Visible to the public Clean Slate (2014 Year in Review)

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Clean Slate
(2014 Year in Review)


The "clean slate" approach looks at designing networks and internets from scratch, with security built in, in contrast to the evolved Internet in place. The research presented here covers a range of research topics, and includes a survey of those topics. These works were published or presented in  2014.


Yamanaka, H.; Kawai, E.; Ishii, S.; Shimojo, S., "AutoVFlow: Autonomous Virtualization for Wide-Area OpenFlow Networks," Software Defined Networks (EWSDN), 2014 Third European Workshop on, pp.67,72, 1-3 Sept. 2014. doi: 10.1109/EWSDN.2014.28 It is expected that clean-slate network designs will be implemented for wide-area network applications. Multi-tenancy in OpenFlow networks is an effective method to supporting a clean-slate network design, because the cost-effectiveness is improved by the sharing of substrate networks. To guarantee the programmability of OpenFlow for tenants, a complete flow space (i.e., header values of the data packets) virtualization is necessary. Wide-area substrate networks typically have multiple administrators. We therefore need to implement a flow space virtualization over multiple administration networks. In existing techniques, a third party is solely responsible for managing the mapping of header values for flow space virtualization for substrate network administrators and tenants, despite the severity of a third party failure. In this paper, we propose an AutoVFlow mechanism that allows flow space virtualization in a wide-area networks without the need for a third party. Substrate network administrators implement a flow space virtualization autonomously. They are responsible for virtualizing a flow space involving switches in their own substrate networks. Using a prototype of AutoVFlow, we measured the virtualization overhead, the results of which show a negligible amount of overhead.

 Keywords: virtualisation; wide area networks; AutoVFlow mechanism; autonomous virtualization; clean-slate network design; flow space virtualization; substrate network; wide-area OpenFlow networks; wide-area network applications; Aerospace electronics; Control systems; Delays; Ports (Computers);Substrates; Virtualization; clean-slate network design; flow space; virtualization; wide-area network (ID#: 15-3877) 



Silva, F.; Castillo-Lema, J.; Neto, A.; Silva, F.; Rosa, P.; Corujo, D.; Guimaraes, C.; Aguiar, R., "Entity Title Architecture Extensions Towards Advanced Quality-Oriented Mobility Control Capabilities," Computers and Communication (ISCC), 2014 IEEE Symposium on, pp.1,6, 23-26 June 2014. doi: 10.1109/ISCC.2014.6912459 The emergence of new technologies, in addition with the popularization of mobile devices and wireless communication systems, demands a variety of requirements that current Internet is not able to comply adequately. In this scenario, the innovative information-centric Entity Title Architecture (ETArch), a Future Internet (FI) clean slate approach, was design to efficiently cope with the increasing demand of beyond-IP networking services. Nevertheless, despite all ETArch capabilities, it was not projected with reliable networking functions, which limits its operability in mobile multimedia networking, and will seriously restrict its scope in Future Internet scenarios. Therefore, our work extends ETArch mobility control with advanced quality-oriented mobility functions, to deploy mobility prediction, Point of Attachment (PoA) decision and handover setup meeting both session quality requirements of active session flows and current wireless quality conditions of neighbouring PoA candidates. The effectiveness of the proposed additions were confirmed through a preliminary evaluation carried out by MATLAB, in which we have considered distinct applications scenario, and showed that they were able to outperform the most relevant alternative solutions in terms of performance and quality of service.

