consistent and the number of security problems kept decreasing across six different releases of the software. The security problem discovery rate appears to be roughly constant but again much lower than the initial non-security problem discovery rate. In the case of Chromium, the number of discovered security problems is orders of magnitude higher than for other products, except that does not appear to translate into a higher incidence of field breaches. One reason could be Chromium "bounty" for problem discovery. We find that some classical reliability models can be used as one of tools to estimate the residual number of security problems in both the current release and in the future releases of the software, and through that provide a measure of the security characteristics of the software. For example, to assess whether, under given usage conditions, security problem discovery rate is increasing or decreasing - and what that may mean. Based on our findings, we discuss an agile software testing process that combines operational and non-operational (or attack related) testing with the intent of finding and eliminating more security problems earlier in the software development process. The knowledge of vulnerable components from architectural view and the frequency of vulnerabilities in each of the components helps in prioritizing security test resources.

Hanan Hibshi, Travis Breaux, Stephen Broomell.  2015.  Assessment of Risk Perception in Security Requirements Composition. IEEE 23rd International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE'15).

Security requirements analysis depends on how well-trained analysts perceive security risk, understand the impact of various vulnerabilities, and mitigate threats. When systems are composed of multiple machines, configurations, and software components that interact with each other, risk perception must account for the composition of security requirements. In this paper, we report on how changes to security requirements affect analysts risk perceptions and their decisions about how to modify the requirements to reach adequate security levels. We conducted two user surveys of 174 participants wherein participants assess security levels across 64 factorial vignettes. We analyzed the survey results using multi-level modeling to test for the effect of security requirements composition on participants’ overall security adequacy ratings and on their ratings of individual requirements. We accompanied this analysis with grounded analysis of elicited requirements aimed at lowering the security risk. Our results suggest that requirements composition affects experts’ adequacy ratings on security requirements. In addition, we identified three categories of requirements modifications, called refinements, replacements and reinforcements, and we measured how these categories compare with overall perceived security risk. Finally, we discuss the future impact of our work in security requirements assessment practice.

Ghita Mezzour.  2015.  Assessing the Global Cyber and Biological Threat. Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and Institute for Software Research. Doctor of Philosophy

In today’s inter-connected world, threats from anywhere in the world can have serious global repercussions. In particular, two types of threats have a global impact: 1) cyber crime and 2) cyber and biological weapons. If a country’s environment is conducive to cyber criminal activities, cyber criminals will use that country as a basis to attack end-users around the world. Cyber weapons and biological weapons can now allow a small actor to inflict major damage on a major military power. If cyber and biological weapons are used in combination, the damage can be amplified significantly. Given that the cyber and biological threat is global, it is important to identify countries that pose the greatest threat and design action plans to reduce the threat from these countries. However, prior work on cyber crime lacks empirical substantiation for reasons why some countries’ environments are conducive to cyber crime. Prior work on cyber and biological weapon capabilities mainly consists of case studies which only focus on select countries and thus are not generalizeable. To sum up, assessing the global cyber and biological threat currently lacks a systematic empirical approach. In this thesis, I take an empirical and systematic approach towards assessing the global cyber and biological threat. The first part of the thesis focuses on cyber crime. I examine international variation in cyber crime infrastructure hosting and cyber crime exposure. I also empirically test hypotheses about factors behind such variation. In that work, I use Symantec’s telemetry data, collected from 10 million Symantec customer computers worldwide and accessed through the Symantec’s Worldwide Intelligence Network Environment (WINE). I find that addressing corruption in Eastern Europe or computer piracy in Sub-Saharan Africa has the potential to reduce the global cyber crime. The second part of the thesis focuses on cyber and biological weapon capabilities. I develop two computational methodologies: one to assess countries’ biological capabilities and one to assess countries’ cyber capabilities. The methodologies examine all countries in the world and can be used by non-experts that only have access to publicly available data. I validate the biological weapon assessment methodology by comparing the methodology’s assessment to historical data. This work has the potential to proactively reduce the global cyber and biological weapon threat.

Kim, Donghoon, Vouk, Mladen A..  2016.  Assessing Run-time Overhead of Securing Kepler. The International Conference on Computational Science, ICCS 2016. 80:2281-2286.

