Visible to the public Elliptic Curve Cryptography (2014 Year in Review), Part 5

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Elliptic Curve Cryptography
(2014 Year in Review)
 Part 5


Elliptic curve cryptography is a major research area globally.  In 2014, more than one hundred articles of interest to the Science of Security community have been published.  We cite them here in five parts.


Chiou-Yng Lee; Meher, P.K.; Chien-Ping Chang, "Efficient M-ary Exponentiation over GF(2m)  Using Subquadratic KA-Based Three-Operand Montgomery Multiplier," Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on, vol.61, no.11, pp.3125,3134, Nov. 2014. doi: 10.1109/TCSI.2014.2334992 Karatsuba algorithm (KA) is popularly used for high-precision multiplication of long binary polynomials. The only well-known subquadratic multipliers using KA scheme are, however, based on conventional two-operand polynomial multiplication. In this paper, we propose a novel approach based on 2-way and 3-way KA decompositions for computing three-operand polynomial multiplications. Using these novel KA decompositions, we present here a new subquadratic Montgomery multiplier. Our proposed multiplier involves less area and less delay compared to the schoolbook three-operand multiplier as well as the two-operand multipliers based on conventional KA decomposition. We have used the proposed three-operand Montgomery multiplication to derive a novel efficient scheme for m-ary exponentiation, and proposed a novel architecture for exponentiation. We have analyzed the complexities of proposed design, and shown that the proposed exponentiator can have a small lower bound on time complexity amounting to √m-1 multiplication delays, while traditional exponentiators require nearly m multiplication delays. From synthesis results, it is shown that the proposed exponentiator using subquadratic three-operand multiplier approach has significantly less time complexity, less area-delay product, and less power consumption than the existing exponentiators. Moreover, exponentiation-based cryptosystems, such as pairing based cryptography, could achieve high-speed operation using by our proposed multiplier and m-ary exponentiator.
Keywords: digital arithmetic; matrix decomposition; polynomials; 2-way KA decomposition; 3-way KA decomposition; Karatsuba algorithm; efficient m-ary exponentiation; exponentiation-based cryptosystems; pairing based cryptography; subquadratic KA-based three-operand Montgomery multiplier; subquadratic Montgomery multiplier; three-operand polynomial multiplications; Complexity theory; Computer architecture; Cryptography; Delays; Elliptic curves;Logic gates; Polynomials; Exponentiation; Karatsuba algorithm; Montgomery multiplication; three-operand multiplication (ID#: 15-4278)


Kumar, A.; Lafourcade, P.; Lauradoux, C., "Performances of Cryptographic Accumulators," Local Computer Networks (LCN), 2014 IEEE 39th Conference on, pp.366, 369, 8-11 Sept. 2014. doi: 10.1109/LCN.2014.6925793 Cryptographic accumulators are space/time efficient data structures used to verify if a value belongs to a set. They have found many applications in networking and distributed systems since their introduction by Benaloh and de Mare in 1993. Despite this popularity, there is currently no thorough performance evaluation of the different existing designs. Symmetric and asymmetric accumulators are used likewise without any particular argument to support either of the design. We aim to establish the speed of each design and their application's domains in terms of their size and the size of the values.
Keywords: cryptography; data structures; distributed processing; performance evaluation; asymmetric accumulators; cryptographic accumulator performance evaluation; distributed systems; networking systems; space efficient data structures; time efficient data structures; Cryptography; Data structures; Electronic mail; Elliptic curves; Indexes; Vectors; Bloom filter; Cryptographic accumulators; Performance (ID#: 15-4279)


Durech, J.; Hrubos, M.; Franekova, M.; Janota, A., "Implementation of Data from the Mobile Measurement Platform to VANET Application," ELEKTRO, 2014, pp.430, 434, 19-20 May 2014. doi: 10.1109/ELEKTRO.2014.6848932 The paper deals with an idea of informing the car drivers on problem of road degradation via sending of warning messages from road side units. The initial part of the paper summarized the up-to-now realized concept of the mobile measurement platform (MMS) and its mathematical principles showing how detailed data on road surface may be obtained. The main part of the paper is aimed at design of integration of data from MMS into the VANET application. Practical realisation is based on the warning message generation with GPS coordinates which is assuring by digital signature ECDSA cryptography algorithm via OpenSSL tool.
Keywords: Global Positioning System; data integration; digital signatures; electronic messaging; public key cryptography; vehicular ad hoc networks; GPS coordinate; MMP; OpenSSL tool; VANET application; car driver; data implementation; data integration; digital signature ECDSA cryptography algorithm; elliptic curve digital signature algorithm; mobile measurement platform; road degradation; road side unit; vehicular ad hoc network; warning message generation; warning messages sending; Algorithm design and analysis; Digital signatures; Public key; Roads; Silicon compounds;Vehicles;3D model;C2C;C2I;OpenSSL;VANET;cryptography;data fusion; point cloud; vehicular communications (ID#: 15-4280)