Keywords: Internet; mobile computing; mobile handsets; mobility management (mobile radio);multimedia communication; quality of service; ETArch;FI; MATLAB; PoA; PoA candidates; active session flows; advanced quality-oriented mobility control capabilities; beyond-IP networking services; distinct applications scenario; entity title architecture extensions; future Internet clean slate approach; handover setup; information-centric entity title architecture; mobile devices; mobile multimedia networking; networking functions; point of attachment decision; quality of service; session quality requirements; wireless communication systems; wireless quality conditions; Delays; Handover; Manganese; Quality of service; Streaming media; Wireless communication (ID#: 15-3878) 



SoURLas, V.; Tassiulas, L., "Replication Management And Cache-Aware Routing In Information-Centric Networks," Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS), 2014 IEEE, pp. 1,7, 5-9 May 2014. doi: 10.1109/NOMS.2014.6838282 Content distribution in the Internet places content providers in a dominant position, with delivery happening directly between two end-points, that is, from content providers to consumers. Information-Centrism has been proposed as a paradigm shift from the host-to-host Internet to a host-to-content one, or in other words from an end-to-end communication system to a native distribution network. This trend has attracted the attention of the research community, which has argued that content, instead of end-points, must be at the center stage of attention. Given this emergence of information-centric solutions, the relevant management needs in terms of performance have not been adequately addressed, yet they are absolutely essential for relevant network operations and crucial for the information-centric approaches to succeed. Performance management and traffic engineering approaches are also required to control routing, to configure the logic for replacement policies in caches and to control decisions where to cache, for instance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to manage information-centric resources and in fact to constitute their missing management and control plane which is essential for their success as clean-slate technologies. In this thesis we aim to provide solutions to crucial problems that remain, such as the management of information-centric approaches which has not yet been addressed, focusing on the key aspect of route and cache management.

Keywords: Internet; telecommunication network routing; telecommunication traffic; Internet; cache management; cache-aware routing; clean-slate technologies; content distribution; control plane; end-to-end communication system; host-to-host Internet; information-centric approaches; information-centric networks; Information-centric resources; information-centric solutions; information-centrism; missing management; native distribution network; performance management; replication management; route management; traffic engineering approaches; Computer architecture; Network topology; Planning; Routing; Servers; Subscriptions; Transportation (ID#: 15-3879) 



Visala, K.; Keating, A.; Khan, R.H., "Models and Tools For The High-Level Simulation Of A Name-Based Interdomain Routing Architecture," Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 2014 IEEE Conference on, pp.55,60, April 27 2014-May 2 2014. doi: 10.1109/INFCOMW.2014.6849168 The deployment and operation of global network architectures can exhibit complex, dynamic behavior and the comprehensive validation of their properties, without actually building and running the systems, can only be achieved with the help of simulations. Packet-level models are not feasible in the Internet scale, but we are still interested in the phenomena that emerge when the systems are run in their intended environment. We argue for the high-level simulation methodology and introduce a simulation environment based on aggregate models built on state-of-the-art datasets available while respecting invariants observed in measurements. The models developed are aimed at studying a clean slate name-based interdomain routing architecture and provide an abundance of parameters for sensitivity analysis and a modular design with a balanced level of detail in different aspects of the model. In addition to introducing several reusable models for traffic, topology, and deployment, we report our experiences in using the high-level simulation approach and potential pitfalls related to it.

Keywords: Internet; telecommunication network routing; telecommunication network topology; telecommunication traffic; aggregate models; clean slate name-based interdomain routing architecture; complex-dynamic behavior; global network architecture deployment; global network architecture operation; high-level simulation methodology; modular design; packet-level models; reusable deployment model; reusable topology model; reusable traffic model; sensitivity analysis; Aggregates; Approximation methods; Internet; Network topology; Peer-to-peer computing; Routing; Topology (ID#: 15-3880) 