We have developed a model for securing data-flow based application chains. We have imple- mented the model in the form of an add-on package for the scientific workflow system called Kepler. Our Security Analysis Package (SAP) leverages Kepler's Provenance Recorder (PR). SAP secures data flows from external input-based attacks, from access to unauthorized exter- nal sites, and from data integrity issues. It is not a surprise that cost of real-time security is a certain amount of run-time overhead. About half of the overhead appears to come from the use of the Kepler PR and the other half from security function added by SAP.

Akond Rahman, Effat Farhana, Laurie Williams.  2020.  The ‘as code’ activities: development anti-patterns for infrastructure as code. Empirical Software Engineering . 25(3467)

Context:

The ‘as code’ suffix in infrastructure as code (IaC) refers to applying software engineering activities, such as version control, to maintain IaC scripts. Without the application of these activities, defects that can have serious consequences may be introduced in IaC scripts. A systematic investigation of the development anti-patterns for IaC scripts can guide practitioners in identifying activities to avoid defects in IaC scripts. Development anti-patterns are recurring development activities that relate with defective IaC scripts.

Goal:

The goal of this paper is to help practitioners improve the quality of infrastructure as code (IaC) scripts by identifying development activities that relate with defective IaC scripts.

Methodology:

We identify development anti-patterns by adopting a mixed-methods approach, where we apply quantitative analysis with 2,138 open source IaC scripts and conduct a survey with 51 practitioners.

Findings:

We observe five development activities to be related with defective IaC scripts from our quantitative analysis. We identify five development anti-patterns namely, ‘boss is not around’, ‘many cooks spoil’, ‘minors are spoiler’, ‘silos’, and ‘unfocused contribution’.

Conclusion:

Our identified development anti-patterns suggest the importance of ‘as code’ activities in IaC because these activities are related to quality of IaC scripts.

Nirav Ajmeri, Hui Guo, Pradeep K. Murukannaiah, Munindar P. Singh.  2017.  Arnor: Modeling Social Intelligence via Norms to Engineer Privacy-Aware Personal Agents. :1–9.

We seek to address the challenge of engineering socially intelligent personal agents that are privacy-aware. We propose Arnor, a method, including a metamodel based on social constructs. Arnor incorporates social norms and goes beyond existing agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE) methods by systematically capturing how a personal agent’s actions influence the social experience it delivers. We conduct two empirical studies to evaluate Arnor. First, via a multiphase developer study, we show that Arnor simplifies application development. Second, via simulation experiments, we show that Arnor provides improved privacy-preserving social experience to end users than personal agents engineered using a traditional AOSE method.

Marwan Abi-Antoun, Sumukhi Chandrashekar, Radu Vanciu, Andrew Giang.  2014.  Are Object Graphs Extracted Using Abstract Interpretation Significantly Different from the Code? Extended Version SCAM '14 Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 14th International Working Conference on Source Code Analysis and Manipulation.

To evolve object-oriented code, one must understand both the code structure in terms of classes, and the runtime structure in terms of abstractions of objects that are being created and relations between those objects. To help with this understanding, static program analysis can extract heap abstractions such as object graphs. But the extracted graphs can become too large if they do not sufficiently abstract objects, or too imprecise if they abstract objects excessively to the point of being similar to a class diagram that shows one box for a class to represent all the instances of that class. One previously proposed solution uses both annotations and abstract interpretation to extract a global, hierarchical, abstract object graph that conveys both abstraction and design intent, but can still be related to the code structure. In this paper, we define metrics that relate nodes and edges in the object graph to elements in the code structure to measure how they differ, and if the differences are indicative of language or design features such as encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance. We compute the metrics across eight systems totaling over 100 KLOC, and show a statistically significant difference between the code and the object graph. In several cases, the magnitude of this difference is large.

Marwan Abi-Antoun, Sumukhi Chandrashekar, Radu Vanciu, Andrew Giang.  2014.  Are Object Graphs Extracted Using Abstract Interpretation Significantly Different from the Code? SCAM '14 Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 14th International Working Conference on Source Code Analysis and Manipulation.

To evolve object-oriented code, one must understand both the code structure in terms of classes, and the runtime structure in terms of abstractions of objects that are being created and relations between those objects. To help with this understanding, static program analysis can extract heap abstractions such as object graphs. But the extracted graphs can become too large if they do not sufficiently abstract objects, or too imprecise if they abstract objects excessively to the point of being similar to a class diagram, where one box for a class represents all the instances of that class. One previously proposed solution uses both annotations and abstract interpretation to extract a global, hierarchical, abstract object graph that conveys both abstraction and design intent, but can still be related to the code structure. In this paper, we define metrics that relate nodes and edges in the object graph to elements in the code structure, to measure how they differ, and if the differences are indicative of language or design features such as encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance. We compute the metrics across eight systems totaling over 100 KLOC, and show a statistically significant difference between the code and the object graph. In several cases, the magnitude of this difference is large.

