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SoS Newsletter- Advanced Book Block


In computer science, a lock is a timing mechanism designed to enforce a control policy. Locks have some advantages and many disadvantages. To be efficient, they typically require hardware support. The articles cited here look at cache locking, injection locking, phase locking, and a lock-free approach to addressing multicore computing. These articles appeared in the first half of 2014.

  • Huping Ding; Yun Liang; Mitra, T., "WCET-Centric Dynamic Instruction Cache Locking," Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition (DATE), 2014 , vol., no., pp.1,6, 24-28 March 2014. doi: 10.7873/DATE.2014.040 Cache locking is an effective technique to improve timing predictability in real-time systems. In static cache locking, the locked memory blocks remain unchanged throughout the program execution. Thus static locking may not be effective for large programs where multiple memory blocks are competing for few cache lines available for locking. In comparison, dynamic cache locking overcomes cache space limitation through time-multiplexing of locked memory blocks. Prior dynamic locking technique partitions the program into regions and takes independent locking decisions for each region. We propose a flexible loop-based dynamic cache locking approach. We not only select the memory blocks to be locked but also the locking points (e.g., loop level). We judiciously allow memory blocks from the same loop to be locked at different program points for WCET improvement. We design a constraint-based approach that incorporates a global view to decide on the number of locking slots at each loop entry point and then select the memory blocks to be locked for each loop. Experimental evaluation shows that our dynamic cache locking approach achieves substantial improvement of WCET compared to prior techniques. Keywords: {ache storage; real-time systems; WCET-centric dynamic instruction cache locking; cache lines; constraint-based approach; flexible loop-based dynamic cache locking approach; independent locking decisions; locked memory blocks ;locking points;loop entry point; multiple memory blocks; program execution; program points; real-time systems; time-multiplexing; timing predictability ;worst-case execution time; Abstracts; Benchmark testing; Educational institutions; Electronic mail; Nickel; Resilience; Timing (ID#:14-2374) URL:
  • Raj, M.; Emami, A, "A Wideband Injection-Locking Scheme and Quadrature Phase Generation in 65-nm CMOS," Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on , vol.62, no.4, pp.763,772, April 2014. doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2014.2310172 A novel technique for wideband injection locking in an LC oscillator is proposed. Phased-lock-loop and injection-locking elements are combined symbiotically to achieve wide locking range while retaining the simplicity of the latter. This method does not require a phase frequency detector or a loop filter to achieve phase lock. A mathematical analysis of the system is presented and the expression for new locking range is derived. A locking range of 13.4-17.2 GHz and an average jitter tracking bandwidth of up to 400 MHz were measured in a high- Q LC oscillator. This architecture is used to generate quadrature phases from a single clock without any frequency division. It also provides high-frequency jitter filtering while retaining the low-frequency correlated jitter essential for forwarded clock receivers. Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits; LC circuits; MMIC oscillators ;injection locked oscillators; jitter; phase locked loops; voltage-controlled oscillators; forwarded clock receivers ;frequency 13.4 GHz to 17.2 GHz; high-Q LC oscillator; high-frequency jitter filtering; injection-locking elements; jitter tracking bandwidth; low-frequency correlated jitter; mathematical analysis; phased-lock-loop; quadrature phase generation; size 65 nm; wide locking range; wideband injection locking scheme; Clocks; Jitter; Mathematical model; Phase locked loops; Varactors; Voltage-controlled oscillators; Adler's equation; injection-locked (IL) phase-locked loop (PLL); injection-locked oscillator (ILO) ;jitter transfer function; locking range; quadrature; voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) (ID#:14-2375) URL:
  • Asaduzzaman, A; Allen, M.P.; Jareen, T., "An Effective Locking-Free Caching Technique For Power-Aware Multicore Computing Systems," Informatics, Electronics & Vision (ICIEV), 2014 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,6, 23-24 May 2014. doi: 10.1109/ICIEV.2014.6850861 In multicore/manycore systems, multiple caches increase the total power consumption and intensify latency because it is nearly impossible to hide last-level latency. Studies suggest that there are opportunities to increase the performance to power ratio by locking selected memory blocks inside the caches during runtime. However, the cache locking technique reduces the effective cache size and may introduce additional configuration difficulties, especially for multicore architectures. Furthermore, there may be other restrictions (example: PowerPC 750GX processor does not allow cache locking at level-1). In this paper, we propose a Smart Victim Cache (SVC) assisted caching technique that eliminates traditional cache locking without compromising the performance to power ratio. In addition to functioning as a normal victim cache, the proposed SVC holds memory blocks that may cause higher cache misses and supports stream buffering to increase cache hits. We model a Quad-Core System that has Private First Level Caches (PFLCs), a Shared Last Level Cache (SLLC), and a shared SVC located between the PFLCs and SLLC. We run simulation programs using a diverse group of applications including MPEG-4 and H.264/AVC. Experimental results suggest that the proposed SVC added multicore cache memory subsystem helps decrease the total power consumption and average latency up to 21% and 17%, respectively, when compared with that of SLLC cache locking mechanism without SVC. Keywords: cache storage; multiprocessing systems; power aware computing; PFLCs; PowerPC 750GX processor; SLLC; SVC; cache locking technique; effective locking free caching technique; intensify latency; multicore cache memory subsystem; multicore-manycore systems; power aware multicore computing systems; power consumption; power ratio; private first level caches; quadcore system; selected memory blocks; shared last level cache; smart victim cache; Informatics; Memory management; Multicore processing; Power demand; Static VAr compensators; Transform coding; Video coding; Cache locking; green technology; low-power computing; multicore architecture; victim cache (ID#:14-2376) URL:
  • Dong Hou; Bo Ning; Shuangyou Zhang; Jiutao Wu; Jianye Zhao, "Long-Term Stabilization of Fiber Laser Using Phase-Locking Technique With Ultra-Low Phase Noise and Phase Drift," Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of, vol.20, no.5, pp.1,8, Sept.-Oct. 2014. doi: 10.1109/JSTQE.2014.2316592 We investigated the phase noise performance of a conventional phase-locking technique in the long-term stabilization of a mode-locked fiber laser (MLFL). The investigation revealed that the electronic noise introduced by the electronic phase detector is a key contributor to the phase noise of the stabilization system. To eliminate this electronic noise, we propose an improved phase-locking technique with an optic-microwave phase detector and a pump-tuning-based technique. The mechanism and the theoretical model of the novel phase-locking technique are discussed. Long-term stabilization experiments demonstrated that the improved technique can achieve long-term stabilization of MLFLs with ultra-low phase noise and phase drift. The excellent locking performance of the improved phase-locking technique implies that this technique can be used to stabilize fiber lasers with a highly stable H-maser or an optical clock without stability loss. Keywords: fibre lasers; laser mode locking; laser tuning; optical pumping; phase detectors; phase noise; electronic noise; electronic phase detector; fiber laser; long-term stabilization; mode-locked fiber laser; optic-microwave phase detector; phase drift; phase-locking technique; pump-tuning-based technique; ultra-low phase noise; Adaptive optics; Optical fibers; Optical noise; Optical pulses; Phase locked loops; Phase noise ;Modeling; mode-locked fiber laser (MLFL);phase detection; phase-locking loop; stabilization (ID#:14-2377) URL:
  • Jing Jin; Bukun Pan; Xiaoming Liu; Jianjun Zhou, "Injection-Locking Frequency Divider based dual-modulus prescalers with extended locking range," Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), 2014 IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.502,505, 1-5 June 2014. doi: 10.1109/ISCAS.2014.6865182 A new Injection-Locking Frequency Divider (ILFD) based dual-modulus prescaler with extended locking range is presented in this paper. The tuning capacitor inserted into the ring oscillator loop can widen the common locking range of two operating modes of the prescaler. A dual-modulus prescaler using the proposed method is designed and simulated in a 65nm CMOS process. Simulation results show that the locking range of the divide-by-4/5, from 11.5 GHz to 19.1 GHz, is extended by more than 40 % compared with from 14 GHz to 19.4 GHz using the conventional design. Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits; field effect MMIC; frequency dividers; injection locked oscillators; microwave oscillators; CMOS process; dual modulus prescaler; extended locking range; frequency 11.5 GHz to 19.1 GHz; injection locking frequency divider; ring oscillator loop; size 65 nm; tuning capacitor; Capacitors; Frequency conversion; Phase locked loops; Power demand; Ring oscillators; Tuning (ID#:14-2378) URL:
  • Hwi Don Lee; Zhongping Chen; Myung Yung Jeong; Chang-Seok Kim, "Simultaneous Dual-Band Wavelength-Swept Fiber Laser Based on Active Mode Locking," Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE , vol.26, no.2, pp.190,193, Jan.15, 2014. doi: 10.1109/LPT.2013.2291834 We report a simultaneous dual-band wavelength-swept laser based on the active mode locking method. By applying a single modulation signal, synchronized sweeping of two lasing-wavelengths is demonstrated without the use of a mechanical wavelength-selecting filter. Two free spectral ranges are independently controlled with a dual path-length configuration of a laser cavity. The static and dynamic performances of a dual-band wavelength-swept active mode locking fiber laser are characterized in both the time and wavelength regions. Two lasing wavelengths were swept simultaneously from 1263.0 to 1333.3 nm for the 1310 nm band and from 1493 to 1563.3 nm for the 1550 nm band. The application of a dual-band wavelength-swept fiber laser was also demonstrated with a dual-band optical coherence tomography imaging system. Keywords: fibre lasers; laser beam applications; laser cavity resonators; laser mode locking; optical filters; optical modulation; optical tomography; active mode locking method; dual path-length configuration; dual-band optical coherence tomography imaging system; dual-band wavelength-swept active mode locking fiber laser; dynamic performances; laser cavity; lasing-wavelengths; mechanical wavelength-selecting filter; simultaneous dual-band wavelength-swept fiber laser; single modulation signal; static performances; synchronized sweeping; wavelength 1263.0 nm to 1333.3 nm; wavelength 1310 nm; wavelength 1493 nm to 1563.3 nm; wavelength 1550 nm; wavelength regions; Cavity resonators; Dual band; Fiber lasers; Frequency modulation; Laser mode locking; Optical fibers; Fiber lasers; laser mode locking; optical imaging (ID#:14-2379) URL:
  • Simos, H.; Bogris, A; Syvridis, D.; Elsasser, W., "Intensity Noise Properties of Mid-Infrared Injection Locked Quantum Cascade Lasers: I. Modeling," Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of, vol.50, no.2, pp.98,105, Feb. 2014. doi: 10.1109/JQE.2013.2295434 In this paper, we numerically investigate the effect of optical injection locking on the noise properties of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. The analysis is carried out by means of a rate equation model, which takes into account the various noise contributions and the injection of the master laser. The obtained results indicate that the locked slave laser may operate under reduced intensity noise levels compared with the free running operation. In addition, optimization of the locking process leads to further suppression of the intensity noise when the slave laser is biased close to the free-running threshold current. The main factors that significantly affect the locking process and the achievable noise levels are the injected optical power and the master-slave frequency detuning. Keywords: infrared spectra; laser mode locking; laser tuning; numerical analysis; optical noise; optimisation; quantum cascade lasers; free-running threshold current; intensity noise suppression; master-slave frequency detuning; midinfrared injection locking; midinfrared quantum cascade lasers; numerical investigation; optical injection locking; optical power injection; optimization; rate equation model; Laser noise; Mathematical model; Optical noise; Power lasers; Quantum cascade lasers; Quantum cascade lasers; injection locking; intensity noise; optical injection (ID#:14-2380) URL:
  • Wenrui Wang; Jinlong Yu; Bingchen Han; Ju Wang; Lingyun Ye; Enze Yang, "Tunable Microwave Frequency Multiplication by Injection Locking of DFB Laser With a Weakly Phase Modulated Signal," Photonics Journal, IEEE , vol.6, no.2, pp.1,8, April 2014. doi: 10.1109/JPHOT.2014.2308634 We have demonstrated in this paper a novel tunable microwave frequency multiplication by injecting a weakly phase-modulated optical signal into a DFB laser diode. Signals with multiple weak sidebands are generated by cross-phase modulation of a continuous wave (CW) with short pulses from mode-locked fiber laser. Then, frequency multiplication is achieved by injection and phase locking a commercially available DFB laser to one of the harmonics of the phase modulated signal. The multiplication factor can be tuned by changing the frequency difference between the CW and the free oscillating wavelength of the DFB laser. The experimental results show that, with an original signal at a repetition rate of 1 GHz, a microwave signal with high spectral purity and stability is generated with a multiplication factor up to 60. The side-mode suppression ratio over 40 dB and phase noise lower than -90 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz are demonstrated over a continuous tuning range from 20 to 40. Keywords: distributed feedback lasers; laser frequency stability; laser mode locking; laser noise; laser tuning; microwave generation; microwave photonics; optical modulation;phase modulation; phase noise; semiconductor lasers; CW wavelength; DFB laser diode; cross-phase modulation; distributed feedback laser; free oscillating wavelength; frequency 10 kHz; high spectral purity; injection locking; microwave signal generation; mode-locked fiber laser; phase locking; phase noise; side-mode suppression ratio; stability; tunable microwave frequency multiplication; weakly phase modulated signal; Laser mode locking; Masers; Microwave filters; Microwave photonics; Optical filters; Phase modulation; Semiconductor lasers; Microwave photonics; frequency multiplication; injection locking (ID#:14-2381) URL:
  • Arsenijevic, D.; Kleinert, M.; Bimberg, D., "Breakthroughs in Photonics 2013: Passive Mode-Locking of Quantum-Dot Lasers," Photonics Journal, IEEE , vol.6, no.2, pp.1,6, April 2014. doi: 10.1109/JPHOT.2014.2308195 Most recent achievements in passive mode-locking of quantum-dot lasers, with the main focus on jitter reduction and frequency tuning, are described. Different techniques, leading to record values for integrated jitter of 121 fs and a locking range of 342 MHz, are presented for a 40-GHz laser. Optical feedback is observed to be the method of choice in this field. For the first time, five different optical-feedback regimes are discovered, including the resonant one yielding a radio-frequency linewidth reduction by 99%. Keywords: jitter; laser feedback; laser mode locking; laser tuning; quantum dot lasers; frequency 40 GHz; frequency tuning; jitter reduction; optical feedback; passive mode-locking; photonics; quantum-dot lasers; radio-frequency linewidth reduction; Jitter; Laser mode locking; Optical attenuators; Optical feedback; Quantum dot lasers; Tuning; Mode-locked lasers; optical feedback; phase noise; quantum dots (ID#:14-2382) URL:
  • Nagashima, T.; Wei, X.; Tanaka, H.-A; Sekiya, H., "Locking Range Derivations for Injection-Locked Class-E Oscillator Applying Phase Reduction Theory," Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on, vol. PP, no.99, pp.1,8, June 2014. doi: 10.1109/TCSI.2014.2327276 This paper presents a numerical locking-range prediction for the injection-locked class-E oscillator using the phase reduction theory (PRT). By applying this method to the injection-locked class-E oscillator designs, which is in the field of electrical engineering, the locking ranges of the oscillator on any injection-signal waveform can be efficiently obtained. The locking ranges obtained from the proposed method quantitatively agreed with those obtained from the simulations and circuit experiments, showing the validity and effectiveness of the locking-range derivation method based on PRT. Keywords: Capacitance; Equations; Limit-cycles; MOSFET; Oscillators; Switches; Synchronization; Injection-locked class-E oscillator; locking range; phase reduction theory (ID#:14-2383) URL:
  • Habruseva, T.; Arsenijevic, D.; Kleinert, M.; Bimberg, D.; Huyet, G.; Hegarty, S.P., "Optimum Phase Noise Reduction And Repetition Rate Tuning In Quantum-Dot Mode-Locked Lasers," Applied Physics Letters , vol.104, no.2, pp.021112,021112-4, Jan 2014. doi: 10.1063/1.4861604 Competing approaches exist, which allow control of phase noise and frequency tuning in mode-locked lasers, but no judgement of pros and cons based on a comparative analysis was presented yet. Here, we compare results of hybrid mode-locking, hybrid mode-locking with optical injection seeding, and sideband optical injection seeding performed on the same quantum dot laser under identical bias conditions. We achieved the lowest integrated jitter of 121 fs and a record large radio-frequency (RF) tuning range of 342 MHz with sideband injection seeding of the passively mode-locked laser. The combination of hybrid mode-locking together with optical injection-locking resulted in 240 fs integrated jitter and a RF tuning range of 167 MHz. Using conventional hybrid mode-locking, the integrated jitter and the RF tuning range were 620 fs and 10 MHz, respectively. Keywords: (not provided) (ID#:14-2384) URL:
  • Jun-Chau Chien; Upadhyaya, P.; Jung, H.; Chen, S.; Fang, W.; Niknejad, AM.; Savoj, J.; Ken Chang, "2.8 A pulse-position-modulation phase-noise-reduction technique for a 2-to-16GHz injection-locked ring oscillator in 20nm CMOS," Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), 2014 IEEE International , vol., no., pp.52,53, 9-13 Feb. 2014. doi: 10.1109/ISSCC.2014.6757334 High-speed transceivers embedded inside FPGAs require software-programmable clocking circuits to cover a wide range of data rates across different channels [1]. These transceivers use high-frequency PLLs with LC oscillators to satisfy stringent jitter requirements at increasing data rates. However, the large area of these oscillators limits the number of independent LC-based clocking sources and reduces the flexibility offered by the FPGA. A ring-based PLL occupies smaller area but produces higher jitter. With injection-locking (IL) techniques [2-3], ring-based oscillators achieve comparable performance with their LC counterparts [4-5] at frequencies below 10GHz. Moreover, addition of a PLL to an injection-locked VCO (IL-PLL) provides injection-timing calibration and frequency tracking against PVT [3,5]. Nevertheless, applying injection-locking techniques to high-speed ring oscillators in deep submicron CMOS processes, with high flicker-noise corner frequencies at tens of MHz, poses a design challenge for low-jitter operation. Shown in Fig. 2.8.1, injection locking can be modeled as a single-pole feedback system that achieves 20dB/dec of in-band noise shaping against intrinsic VCO phase noise over a wide bandwidth [6]. As a consequence, this technique suppresses the 1/f2 noise of the VCO but not its 1/f3 noise. Note that the conventional IL-PLL is capable of shaping the VCO in-band noise at 40dB/dec [6]; however, its noise shaping is limited by the narrow PLL bandwidth due to significant attenuation of the loop gain by injection locking. To achieve wideband 2nd-order noise shaping in 20nm ring oscillators, we present a circuit technique that applies pulse-position-modulated (PPM) injection through feedback control. Keywords: 1/f noise; CMOS integrated circuits; flicker noise; injection locked oscillators; microwave oscillators; phase locked loops; phase noise; pulse position modulation; voltage-controlled oscillators;1/f2 noise; FPGA; LC oscillator; VCO phase noise; deep submicron CMOS process; feedback control; frequency 2 GHz to 16 GHz; frequency tracking; high-frequency PLL; high-speed ring oscillator; high-speed transceiver; injection-locked VCO; injection-locked ring oscillator; injection-locking technique; injection-timing calibration; phase-noise-reduction technique; pulse-position-modulation; ring-based PLL; single-pole feedback system; size 20 nm; software-programmable clocking circuit; Bandwidth; Injection-locked oscillators; Jitter; Noise; Phase locked loops; Ring oscillators; Voltage-controlled oscillators (ID#:14-2385) URL:
  • Mangold, M.; Link, S.M.; Klenner, A; Zaugg, C.A; Golling, M.; Tilma, B.W.; Keller, U., "Amplitude Noise and Timing Jitter Characterization of a High-Power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser," Photonics Journal, IEEE , vol.6, no.1, pp.1,9, Feb. 2014. doi: 10.1109/JPHOT.2013.2295464 We present a timing jitter and amplitude noise characterization of a high-power mode-locked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser (MIXSEL). In the MIXSEL, the semiconductor saturable absorber of a SESAM is integrated into the structure of a VECSEL to start and stabilize passive mode-locking. In comparison to previous noise characterization of SESAM-mode-locked VECSELs, this first noise characterization of a MIXSEL is performed at a much higher average output power. In a free-running operation, the laser generates 14.3-ps pulses at an average output power of 645 mW at a 2-GHz pulse repetition rate and an RMS amplitude noise of 0.15% [1 