Bronzino, F.; Chao Han; Yang Chen; Nagaraja, K.; Xiaowei Yang; Seskar, I.; Raychaudhuri, D., "In-Network Compute Extensions for Rate-Adaptive Content Delivery in Mobile Networks," Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, pp.511,517, 21-24 Oct. 2014. doi: 10.1109/ICNP.2014.81 Traffic from mobile wireless networks has been growing at a fast pace in recent years and is expected to surpass wired traffic very soon. Service providers face significant challenges at such scales including providing seamless mobility, efficient data delivery, security, and provisioning capacity at the wireless edge. In the Mobility First project, we have been exploring clean slate enhancements to the network protocols that can inherently provide support for at-scale mobility and trustworthiness in the Internet. An extensible data plane using pluggable compute-layer services is a key component of this architecture. We believe these extensions can be used to implement in-network services to enhance mobile end-user experience by either off-loading work and/or traffic from mobile devices, or by enabling en-route service-adaptation through context-awareness (e.g., Knowing contemporary access bandwidth). In this work we present details of the architectural support for in-network services within Mobility First, and propose protocol and service-API extensions to flexibly address these pluggable services from end-points. As a demonstrative example, we implement an in network service that does rate adaptation when delivering video streams to mobile devices that experience variable connection quality. We present details of our deployment and evaluation of the non-IP protocols along with compute-layer extensions on the GENI test bed, where we used a set of programmable nodes across 7 distributed sites to configure a Mobility First network with hosts, routers, and in-network compute services.

Keywords: mobile computing; mobility management (mobile radio);protocols; video streaming; GENI test bed; Internet; Mobility First project; at-scale mobility; clean slate enhancements; compute-layer extensions; context-awareness; data plane; en-route service-adaptation; in-network services; mobile devices; mobile end-user experience; mobile wireless networks; network protocols; non-IP protocols; offloading work; pluggable compute-layer services; programmable nodes; protocol extensions; rate adaptation; rate-adaptive content delivery; service providers; service-API extensions; trustworthiness; video streams; Bit rate; Computer architecture; Mobile communication; Mobile computing; Protocols; Servers; Streaming media; Internet architecture; cloud; in-network computing; mobility; rate adaptation; video streaming; video transcoding (ID#: 15-3881) 



Lopes Alcantara Batista, B.; Lima de Campos, G.A.; Fernandez, M.P., "Flow-based Conflict Detection in OpenFlow Networks Using First-Order Logic," Computers and Communication (ISCC), 2014 IEEE Symposium on, pp. 1, 6, 23-26 June 2014. doi: 10.1109/ISCC.2014.6912577 The OpenFlow architecture is a proposal from the Clean Slate initiative to define a new Internet architecture where the network devices are simple, and the control and management plane is performed by a centralized controller. The simplicity and centralization architecture makes it reliable and inexpensive. However, this architecture does not provide mechanisms to detect conflicting in flows, allowing that unreachable flows can be configured in the network elements, and the network may not behave as expected. This paper proposes an approach to conflict detection using first-order logic to define possible antagonisms and employ an inference engine to detect conflicting flows before the OpenFlow controller implement in the network elements.

Keywords: IP networks; computer network management; inference mechanisms; transport protocols; Clean Slate initiative; Internet architecture; OpenFlow controller; OpenFlow network architecture; centralization architecture; centralized controller; control plane; first-order logic; flow-based conflict detection; inference engine; management plane; network devices; network elements; unreachable flows; Control systems; IP networks; Indexes; Knowledge based systems; Media Access Protocol; Proposals (ID#: 15-3882) 



Coras, F.; Saucez, D.; Iannone, L.; Donnet, B., "On the Performance Of The LISP Beta Network," Networking Conference, 2014 IFIP, pp.1,9, 2-4 June 2014. doi: 10.1109/IFIPNetworking.2014.6857102 The future Internet has been a hot topic during the past decade and many approaches towards this future Internet, ranging from incremental evolution to complete clean slate ones, have been proposed. One of the proposition, LISP, advocates for the separation of the identifier and the locator roles of IP addresses to reduce BGP churn and BGP table size. Up to now, however, most studies concerning LISP have been theoretical and, in fact, little is known about the actual LISP deployment performance. In this paper, we fill this gap through measurement campaigns carried out on the LISP Beta Network. More precisely, we evaluate the performance of the two key components of the infrastructure: the control plane (i.e., the mapping system) and the interworking mechanism (i.e., communication between LISP and non-LISP sites). Our measurements highlight that performance offered by the LISP interworking infrastructure is strongly dependent on BGP routing policies. If we exclude misconfigured nodes, the mapping system typically provides reliable performance and relatively low median mapping resolution delays. Although the bias is not very important, control plane performance favors USA sites as a result of its larger LISP user base but also because European infrastructure appears to be less reliable.