Bradley Schmerl, Javier Camara, Jeffrey Gennari, David Garlan, Paulo Casanova, Gabriel Moreno, Thomas Glazier, Jeffrey Barnes.  2014.  Architecture-Based Self-Protection: Composing and Reasoning about Denial-of-Service Mitigations. HotSoS '14 Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security.

Security features are often hardwired into software applications, making it difficult to adapt security responses to reflect changes in runtime context and new attacks. In prior work, we proposed the idea of architecture-based self-protection as a way of separating adaptation logic from application logic and providing a global perspective for reasoning about security adaptations in the context of other business goals. In this paper, we present an approach, based on this idea, for combating denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. Our approach allows DoS-related tactics to be composed into more sophisticated mitigation strategies that encapsulate possible responses to a security problem. Then, utility-based reasoning can be used to consider different business contexts and qualities. We describe how this approach forms the underpinnings of a scientific approach to self-protection, allowing us to reason about how to make the best choice of mitigation at runtime. Moreover, we also show how formal analysis can be used to determine whether the mitigations cover the range of conditions the system is likely to encounter, and the effect of mitigations on other quality attributes of the system. We evaluate the approach using the Rainbow self-adaptive framework and show how Rainbow chooses DoS mitigation tactics that are sensitive to different business contexts.

Paulo Casanova, Bradley Schmerl, David Garlan, Rui Abreu.  2011.  Architecture-Based Run-Time Fault Diagnosis. Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Software Architecture.

An important step in achieving robustness to run-time faults is the ability to detect and repair problems when they arise in a running system. Effective fault detection and repair could be greatly enhanced by run-time fault diagnosis and localization, since it would allow the repair mechanisms to focus adaptation effort on the parts most in need of attention. In this paper we describe an approach to run-time fault diagnosis that combines architectural models with spectrum-based reasoning for multiple fault localization. Spectrum-based reasoning is a lightweight technique that takes a form of trace abstraction and produces a list (ordered by probability) of likely fault candidates. We show how this technique can be combined with architectural models to support run-time diagnosis that can (a) scale to modern distributed software systems; (b) accommodate the use of black-box components and proprietary infrastructure for which one has neither a specification nor source code; and (c) handle inherent uncertainty about the probable cause of a problem even in the face of transient faults and faults that arise only when certain combinations of system components interact. 

Bradley Schmerl, Jeff Gennari, David Garlan.  2015.  An Architecture Style for Android Security Analysis. HotSoS '15 Proceedings of the 2015 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security.

Modern frameworks are required to be extendable as well as secure. However, these two qualities are often at odds. In this poster we describe an approach that uses a combination of static analysis and run-time management, based on software architecture models, that can improve security while maintaining framework extendability.

Bradley Schmerl, Jeffrey Gennari, Alireza Sadeghi, Hamid Bagheri, Sam Malek, Javier Camara, David Garlan.  2016.  Architecture Modeling and Analysis of Security in Android Systems. 10th European Conference on Software Architecture (ECSA 2016).

Software architecture modeling is important for analyzing system quality attributes, particularly security. However, such analyses often assume that the architecture is completely known in advance. In many modern domains, especially those that use plugin-based frameworks, it is not possible to have such a complete model because the software system continuously changes. The Android mobile operating system is one such framework, where users can install and uninstall apps at run time. We need ways to model and analyze such architectures that strike a balance between supporting the dynamism of the underlying platforms and enabling analysis, particularly throughout a system’s lifetime. In this paper, we describe a formal architecture style that captures the modifiable architectures of Android systems, and that supports security analysis as a system evolves. We illustrate the use of the style with two security analyses: a predicatebased approach defined over architectural structure that can detect some common security vulnerabilities, and inter-app permission leakage determined by model checking. We also show how the evolving architecture of an Android device can be obtained by analysis of the apps on a device, and provide some performance evaluation that indicates that the architecture can be amenable for use throughout the system’s lifetime. 

Eric Yuan, Sam Malek, Bradley Schmerl, David Garlan, Jeffrey Gennari.  2013.  Architecture Based Self-Protecting Software Systems. QoSA '13 Proceedings of the 9th international ACM Sigsoft conference on Quality of software architectures.

