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Momin Malik, Jurgen Pfeffer, Gabriel Ferreira, Christian Kästner.  2016.  Visualizing the variational callgraph of the Linux Kernel: An approach for reasoning about dependencies. HotSos '16 Proceedings of the Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security.

Software developers use #ifdef statements to support code configurability, allowing software product diversification. But because functions can be in many executions paths that depend on complex combinations of configuration options, the introduction of an #ifdef for a given purpose (such as adding a new feature to a program) can enable unintended function calls, which can be a source of vulnerabilities. Part of the difficulty lies in maintaining mental models of all dependencies. We propose analytic visualizations of thevariational callgraph to capture dependencies across configurations and create visualizations to demonstrate how it would help developers visually reason through the implications of diversification, for example through visually doing change impact analysis.