Keywords: IP networks; Internet; computer network reliability; internetworking; routing protocols; BGP churn reduction; BGP routing policy; BGP table size reduction; European infrastructure; IP address; Internet; LISP Beta Network reliable performance; LISP interworking infrastructure; USA site; control plane; interworking mechanism; locator-identifier separation protocol; median mapping resolution delay; Databases; Delays; Europe; IP networks; Internet; Routing; Routing protocols (ID#: 15-3883) 



Riggio, R.; De Pellegrini, F.; Siracusa, D., "The Price Of Virtualization: Performance Isolation In Multi-Tenants Networks," Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS), 2014 IEEE, pp. 1, 7, 5-9 May 2014. doi: 10.1109/NOMS.2014.6838386 Network virtualization sits firmly on the Internet evolutionary path allowing researchers to experiment with novel clean-slate designs over the production network and practitioners to manage multi-tenants infrastructures in a flexible and scalable manner. In such scenarios, isolation between virtual networks is often intended as purely logical: this is the case of address space isolation or flow space isolation. This approach neglects the effect that network virtualization has on resource allocation network-wide. In this work we investigate the price paid by a purely logical approach in terms of performance degradation. This performance loss is paid by the actual users of a multi-tenants datacenter network. We propose a solution to this problem leveraging on a new network virtualization primitive, namely an online link utilization feedback mechanism. It provides each tenant with the necessary information to make efficient use of network resources. We evaluate our solution trough a real implementation exploiting the OpenFlow protocol. Empirical results confirm that the proposed scheme is able to support tenants in exploiting virtualized network resources effectively.

Keywords: Internet; virtualisation; Internet evolutionary path; OpenFlow protocol; address space isolation; flow space isolation; multitenants datacenter network; network virtualization; online link utilization feedback mechanism; resource allocation network; Bandwidth; Labeling; Ports (Computers);Resource management; Servers; Substrates; Virtualization (ID#: 15-3884) 



Qadir, J.; Hasan, O., "Applying Formal Methods to Networking: Theory, Techniques and Applications," Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE, vol. PP, no. 99, pp.1, 1; 07 August 2014. doi: 10.1109/COMST.2014.2345792 Despite its great importance, modern network infrastructure is remarkable for the lack of rigor in its engineering. The Internet which began as a research experiment was never designed to handle the users and applications it hosts today. The lack of formalization of the Internet architecture meant limited abstractions and modularity, especially for the control and management planes, thus requiring for every new need a new protocol built from scratch. This led to an unwieldy ossified Internet architecture resistant to any attempts at formal verification, and an Internet culture where expediency and pragmatism are favored over formal correctness. Fortunately, recent work in the space of clean slate Internet design—especially, the software defined networking (SDN) paradigm—offers the Internet community another chance to develop the right kind of architecture and abstractions. This has also led to a great resurgence in interest of applying formal methods to specification, verification, and synthesis of networking protocols and applications. In this paper, we present a self-contained tutorial of the formidable amount of work that has been done in formal methods, and present a survey of its applications to networking.