Since conventional software security approaches are often manually developed and statically deployed, they are no longer sufficient against today's sophisticated and evolving cyber security threats. This has motivated the development of self-protecting software that is capable of detecting security threats and mitigating them through runtime adaptation techniques. In this paper, we argue for an architecture-based self- protection (ABSP) approach to address this challenge. In ABSP, detection and mitigation of security threats are informed by an architectural representation of the running system, maintained at runtime. With this approach, it is possible to reason about the impact of a potential security breach on the system, assess the overall security posture of the system, and achieve defense in depth. To illustrate the effectiveness of this approach, we present several architecture adaptation patterns that provide reusable detection and mitigation strategies against well-known web application security threats. Finally, we describe our ongoing work in realizing these patterns on top of Rainbow, an existing architecture-based adaptation framework.

Nirav Ajmeri, Chung-Wei Hang, Simon D. Parsons, Munindar P. Singh.  2017.  Aragorn: Eliciting and Maintaining Secure Service Policies. IEEE Computer. 50:1–8.

Services today are configured through policies that capture expected behaviors. However, because of subtle and changing stakeholder requirements, producing and maintaining policies is nontrivial. Policy errors are surprisingly common and cause avoidable security vulnerabilities.

We propose Aragorn, an approach that applies formal argumentation to produce policies that balance stakeholder concerns. We demonstrate empirically that, compared to the traditional approach for specifying policies, Aragorn performs (1) better on coverage, correctness, and quality; (2) equally well on learnability and effort÷coverage and difficulty; and (3) slightly worse on time and effort needed. Thus, Aragorn demonstrates the potential for capturing policy rationales as arguments.

To appear

Dawid Gawel, Maciej Kosarzecki, Poorvi L. Vora, Hua Wu, Filip Zagórski.  2016.  Apollo - End-to-End Verifiable Internet Voting with Recovery from Vote Manipulation. E-VOTE-ID.

We present security vulnerabilities in the remote voting system Helios. We propose Apollo, a modified version of Helios, which addresses these vulnerabilities and could improve the feasibility of internet voting.

In particular, we note that Apollo does not possess Helios' major known vulnerability, where a dishonest voting terminal can change the vote after it obtains the voter's credential. With Apollo-lite, votes not authorized by the voter are detected by the public and prevented from being included in the tally.

The full version of Apollo enables a voter to prove that her vote was changed. We also describe a very simple protocol for the voter to interact with any devices she employs to check on the voting system, to enable frequent and easy auditing of encryptions and checking of the bulletin board.
 

Thomas Glazier, Javier Camara, Bradley Schmerl, David Garlan.  2015.  Analyzing Resilience Properties of Different Topologies of Collective Adaptive Systems. Proceedings of the 3rd FoCAS Workshop on the Fundamentals of Collective Adaptive Systems.

Modern software systems are often compositions of entities that increasingly use self-adaptive capabilities to improve their behavior to achieve systemic quality goals. Self adaptive managers for each component system attempt to provide locally optimal results, but if they cooperated and potentially coordinated their efforts it might be possible to obtain more globally optimal results. The emergent properties that result from such composition and cooperation of self-adaptive systems are not well understood, difficult to reason about, and present a key challenge in the evolution of modern software systems. For example, the effects of coordination patterns and protocols on emergent properties, such as the resiliency of the collectives, need to be understood when designing these systems. In this paper we propose that probabilistic model checking of stochastic multiplayer games (SMG) provides a promising approach to analyze, understand, and reason about emergent properties in collectives of adaptive systems (CAS). Probabilistic Model Checking of SMGs is a technique particularly suited to analyzing emergent properties in CAS since SMG models capture: (i) the uncertainty and variability intrinsic to a CAS and its execution environment in the form of probabilistic and nondeterministic choices, and (ii) the competitive/cooperative aspects of the interplay among the constituent systems of the CAS. Analysis of SMGs allows us to reason about things like the worst case scenarios, which constitutes a new contribution to understanding emergent properties in CAS. We investigate the use of SMGs to show how they can be useful in analyzing the impact of communication topology for collections of fully cooperative systems defending against an external attack.

Christian Kästner, Jurgen Pfeffer.  2014.  Analyzing Interactions and Isolation among Configuration Options. HotSoS '14 Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security.

