Visible to the public Intrusion Tolerance

SoS Newsletter- Advanced Book Block

Intrusion Tolerance

Intrusion tolerance refers to a fault-tolerant design approach to defending communications, computer and other information systems against malicious attack. Rather than detecting all anomalies, tolerant systems only identify those intrusions which lead to security failures. This collection cites 11 articles of interest addressing new methods of building secure fault tolerant systems.

  • "Rethinking error injection for effective resilience," Mirkhani, S.; Hyungmin Cho; Mitra, S.; Abraham, J.A., Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC), 2014 19th Asia and South Pacific, vol., no., pp.390,393, 20-23 Jan. 2014. (ID#:14-1254) Available at: This paper suggests approaches to improving current error injections, a method used to evaluate a system's resilience to errors, particularly radiation-induced soft errors. The most widely used method of such evaluation today is through injection of errors into elements of processors, application programs, and hardware storage. This paper employs answers from frequently asked questions to explore methods of improving today's standard approaches to improve error resiliency.
  • "An Intrusion Tolerant Identity Management Infrastructure for Cloud Computing Services," Barreto, L.; Siqueira, F.; Fraga, J.; Feitosa, E., Web Services (ICWS), 2013 IEEE 20th International Conference on, vol., no., pp.155,162, June 28 2013-July 3 2013. (ID#:14-1255) Available at: Identity management is a central point to the security of large applications such cloud services. The identity providers (IdPs) offer services that handle critical information of users. Usually, this kind of information is stored with special care in these providers and intrusions do not necessarily result in security violations. But intrusions may implant malicious behaviors which modify the action of these authentication services. In this way, unauthorized accesses may be achieved for denying accesses to legitimate users of the system. In this paper we introduce an approach for intrusion tolerance to ensure the correct behavior in authentication of large systems, even in presence of possible intrusions.
  • "Redundancy Management of Multipath Routing for Intrusion Tolerance in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks," Al-Hamadi, H.; Ing-Ray Chen, Network and Service Management, IEEE Transactions on, vol.10, no.2, pp.189,203, June 2013. (ID#:14-1256) Available at: In this paper we propose redundancy management of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSNs), utilizing multipath routing to answer user queries in the presence of unreliable and malicious nodes. The key concept of our redundancy management is to exploit the tradeoff between energy consumption vs. the gain in reliability, timeliness, and security to maximize the system useful lifetime. We formulate the tradeoff as an optimization problem for dynamically determining the best redundancy level to apply to multipath routing for intrusion tolerance so that the query response success probability is maximized while prolonging the useful lifetime. Furthermore, we consider this optimization problem for the case in which a voting-based distributed intrusion detection algorithm is applied to detect and evict malicious nodes in a HWSN. We develop a novel probability model to analyze the best redundancy level in terms of path redundancy and source redundancy, as well as the best intrusion detection settings in terms of the number of voters and the intrusion invocation interval under which the lifetime of a HWSN is maximized. We then apply the analysis results obtained to the design of a dynamic redundancy management algorithm to identify and apply the best design parameter settings at runtime in response to environment changes, to maximize the HWSN lifetime.
  • "A joint scheme for secure and reliable communication in wireless sensor networks," Alawadhi, R.; Nair, S., Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA), 2013 ACS International Conference on, vol., no., pp.1,1, 27-30 May 2013. (ID#:14-1257) Available at: This paper discusses the necessity of security and reliability of information exchange when designing wireless sensor networks (WSNs), particularly for critical applications. This paper proposes a system which encompass information confidentiality and delivery assurance in the event of failed or compromised communication. In order to do this, the authors have devised combining Crypto-System with Embedded Error Control (CSEEC) with multi-path routing for intrusion-tolerant wireless sensor networks.
  • "An intrusion tolerant transaction management model for wireless storage area networks," Djemaiel, Y.; Boudriga, N.; Zouaidi, S., Computer and Information Technology (WCCIT), 2013 World Congress on, vol., no., pp.1,6, 22-24 June 2013. (ID#:14-1258) Available at: The emergence and growing dependence on wireless storage area networks has introduced new security threats, particularly those devised to incorrectly process transactions, thereby also making interconnected areas vulnerable. This paper details an intrusion-tolerant model for wireless storage area networks, with a view to harden transaction applications against exploits. The proposed model utilizes the Predicate Transition Net to monitor secure flex transactions. The model is tested for success by subjecting a simulated company e-commerce transaction service to attacks.
  • "Fault and Intrusion Tolerance of Complex Networks: A Controllability View," Yuehua Zhou; Yong Zeng; Zhihong Liu; Nan Li; Jianfeng Ma; Lihua Dong, Intelligent Networking and Collaborative Systems (INCoS), 2013 5th International Conference on, vol., no., pp.516,520, 9-11 Sept. 2013. (ID#:14-1259) Available at: This paper introduces a unique controllability framework for the fault and intrusion tolerance of complex networks, using driver nodes as opposed to network topology or functions. This paper details the discovery that Scale-free (SF) networks offer a more robust fault tolerance than Erdos-Renyi (ER) networks, while both networks provide substandard intrusion tolerance.