Keywords: Communities; Computers; Internet; Mathematics; Protocols; Software; Tutorials (ID#: 15-3886) 



Everspaugh, A.; Yan Zhai; Jellinek, R.; Ristenpart, T.; Swift, M., "Not-So-Random Numbers in Virtualized Linux and the Whirlwind RNG," Security and Privacy (SP), 2014 IEEE Symposium on, pp.559, 574, 18-21 May 2014. doi: 10.1109/SP.2014.42 Virtualized environments are widely thought to cause problems for software-based random number generators (RNGs), due to use of virtual machine (VM) snapshots as well as fewer and believed-to-be lower quality entropy sources. Despite this, we are unaware of any published analysis of the security of critical RNGs when running in VMs. We fill this gap, using measurements of Linux's RNG systems (without the aid of hardware RNGs, the most common use case today) on Xen, VMware, and Amazon EC2. Despite CPU cycle counters providing a significant source of entropy, various deficiencies in the design of the Linux RNG makes its first output vulnerable during VM boots and, more critically, makes it suffer from catastrophic reset vulnerabilities. We show cases in which the RNG will output the exact same sequence of bits each time it is resumed from the same snapshot. This can compromise, for example, cryptographic secrets generated after resumption. We explore legacy-compatible countermeasures, as well as a clean-slate solution. The latter is a new RNG called Whirlwind that provides a simpler, more-secure solution for providing system randomness.

 Keywords: Linux; virtual machines; Linux RNG systems; VM boots; VM snapshots; Whirlwind RNG; cryptographic secrets; entropy sources; not-so-random numbers; software-based random number generators; virtual machine; virtualized Linux; virtualized environments; Cryptography; Entropy; Hardware; Instruments; Kernel; Linux; random number generator; virtualization (ID#: 15-3887) 



Petullo, W.M.; Wenyuan Fei; Solworth, J.A.; Gavlin, P., "Ethos' Deeply Integrated Distributed Types," Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW), 2014 IEEE, pp. 167, 180, 17-18 May 2014. doi: 10.1109/SPW.2014.32 Programming languages have long incorporated type safety, increasing their level of abstraction and thus aiding programmers. Type safety eliminates whole classes of security-sensitive bugs, replacing the tedious and error-prone search for such bugs in each application with verifying the correctness of the type system. Despite their benefits, these protections often end at the process boundary, that is, type safety holds within a program but usually not to the file system or communication with other programs. Existing operating system approaches to bridge this gap require the use of a single programming language or common language runtime. We describe the deep integration of type safety in Ethos, a clean-slate operating system which requires that all program input and output satisfy a recognizer before applications are permitted to further process it. Ethos types are multilingual and runtime-agnostic, and each has an automatically generated unique type identifier. Ethos bridges the type-safety gap between programs by (1) providing a convenient mechanism for specifying the types each program may produce or consume, (2) ensuring that each type has a single, distributed-system-wide recognizer implementation, and (3) inescapably enforcing these type constraints.

Keywords: operating systems (computers) ;program debugging; programming languages; safety-critical software; trusted computing; Ethos operating system; deeply integrated distributed types; language runtime; multilingual Ethos; operating system approach; programming languages; runtime-agnostic Ethos; security-sensitive bugs; type constraints; type safety; Kernel; Protocols; Robustness; Runtime; Safety; Security; Semantics; Operating system; language-theoretic security; type system (ID#: 15-3888) 



Manandhar, K.; Adcock, B.; Xiaojun Cao, "Preserving the Anonymity in MobilityFirst Networks," Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN), 2014 23rd International Conference on, pp. 1, 6, 4-7 Aug. 2014. doi: 10.1109/ICCCN.2014.6911810 A scheme for preserving privacy in MobilityFirst (MF) clean-slate future Internet architecture is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme, called Anonymity in MobilityFirst (AMF), utilizes the three-tiered approach to effectively exploit the inherent properties of MF Network such as Globally Unique Flat Identifier (GUID) and Global Name Resolution Service (GNRS) to provide anonymity to the users. While employing new proposed schemes in exchanging of keys between different tiers of routers to alleviate trust issues, the proposed scheme uses multiple routers in each tier to avoid collaboration amongst the routers in the three tiers to expose the end users.