In highly configurable systems the configuration space is too big for (re-)certifying every configuration in isolation. In this project, we combine software analysis with network analysis to detect which configuration options interact and which have local effects. Instead of analyzing a system as Linux and SELinux for every combination of configuration settings one by one (>102000 even considering compile-time configurations only), we analyze the effect of each configuration option once for the entire configuration space. The analysis will guide us to designs separating interacting configuration options in a core system and isolating orthogonal and less trusted configuration options from this core. 

Subramani, Shweta, Vouk, Mladen A., Williams, Laurie.  2014.  An Analysis of Fedora Security Profile. HotSoS 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security (HotSoS). :169-71.

In our previous work we showed that for Fedora, under normal operational conditions, security problem discovery appears to be a random process. While in the case of Fedora, and a number of other open source products, classical reliability models can be adapted to estimate the number of residual security problems under “normal” operational usage (not attacks), the predictive ability of the model is lower for security faults due to the rarity of security events and because there appears to be no real security reliability growth. The ratio of security to non-security faults is an indicator that the process needs improving, but it also may be leveraged to assess vulnerability profile of a release and possibly guide testing of its next version. We manually analyzed randomly sampled problems for four different versions of Fedora and classified them into security vulnerability categories. We also analyzed the distribution of these problems over the software’s lifespan and we found that they exhibit a symmetry which can perhaps be used in estimating the number of residual security problems in the software. Based on our work, we believe that an approach to vulnerability elimination based on a combination of “classical” and some non-operational “bounded” high-assurance testing along the lines discussed in may yield good vulnerability elimination results, as well as a way of estimating vulnerability level of a release. Classical SRE methods, metrics and models can be used to track both non-security and security problem detection under normal operational profile. We can then model the reliability growth, if any, and estimate the number of residual faults by estimating the lower and upper bounds on the total number of faults of a certain type. In production, there may be a simpler alternative. Just count the vulnerabilities and project over the next period assuming constant vulnerability discovery rate. In testing phase, to accelerate the process, one might leverage collected vulnerability information to generate non-operational test-cases aimed at vulnerability categories. The observed distributions of security problems reported under normal “operational” usage appear to support the above approach – i.e., what is learned say in the first x weeks can them be leveraged in selecting test cases in the next stage. Similarly, what is learned about a product Y weeks after its release may be very indicative of its vulnerability profile for the rest of its life given the assumption of constant vulnerability discovery rate.

Alireza Sadeghi, Hamid Bagheri, Sam Malek.  2015.  Analysis of Android Inter-App Security Vulnerabilities Using COVERT. ICSE '15 Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Software Engineering. 2

The state-of-the-art in securing mobile software systems are substantially intended to detect and mitigate vulnerabilities in a single app, but fail to identify vulnerabilities that arise due to the interaction of multiple apps, such as collusion attacks and privilege escalation chaining, shown to be quite common in the apps on the market. This paper demonstrates COVERT, a novel approach and accompanying tool-suite that relies on a hybrid static analysis and lightweight formal analysis technique to enable compositional security assessment of complex software. Through static analysis of Android application packages, it extracts relevant security specifications in an analyzable formal specification language, and checks them as a whole for inter-app vulnerabilities. To our knowledge, COVERT is the first formally-precise analysis tool for automated compositional analysis of Android apps. Our study of hundreds of Android apps revealed dozens of inter-app vulnerabilities, many of which were previously unknown. A video highlighting the main features of the tool can be found at: http://youtu.be/bMKk7OW7dGg.

Ryan Wagner, Matthew Fredrikson, David Garlan.  2017.  An Advanced Persistent Threat Exemplar.

Security researchers do not have sufficient example systems for conducting research on advanced persistent threats, and companies and agencies that experience attacks in the wild are reluctant to release detailed information that can be examined. In this paper, we describe an Advanced Persistent Threat Exemplar that is intended to provide a real-world attack scenario with sufficient complexity for reasoning about defensive system adaptation, while not containing so much information as to be too complex. It draws from actual published attacks and experiences as a security engineer by the authors.

Marwan Abi-Antoun, Ebrahim Khalaj, Radu Vanciu, Ahmad Moghimi.  2016.  Abstract Runtime Structure Reasoning about Security. HotSos '16 Proceedings of the Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security.

We propose an interactive approach where analysts reason about the security of a system using an abstraction of its runtime structure, as opposed to looking at the code. They interactively refine a hierarchical object graph, set security properties on abstract objects or edges, query the graph, and investigate the results by studying highlighted objects or edges or tracing to the code. Behind the scenes, an inference analysis and an extraction analysis maintain the soundness of the graph with respect to the code.