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Lee, Da Young, Vouk, Mladen A., Williams, Laurie.  2013.  Using software reliability models for security assessment — Verification of assumptions. IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW), 2013. :pp23-24.

Can software reliability models be used to assess software security? One of the issues is that security problems are relatively rare under “normal” operational profiles, while “classical” reliability models may not be suitable for use in attack conditions. We investigated a range of Fedora open source software security problems to see if some of the basic assumptions behind software reliability growth models hold for discovery of security problems in non-attack situations. We find that in some cases, under “normal” operational use, security problem detection process may be described as a Poisson process. In those cases, we can use appropriate classical software reliability growth models to assess “security reliability” of that software in non-attack situations.We analyzed security problem discovery rate for RedHat Fedora. We find that security problems are relatively rare, their rate of discovery appears to be relatively constant under “normal” (non-attack) conditions. Discovery process often appears to satisfy Poisson assumption opening doors to use of classical reliability models. We illustrated using Yamada S-shaped model fit to v15 that in some cases such models may be effective in predicting the number of remaining security problems, and thus may offer a way of assessing security “quality” of the software product (although not necessarily its behavior under an attack).

Aviv, Adam J, Fichter, Dane.  2014.  Understanding visual perceptions of usability and security of Android's graphical password pattern. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :286–295.
Aiping Xiong, Robert W. Proctor, Ninghui Li, Weining Yang.  2016.  Use of Warnings for Instructing Users How to Detect Phishing Webpages. 46th Annual Meeting of the Society for Computers in Psychology.

The ineffectiveness of phishing warnings has been attributed to users' poor comprehension of the warning. However, the effectiveness of a phishing warning is typically evaluated at the time when users interact with a suspected phishing webpage, which we call the effect with phishing warning. Nevertheless, users' improved phishing detection when the warning is absent—or the effect of the warning—is the ultimate goal to prevent users from falling for phishing scams. We conducted an online study to evaluate the effect with and of several phishing warning variations, varying the point at which the warning was presented and whether procedural knowledge instruction was included in the warning interface. The current Chrome phishing warning was also included as a control. 360 Amazon Mechanical-Turk workers made submission; 500¬ word maximum for symposia) decisions about 10 login webpages (8 authentic, 2 fraudulent) with the aid of warning (first phase). After a short distracting task, the workers made the same decisions about 10 different login webpages (8 authentic, 2 fraudulent) without warning. In phase one, the compliance rates with two proposed warning interfaces (98% and 94%) were similar to those of the Chrome warning (98%), regardless of when the warning was presented. In phase two (without warning), performance was better for the condition in which warning with procedural knowledge instruction was presented before the phishing webpage in phase one, suggesting a better of effect than for the other conditions. With the procedural knowledge of how to determine a webpage’s legitimacy, users identified phishing webpages more accurately even without the warning being presented.

Venkatakrishnan, Roopak, Vouk, Mladen A..  2016.  Using Redundancy to Detect Security Anomalies: Towards IoT security attack detectors. ACM Ubiquity. 2016(January):1-19.

Cyber-attacks and breaches are often detected too late to avoid damage. While "classical" reactive cyber defenses usually work only if we have some prior knowledge about the attack methods and "allowable" patterns, properly constructed redundancy-based anomaly detectors can be more robust and often able to detect even zero day attacks. They are a step toward an oracle that uses knowable behavior of a healthy system to identify abnormalities. In the world of Internet of Things (IoT), security, and anomalous behavior of sensors and other IoT components, will be orders of magnitude more difficult unless we make those elements security aware from the start. In this article we examine the ability of redundancy-based anomaly detectors to recognize some high-risk and difficult to detect attacks on web servers---a likely management interface for many IoT stand-alone elements. In real life, it has taken long, a number of years in some cases, to identify some of the vulnerabilities and related attacks. We discuss practical relevance of the approach in the context of providing high-assurance Web-services that may belong to autonomous IoT applications and devices.