Keywords: Internet; authorisation; data privacy; mobile computing; telecommunication network routing; telecommunication security; trusted computing; AMF; GNRS; GUID; MF networks; MobilityFirst networks; anonymity in MobilityFirst; anonymity preservation; future Internet architecture; global name resolution service; globally unique flat identifier; privacy preservation; routers; three-tiered approach; trust issues; user anonymity; Computer science; Internet; Privacy; Public key; Routing; Routing protocols (ID#: 15-3889) 



Di Renzo, M.; Haas, H.; Ghrayeb, A.; Sugiura, S.; Hanzo, L., "Spatial Modulation for Generalized MIMO: Challenges, Opportunities, and Implementation," Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 102, no. 1, pp.56, 103, Jan. 2014. doi: 10.1109/JPROC.2013.2287851 A key challenge of future mobile communication research is to strike an attractive compromise between wireless network's area spectral efficiency and energy efficiency. This necessitates a clean-slate approach to wireless system design, embracing the rich body of existing knowledge, especially on multiple-input-multiple-ouput (MIMO) technologies. This motivates the proposal of an emerging wireless communications concept conceived for single-radio-frequency (RF) large-scale MIMO communications, which is termed as SM. The concept of SM has established itself as a beneficial transmission paradigm, subsuming numerous members of the MIMO system family. The research of SM has reached sufficient maturity to motivate its comparison to state-of-the-art MIMO communications, as well as to inspire its application to other emerging wireless systems such as relay-aided, cooperative, small-cell, optical wireless, and power-efficient communications. Furthermore, it has received sufficient research attention to be implemented in testbeds, and it holds the promise of stimulating further vigorous interdisciplinary research in the years to come. This tutorial paper is intended to offer a comprehensive state-of-the-art survey on SM-MIMO research, to provide a critical appraisal of its potential advantages, and to promote the discussion of its beneficial application areas and their research challenges leading to the analysis of the technological issues associated with the implementation of SM-MIMO. The paper is concluded with the description of the world's first experimental activities in this vibrant research field.

Keywords: MIMO communication; cellular radio; energy conservation; modulation; next generation networks; MIMO system; SM-MIMO research; area spectral efficiency; beneficial transmission paradigm; cooperative communications ;energy efficiency; generalized MIMO; generalized multiple-input-multiple-output technologies; mobile communication research; mobile data traffic; next-generation cellular networks; optical wireless communications; power-efficient communications; relay-aided communications; single-radio-frequency large-scale MIMO communications; spatial modulation; wireless network; wireless system design; MIMO; Modulation; Spatial resolution; Tutorials; Green and sustainable wireless communications; heterogenous cellular networks; large-scale multiantenna systems; multiantenna wireless systems; network-coded cooperative wireless networks; relay-aided wireless communications; single-radio-frequency (RF) multiantenna systems; spatial modulation; testbed implementation; visible light communications} (ID#: 15-3890) 



Mohamed, Abdelrahim; Onireti, Oluwakayode; Qi, Yinan; Imran, Ali; Imran, Muhammed; Tafazolli, Rahim, "Physical Layer Frame in Signalling-Data Separation Architecture: Overhead and Performance Evaluation," European Wireless 2014; 20th European Wireless Conference; Proceedings of , vol., no., pp.1,6, 14-16 May 2014

Abstract: Conventional cellular systems are dimensioned according to a worst case scenario, and they are designed to ensure ubiquitous coverage with an always-present wireless channel irrespective of the spatial and temporal demand of service. A more energy conscious approach will require an adaptive system with a minimum amount of overhead that is available at all locations and all times but becomes functional only when needed. This approach suggests a new clean slate system architecture with a logical separation between the ability to establish availability of the network and the ability to provide functionality or service. Focusing on the physical layer frame of such an architecture, this paper discusses and formulates the overhead reduction that can be achieved in next generation cellular systems as compared with the Long Term Evolution (LTE). Considering channel estimation as a performance metric whilst conforming to time and frequency constraints of pilots spacing, we show that the overhead gain does not come at the expense of performance degradation.

