Visible to the public IPv4 Address Sharing Mechanism Classification and Tradeoff Analysis

TitleIPv4 Address Sharing Mechanism Classification and Tradeoff Analysis
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsSkoberne, N., Maennel, O., Phillips, I., Bush, R., Zorz, J., Ciglaric, M.
JournalNetworking, IEEE/ACM Transactions on
Date PublishedApril
Keywordsabuse attribution, address efficiency, Address family translation, address plus port (A+P), carrier grade NAT (CGN), direct intercustomer communication, DS-Lite, IANA-level IPv4 address exhaustion, Internet, Internet service providers, IP networks, IPv4 address sharing, IPv4 address sharing mechanism classification, IPv4 reachability, IPv6 deployment, IPv6 transition, IPv6-only Internet, ISP-level address sharing mechanisms, NAT444, network address translation (NAT), performance degradation, port usage efficiency

The growth of the Internet has made IPv4 addresses a scarce resource. Due to slow IPv6 deployment, IANA-level IPv4 address exhaustion was reached before the world could transition to an IPv6-only Internet. The continuing need for IPv4 reachability will only be supported by IPv4 address sharing. This paper reviews ISP-level address sharing mechanisms, which allow Internet service providers to connect multiple customers who share a single IPv4 address. Some mechanisms come with severe and unpredicted consequences, and all of them come with tradeoffs. We propose a novel classification, which we apply to existing mechanisms such as NAT444 and DS-Lite and proposals such as 4rd, MAP, etc. Our tradeoff analysis reveals insights into many problems including: abuse attribution, performance degradation, address and port usage efficiency, direct intercustomer communication, and availability.

Citation Key6504560