Visible to the public Cyber-Physical Systems

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Cyber-Physical Systems

Cyber-Physical systems generally are systems where computers control physical entities. They exist in areas as diverse as automobiles, manufacturing, energy, transportation, chemistry, and computer appliances. In this bibliography, the primary focus of published research is in smart grid technologies--the use of cyber-physical systems to coordinate the generation, transmission, and use of electrical power and its sources. Because of its strategic importance and the consequences of intrusion, smart grid is of particular importance to the Science of Security.

  • "Effect of Intrusion Detection and Response on Reliability of Cyber Physical Systems," Mitchell, R.; Chen, I., Reliability, IEEE Transactions on , vol.62, no.1, pp.199,210, March 2013 (ID#:14-1169) Available at: The authors analyze the effect of intrusion detection and response on the reliability of a cyber physical system (CPS) comprising sensors, actuators, control units, and physical objects for controlling and protecting a physical infrastructure. They develop a probability model based on stochastic Petri nets to describe the behavior of the CPS in the presence of both malicious nodes exhibiting a range of attacker behaviors, and an intrusion detection and response system (IDRS) for detecting and responding to malicious events at runtime. Their results indicate that adjusting detection and response strength in response to attacker strength and behavior detected can significantly improve the reliability of the CPS. They report numerical data for a CPS subject to persistent, random and insidious attacks with physical interpretations given.
  • "Smart Grid Communications: Overview of Research Challenges, Solutions, and Standardization Activities," Zhong Fan; Kulkarni, P.; Gormus, S.; Efthymiou, C.; Kalogridis, G.; Sooriyabandara, M.; Ziming Zhu; Lambotharan, S.; Woon Hau Chin. Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE , vol.15, no.1, pp.21,38, First Quarter 2013. (ID#:14-1170) Available at: According to the authors, optimization of energy consumption in future intelligent energy networks (or Smart Grids) will be based on grid-integrated near-real-time communications between various grid elements in generation, transmission, distribution and loads. Their paper discusses the challenges and opportunities of communications research in the areas of smart grid and smart metering. In particular, they focus on some of the key communications challenges for realizing interoperable and future-proof smart grid/metering networks, smart grid security and privacy, and how some of the existing networking technologies can be applied to energy management. Finally, they discuss the coordinated standardization efforts in Europe to harmonize communications standards and protocols.
  • "Cyber-Physical Security Testbeds: Architecture, Application, and Evaluation for Smart Grid," Hahn, A.; Ashok, A.; Sridhar, S.; Govindarasu, M., Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on , vol.4, no.2, pp.847,855, June 2013. (ID#:14-1171) Available at: According to the authors, the development of a smarter electric grid will depend on increased deployments of information and communication technology (ICT) to support novel communication and control functions. This additional dependency also expands the risk from cyber attacks. Designing systems with adequate cyber security depends heavily on the availability of representative environments, such as testbeds, where current issues and future ideas can be evaluated. This paper provides an overview of a smart grid security testbed, including the set of control, communication, and physical system components required to provide an accurate cyber-physical environment. It then identifies various testbed research applications and also identifies how various components support these applications. The PowerCyber testbed at Iowa State University is then introduced, including the architecture, applications, and novel capabilities, such as virtualization, Real Time Digital Simulators (RTDS), and ISEAGE WAN emulation. Finally, several attack scenarios are evaluated using the testbed to explore cyber-physical impacts. In particular, availability and integrity attacks are demonstrated with both isolated and coordinated approaches, these attacks are then evaluated based on the physical system's voltage and rotor angle stability.
  • "Future Research on Cyber-Physical Emergency Management Systems", Erol Gelenbe , Fang-Jing Wu. Future Internet 2013, 5(3), 336-354. (ID#:14-1172) Available at:
  • "Game theory meets network security and privacy", Mohammad Hossein Manshaei , Quanyan Zhu, Tansu Alpcan, Tamer Bacsar, Jean-Pierre Hubaux . ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) Volume 45 Issue 3, June 2013. (ID#:14-1174) Available at: (fee required)
  • "Energy management systems: state of the art and emerging trends," Aman, S.; Simmhan, Y.; Prasanna, V.K., Communications Magazine, IEEE , vol.51, no.1, pp.114,119, January 2013. (ID#:14-1176) Available at: According to the authors, the electric grid is radically evolving and transforming into the smart grid, which is characterized by improved energy efficiency and manageability of available resources. Energy management (EM) systems, often integrated with home automation systems, play an important role in the control of home energy consumption and enable increased consumer participation. These systems provide consumers with information about their energy consumption patterns and help them adopt energy-efficient behavior. The new generation EM systems leverage advanced analytics and communication technologies to offer consumers actionable information and control features, while ensuring ease of use, availability, security, and privacy. In this article, the authors present a survey of the state of the art in EM systems, applications, and frameworks. We define a set of requirements for EM systems and evaluate several EM systems in this context. They also discuss emerging trends in this area.
  • "Trustworthiness analysis of sensor data in cyber-physical systems",Lu-An Tanga, Xiao Yua, Sangkyum Kima, Quanquan Gua, Jiawei Hana, Alice Leungb, Thomas La Portac. Journal of Computer and System Sciences Volume 79, Issue 3, May 2013, Pages 383-401. (ID#:14-1178) Available at: (fee required)
  • "An Online Optimization Approach for Control and Communication Codesign in Networked Cyber-Physical Systems," Xianghui Cao; Peng Cheng; Jiming Chen; Youxian Sun, Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.9, no.1, pp.439,450, Feb. 2013. (ID#:14-1179) Available at: According to the authors, networked cyber-physical systems (NCPS), where control and communication are closely integrated, have been envisioned to have a large number of high-impact applications. In this paper, a joint optimization framework is presented, which combines the objective of control as well as other relevant system objectives and constraints such as communication errors, delays and the limited capabilities (e.g., energy capacities) of devices. The problem is solved by an online optimization approach, which consists of a communication protocol and a simulated annealing based control algorithm. Meanwhile, by taking into account the communication cost, the authors optimize the control intervals by integrating two kinds of acceptances, i.e., cyber and physical acceptances, into the control algorithm. Numerical results show the effectiveness of their proposed approach.


Articles listed on these pages have been found on publicly available internet pages and are cited with links to those pages. Some of the information included herein has been reprinted with permission from the authors or data repositories. Direct any requests via Email to SoS.Project (at) for removal of the links or modifications to specific citations. Please include the ID# of the specific citation in your correspondence.