Hz, 10 MHz]. We measured an RMS timing jitter of 129 fs [100 Hz, 10 MHz], which represents the lowest value for a free-running passively mode-locked semiconductor disk laser to date. Additionally, we stabilized the pulse repetition rate with a piezo actuator to control the cavity length. With the laser generating 16.7-ps pulses at an average output power of 701 mW, the repetition frequency was phase-locked to a low-noise electronic reference using a feedback loop. In actively stabilized operation, the RMS timing jitter was reduced to less than 70 fs [1 Hz, 100 MHz]. In the 100-Hz to 10-MHz bandwidth, we report the lowest timing jitter measured from a passively mode-locked semiconductor disk laser to date with a value of 31 fs. These results show that the MIXSEL technology provides compact ultrafast laser sources combining high-power and low-noise performance similar to diode-pumped solid-state lasers, which enable world-record optical communication rates and low-noise frequency combs. Keywords: integrated optoelectronics; laser beams; laser cavity resonators ;laser feedback; laser mode locking; laser noise; laser stability; optical pulse generation; optical saturable absorption; piezoelectric actuators; semiconductor lasers; surface emitting lasers; timing jitter; MIXSEL; RMS amplitude noise; RMS timing jitter; SESAM; VECSEL; actively stabilized operation; average output power;c avity length; compact ultrafast laser sources; feedback loop; free-running passively mode-locked semiconductor disk laser; frequency 1 Hz to 100 MHz; frequency 2 GHz; high-power mode-locked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser; low-noise electronic reference; low-noise frequency combs; low-noise performance ;optical communication rates; phase-locking; piezoactuator; power 645 mW; power 701 mW; pulse generation; pulse repetition rate; repetition frequency; semiconductor saturable absorber; stabilize passive mode-locking;time 129 fs ;time 14.3 ps;time 16.7 ps; Cavity resonators ;Laser mode locking ;Laser noise; Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers; Diode-pumped lasers; infrared lasers; mode-locked lasers; semiconductor lasers; ultrafast lasers (ID#:14-2386) URL:
  • Yu-Sheng Lin; Cheng-Han Wu; Chia-Chen Huang; Chun-Lin Lu; Yeong-Her Wang, "Ultra-Wide Locking Range Regenerative Frequency Dividers With Quadrature-Injection Current-Mode-Logic Loop Divider," Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, IEEE , vol.24, no.3, pp.179,181, March 2014. doi: 10.1109/LMWC.2013.2291864 The / 3 and / 5 regenerative frequency dividers (RFDs) with ultra-wide locking ranges are presented. The proposed dividers were fabricated by a TSMC 90 nm CMOS process, using / 2 and / 4 quadrature-injected current-mode-logic loop dividers to widen the locking ranges. The dividers also achieved quadrature input and quadrature output. Using a 1.2 V supply voltage, the power consumptions of the / 3 and the / 5 divider cores were 10.2 and 14.8 mW, respectively. Without using the tuning techniques, the measured locking ranges for the / 3 and the / 5 dividers were from 9 to 14.7 GHz (48.1%) and 7.2 to 19 GHz (90.1%), respectively. The phase deviation of the quadrature outputs for the two dividers were less than 0.8 deg and 1.1 deg. Compared with the reported data, the outstanding figure-of-merit values of the proposed / 3 and / 5 RFDs can be observed. Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits; circuit tuning; cores; current-mode circuits; frequency dividers; integrated circuit design; integrated circuit measurement; logic circuits; microwave integrated circuits; RFD;TSMC CMOS process; core; frequency 7.2 GHz to 19 GHz; integrated circuit design; phase deviation; power 10.2 mW; power 14.8 mW; power consumption; quadrature-injection current-mode-logic loop divider; size 90 nm ;tuning technique; ultrawide locking range regenerative frequency divider; voltage 1.2 V;CMOS integrated circuits; Frequency measurement; Mixers; Noise measurement; Phase measurement; Phase noise; CMOS; quadrature input and quadrature output (QIQO); quadrature-injected current-mode-logic; regenerative frequency divider (ID#:14-2387) URL:


Articles listed on these pages have been found on publicly available internet pages and are cited with links to those pages. Some of the information included herein has been reprinted with permission from the authors or data repositories. Direct any requests via Email to SoS.Project (at) for removal of the links or modifications to specific citations. Please include the ID# of the specific citation in your correspondence.