Ravi, Kalkundri; Praveen, Kalkundri, "AODV Routing in VANET for Message Authentication using ECDSA," Communications and Signal Processing (ICCSP), 2014 International Conference on, pp.1389,1393, 3-5 April 2014. doi: 10.1109/ICCSP.2014.6950077 A Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) is a part of MANETs that is formed by wireless connections between cars. In VANETs, routing protocols and other routing related techniques must be adaptable to vehicular-specific capabilities and requirements. Along with the routing in VANET, message security is also one of the major concern. Messages are critical and important like a warning message, so that the message must be authenticated which guarantee's the message integrity. The authentication of these messages is done with the help of an algorithm called Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA), which provides an efficient message authentication scheme. A combination of AODV, ECDSA and VANET can make the scenario more efficient and perform better in terms of routing and time delay in message delivery.
Keywords: Ad hoc networks; Algorithm design and analysis; Authentication; Cryptography; Message authentication; Mobile computing; Routing; AODV; ECDSA; Message Authentication; VANET (ID#: 15-4281)


Mikhail, M.; Abouelseoud, Y.; Elkobrosy, G., "Extension and Application Of El-Gamal Encryption Scheme," Computer Applications and Information Systems (WCCAIS), 2014 World Congress on, pp.1,6, 17-19 Jan. 2014. doi: 10.1109/WCCAIS.2014.6916627 Security is an essential requirement in the industrial world. Information leakage to competitors can cause financial problems for a company. Moreover, the wide use of the Internet as an environment for doing business and shopping calls for secure electronic transactions. Confidentiality of the information is preserved through the use of encryption schemes. This paper proposes a new three-party extension of ElGamal encryption scheme and a multi-receiver extension of ElGamal encryption scheme. For both of the two proposed schemes, security and performance are analyzed. Finally, the application of El-Gamal encryption scheme in internet voting is studied for its importance nowadays.
Keywords: cryptography; data privacy; El-Gamal encryption scheme; information confidentiality; information leakage; multireceiver extension; secure electronic transaction; security; Elliptic curves; Encryption; Finite element analysis; Galois fields; Public key; ElGamal encryption; Information security; Public key encryption; internet voting; multi-recipient encryption; tripartite encryption (ID#: 15-4282)


Mezroui, S.; Azizi, A.; Ziane, M., "A Key Exchange System Based On Some Bicyclic Biquadratic Number Fields," Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS), 2014 International Conference on, pp.1260,1264, 14-16 April 2014. doi: 10.1109/ICMCS.2014.6911343 Buchmann and Williams presented in 1988 a key exchange system based on the quadratic imaginary fields. In this paper, we introduce a key exchange protocol based on some imaginary biquadratic fields which is inspired by the Buchmann-Williams' method. We also give the theoretical method in order to generalize the Buchmann-Williams protocol to other fields extensions.
Keywords: cryptographic protocols; Buchmann-William method; Buchmann-Williams protocol; bicyclic biquadratic number fields; imaginary biquadratic field; key exchange protocol; key exchange system; Cryptography; Educational institutions; Elliptic curves; Generators; Protocols; Buchmann-Williams protocol; Euclidean rings; Hilbert fundamental domains (ID#: 15-4283)