  • "An intrusion-tolerant firewall design for protecting SIEM systems," Garcia, M.; Neves, N.; Bessani, A., Dependable Systems and Networks Workshop (DSN-W), 2013 43rd Annual IEEE/IFIP Conference on, vol., no., pp.1,7, 24-27 June 2013. (ID#:14-1260) Available at: Nowadays, organizations are resorting to Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) systems to monitor and manage their network infrastructures. SIEMs employ a data collection capability based on many sensors placed in critical points of the network, which forwards events to a core facility for processing and support different forms of analysis (e.g., report attacks in near real time, inventory management, risk assessment). In this paper, the authors focus on the defense of the core facility components by presenting a new firewall design that is resilient to very harsh failure scenarios. In particular, it tolerates not only external attacks but also the intrusion of some of its components. The firewall employs a two level filtering scheme to increase performance and to allow for some flexibility on the selection of fault-tolerance mechanisms. The first filtering stage efficiently eliminates the most common forms of attacks, while the second stage supports application rules for a more sophisticated analysis of the traffic. The fault tolerance mechanisms are based on a detection and recovery approach for the first stage, while the second stage uses state machine replication and voting.
  • "Dynamic multisource multipath routing for intrusion tolerance and lifetime maximization of autonomous wireless sensor networks," Al-Hamadi, Hamid; Chen, Ing-Ray, Autonomous Decentralized Systems (ISADS), 2013 IEEE Eleventh International Symposium on, vol., no., pp.1,7, 6-8 March 2013. (ID#:14-1261) Available at: Multisource multipath data routing to a remote sink node is an effective way to cope with unreliable and malicious nodes in autonomous wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, the authors analyze the optimal amount of redundancy in terms of the number of source sensors sensing the same physical phenomena and the number of paths through which data are routed to a remote sink node in the presence of unreliable and malicious nodes so that the query success probability is maximized while maximizing the sensor network lifetime. Their dynamic multisource multipath routing algorithm design integrates with a voting-based distributed intrusion detection algorithm to remove malicious nodes from the sensor network. By controlling the redundancy level for multisource multipath and intrusion detection settings dynamically with energy considerations as prescribed by our algorithm, they demonstrate that the lifetime of a query-based autonomous WSN is maximized in response to changing environment conditions including node density, radio range, and node capture rate.
  • "The Design of a Robust Intrusion Tolerance System through Advanced Adaptive Cluster Transformation and Vulnerability-Based VM Selection," Jungmin Lim; Seokjoo Doo; Hyunsoo Yoon, Military Communications Conference, MILCOM 2013 - 2013 IEEE, vol., no., pp.1422,1428, 18-20 Nov. 2013. (ID#:14-1262) Available at: In this paper, the authors suggest novel schemes which use advanced adaptive cluster transformation and VM selection policy for intrusion tolerant systems (ITSs). The cluster size is transformed adaptively in order to maintain a certain level of services by using the adaptive cluster expansion scheme. Also, all the servers in clusters can be substituted in case serious threat such as massive packets incoming is expected by using the adaptive cluster substitution method. If there exists reliable historical data, more fast transformation is possible. In addition, the less-vulnerable virtual machines (VMs) are chosen using evaluation policies to reduce data leakage occurred from system's vulnerabilities. Simulation results done with CSIM 20 prove that the suggested schemes improve intrusion tolerance efficiently compared to other conventional methods.
  • "Intrusion tolerant system for integrated vetronics survivability strategy," Obi, O.; Deshpande, A.; Stipidis, E.; Charchalakis, P., System Safety Conference incorporating the Cyber Security Conference 2013, 8th IET International, vol., no., pp.1,6, 16-17 Oct. 2013. (ID#:14-1263) Available at: This paper discusses the current detection and recovery methods for vetronics, the architecture which, when exploited, exhibits abnormal behavior and ceases normal functions. This paper details improvements in vetronics survivability, notably by adding an intrusion tolerance mechanism which would directly address characteristics of an attack, as opposed to conventional methods, such as diagnosis or containment. Dynamic responses to attackers, as well as closer integration of services and framework are also proposed.
  • "Towards practical intrusion tolerant systems," Wenbing Zhao, Information and Communications Technologies (IETICT 2013), IET International Conference on, vol., no., pp.280,287, 27-29 April 2013. (ID#:14-1264) Available at: This paper discusses a novel approach to developing intrusion-tolerant mission-critical systems. The approach separates execution and state management, enabling simultaneous, parallel executions and limiting runtime overhead. This approach implements an append-only log, aiding in system hardening and a clean state for recovery, and implements acceptance testing to help verify application requests.


Articles listed on these pages have been found on publicly available internet pages and are cited with links to those pages. Some of the information included herein has been reprinted with permission from the authors or data repositories. Direct any requests via Email to SoS.Project (at) for removal of the links or modifications to specific citations. Please include the ID# of the specific citation in your correspondence.