Keywords:  (not provided) (ID#: 15-3891) 



Khojastepour, M.A.; Aryafar, E.; Sundaresan, K.; Mahindra, R.; Rangarajan, S., "Exploring the Potential For Full-Duplex In Legacy LTE Systems," Sensing, Communication, and Networking (SECON), 2014 Eleventh Annual IEEE International Conference on, pp.10,18, June 30 2014-July 3 2014. doi: 10.1109/SAHCN.2014.6990322 With the growing demand for increased spectral efficiencies, there has been renewed interest in enabling full-duplex communications. However, existing approaches to enable full-duplex require a clean-slate approach to address the key challenge in full-duplex, namely self-interference suppression. This serves as a big deterrent to enabling full-duplex in existing cellular networks. Towards our vision of enabling full-duplex in legacy cellular, specifically LTE networks, with no modifications to existing hardware at BS and client as well as technology specific industry standards, we present the design of our experimental system FD-LTE, that incorporates a combination of passive SI cancellation schemes, with legacy LTE half-duplex BS and client devices. We build a prototype of FD-LTE, integrate it with LTE's evolved packet core and conduct over-the-air experiments to explore the feasibility and potential for full-duplex with legacy LTE networks. We report promising experimental results from FD-LTE, which currently applies to scenarios with limited ranges that is typical of small cells.

Keywords: Long Term Evolution; interference suppression; radio spectrum management; FD-LTE; LTE systems; cellular networks; full-duplex communications; passive SI cancellation schemes; self-interference suppression; spectral efficiency; Base stations; Downlink; Frequency conversion; Long Term Evolution; Receiving antennas; Silicon; Uplink (ID#: 15-3892)  



Tombaz, S.; Sang-wook Han; Ki Won Sung; Zander, J., "Energy Efficient Network Deployment With Cell DTX," Communications Letters, IEEE, vol.18, no. 6, pp. 977, 980, June 2014. doi: 10.1109/LCOMM.2014.2323960 Cell discontinuous transmission (DTX) is a new feature that enables sleep mode operations at base station (BS) side during the transmission time intervals when there is no traffic. In this letter, we analyze the maximum achievable energy saving of the cell DTX. We incorporate the cell DTX with a clean-slate network deployment and obtain optimal BS density for lowest energy consumption satisfying a certain quality of service requirement considering daily traffic variation. The numerical result indicates that the fast traffic adaptation capability of cell DTX favors dense network deployment with lightly loaded cells, which brings about considerable improvement in energy saving.

Keywords: cellular radio; telecommunication power management ;base station; cell DTX; cell discontinuous transmission; energy efficient network deployment; maximum achievable energy saving; quality of service; sleep mode operations; traffic variation; Energy consumption; Interference; Load modeling; Planning; Power demand; Quality of service; Vectors; Energy efficiency; cell DTX; cell load; network deployment; traffic profile (ID#: 15-3893) 



Gregr, M.; Veda, M., "Challenges with Transition and User Accounting in Next Generation Networks," Network Protocols (ICNP), 2014 IEEE 22nd International Conference on, pp. 501, 503, 21-24 Oct. 2014. doi: 10.1109/ICNP.2014.79 Future networks may change the way how network administrators monitor and account their users. History shows that usually a completely new design (clean slate) is used to propose a new network architecture - e.g. Network Control Protocol to TCP/IP, IPv4 to IPv6 or IP to Recursive Inter Network Architecture. The incompatibility between these architectures changes the user accounting process as network administrators have to use different information to identify a user. The paper presents a methodology how it is possible to gather all necessary information needed for smooth transition between two incompatible architectures. The transition from IPv4 and IPv6 is used as a use case, but it should be able to use the same process with any new networking architecture.

Keywords: IP networks; next generation networks; protocols; IPv4; IPv6; TCP/IP; network administrators; network control protocol; next generation networks; recursive inter network architecture; user accounting; Hardware; IP networks; Internet; Monitoring; Organizations; Probes; Protocols (ID#: 15-3894) 



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