Patil, M.; Sahu, V.; Jain, A., "SMS text Compression and Encryption on Android O.S," Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI), 2014 International Conference on, pp. 1, 6, 3-5 Jan. 2014. doi: 10.1109/ICCCI.2014.6921767 Today in the world of globalization mobile communication is one of the fastest growing medium though which one sender can interact with other in short time. During the transmission of data from sender to receiver, size of data is important, since more data takes more time. But one of the limitations of sending data through mobile devices is limited use of bandwidth and number of packets transmitted. Also the security of these data is important. Hence various protocols are implemented which not only provides security to the data but also utilizes bandwidth. Here we proposed an efficient technique of sending SMS text using combination of compression and encryption. The data to be send is first encrypted using Elliptic curve Cryptographic technique, but encryption increases the size of the text data, hence compression is applied to this encrypted data so the data gets compressed and is send in short time. The Compression technique implemented here is an efficient one since it includes an algorithm which compresses the text by 99.9%, hence a great amount of bandwidth gets saved.The hybrid technique of Compression-Encryption of SMS text message is implemented for Android Operating Systems.
Keywords: Android (operating system); cryptographic protocols; data communication; data compression; electronic messaging; public key cryptography; smart phones; Android OS;SMS text encryption-compression technique; data security; data transmission; elliptic curve cryptographic technique; mobile communication; mobile devices; security protocols; Algorithm design and analysis; Bandwidth; Computers; Encryption; Mobile communication; Mobile handsets; ECDSA; Look ahead buffer; PDA; SMS; lossless compression (ID#: 15-4284)


Bubenikova, E.; Durech, J.; Franekova, M., "Security Solutions Of Intelligent Transportation System's Applications With Using VANET Networks," Control Conference (ICCC), 2014 15th International Carpathian, pp.63,68, 28-30 May 2014. doi: 10.1109/CarpathianCC.2014.6843570 The paper deals with the problem of security increasing of applications oriented to safety used within intelligent transportation systems (ITS). The mainly part is orientated to the Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS) with connection to vehicular communications (VC). Simultaneously the safety parameters of the effective digital signature schemes for VC communications are mentioned which are used for an authorised message transmission. In the paper the possible solutions of detection of horizontal road marking on the base of segmentation method are described and the solution of connection of assistance service to Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications with using Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES). Practical part realized via SW Matlab detects the departure of the vehicle from its driving lane, triggers the resulting alarm which is on the security manner transferred as alarm message with digital signature between vehicles via V2V communications. The effectiveness of three digital signature schemes according to length of the key is simulated via SW OpenSSL.
Keywords: alarm systems; digital signatures; intelligent transportation systems; public key cryptography; telecommunication security; vehicular ad hoc networks; ECIES; ITS; LDWS; SW Matlab; SW OpenSSL;V2V communications; VANET networks; alarm message; assistance service; authorised message transmission; digital signature; driving lane; elliptic curve integrated encryption scheme; horizontal road marking; intelligent transportation system; lane departure warning system; security solutions; segmentation method; vehicle-to-vehicle communications; vehicular communications; Digital signatures; Image color analysis; Roads; Safety; Vehicles; Vehicular ad hoc networks; ECIES scheme; LDWS; Matlab; OpenSSL; security; vehicular network (ID#: 15-4285)


Mamun, M.S.I.; Miyaji, A., "RFID Path Authentication, Revisited," Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA), 2014 IEEE 28th International Conference on, pp.245,252, 13-16 May 2014. doi: 10.1109/AINA.2014.150 In an RFID-enabled supply chain, where items are outfitted with RFID tags, path authentication based on tag enables the destination checkpoints to validate the route that a tag has already accessed. In this work, we propose a novel, efficient, privacy-preserving path authentication system for RFID-enabled supply chains. Compared to existing Elliptic curve Elgamal Re-encryption (ECElgamal) based solution, our Homomorphic Message authentication Code on arithmetic circuit (HomMAC) based solution offers less memory storage (with limited scalability) and no computational requirement on the reader. However, unlike previous schemes, we allow computational ability inside the tag that consents a new privacy direction to path privacy proposed by Cai et al. in ACNS012. In addition, we customize a polynomial-based authentication scheme (to thwart potential tag impersonation and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks), so that it fits our new path authentication protocol.
Keywords: cryptographic protocols; polynomials; public key cryptography; radiofrequency identification; supply chain management; ECElgamal based solution; RFID path authentication; RFID-enabled supply chain; arithmetic circuit; denial of service attacks; elliptic curve Elgamal reencryption based solution; homomorphic message authentication code; path authentication protocol; path privacy; polynomial-based authentication scheme; privacy-preserving path authentication system; supply chain management; Authentication; Logic gates; Polynomials; Privacy; Protocols; Supply chains; Arithmetic circuit; Homomorphic MAC; Mutual Authentication; Path Authentication (ID#: 15-4286)


Durech, J.; Franekova, M.; Holecko, P.; Bubenikova, E., "Security Analysis Of Cryptographic Constructions Used Within Communications In Modern Transportation Systems On The Base Of Modelling," ELEKTRO, 2014, pp.424, 429, 19-20 May 2014. doi: 10.1109/ELEKTRO.2014.6848931 The goal of this paper is the analysis of cryptographic mechanisms utilised in VANET communication for Intelligent Transportation Systems with focus on security. The practical part of the contribution is dedicated to modelling of security properties of VANET networks in OPNET Modeler modelling tool extended by the implementation of the OpenSSL library. The designed models simulate a transmission of authorised alert messages in Car-to-Car communication with Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES). The OpenSSL library has also been utilised for the comparison of time demandingness of ECDSA schemes for different key-lengths.
Keywords: intelligent transportation systems; public key cryptography; road traffic; telecommunication security; vehicular ad hoc networks; ECIES; MANET communication; OPNET Modeler modelling tool; OpenSSL library; authorised alert messages transmission; car-to-car communication; cryptographic constructions; elliptic curve integrated encryption scheme; intelligent transportation systems; modern transportation systems; road transport; security analysis; Availability; Cryptography; Libraries; Relays; Vectors; Vehicles; Vehicular ad hoc networks; ECIES scheme; OPNET Modeler; OpenSSL; VANET networks; cryptography; intelligent transportation systems; modelling; vehicular communications (ID#: 15-4287)


Li Xi; Dengguo Feng; Yu Qin; Feng Wei; Jianxiong Shao; Bo Yang, "Direct Anonymous Attestation in Practice: Implementation And Efficient Revocation," Privacy, Security and Trust (PST), 2014 Twelfth Annual International Conference on, pp.67,74, 23-24 July 2014. doi: 10.1109/PST.2014.6890925 Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA) is a signature scheme that provides a balance between user privacy and authentication in a reasonable way. The first RSA-based DAA is proposed in 2004, since then several ECC-based DAA schemes are proposed to achieve better performance. To analyze DAA schemes from a practical point of view, it is necessary to consider implementation-related issues, such as elliptic curve selection and runtime performance. We present a framework for implementing and evaluating various DAA schemes for multiple computing platforms. We implement four DAA schemes using different elliptic curves and show detailed performance evaluation for both PC and mobile device. We analyze the impact of elliptic selections on the performance of DAA schemes and propose practical techniques such as pre-computation to improve the performance of DAA schemes. We also discuss revocation of DAA and present a novel technique which significantly reduces the time of privacy-enhanced signature revocation, thus making privacy-enhanced revocation practical even for embedded mobile devices.
Keywords: authorisation; data privacy; digital signatures; mobile computing; public key cryptography; ECC-based DAA schemes; RSA-based DAA; authentication; direct anonymous attestation; elliptic curve selection; elliptic selections; embedded mobile devices; multiple computing platforms; privacy-enhanced revocation; privacy-enhanced signature revocation; signature scheme; user privacy; Elliptic curves; Mobile communication; Mobile handsets; Performance evaluation; Protocols; Runtime; Security (ID#: 15-4288)


Rengaraju, P.; Chung-Horng Lung; Srinivasan, A., "QoS-Aware Distributed Security Architecture for 4G Multihop Wireless Networks," Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 63, no.6, pp.2886, 2900, July 2014. doi: 10.1109/TVT.2013.2292882 Vehicular communications have received a great deal of attention in recent years due to the demand for multimedia applications during travel and for improvements in safety. Safety applications often require fast message exchanges but do not use much bandwidth. On the other hand, multimedia services require high bandwidth for vehicular users. Hence, to provide mobile broadband services at a vehicular speed of up to 350 km/h, Worldwide interoperable for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and Long-Term Evolution (LTE) are considered the best technologies for vehicular networks. WiMAX and LTE are Fourth-Generation (4G) wireless technologies that have well-defined quality of service (QoS) and security architectures. However, some security threats, such as denial of service (DoS), an introduction of rogue node, etc., still exist in WiMAX and LTE networks, particularly in multihop networks. Therefore, strong security architecture and hasty authentication methods are needed to mitigate the existing security threats in 4G multihop wireless networks. Conversely, the network QoS should not be degraded while enhancing security. Thus, we propose QoS-aware distributed security architecture using the elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) protocol that has proven security strength and low overhead for 4G wireless networks. In this paper, we first describe the current security standards and security threats in WiMAX and LTE networks. Then, the proposed distributed security architecture for 4G multihop wireless networks is presented. Finally, we compare and analyze the proposed solution using testbed implementation and simulation approaches for WiMAX. From the simulation and testbed results for WiMAX networks, it is evident that the proposed scheme provides strong security and hasty authentication for handover users without affecting the QoS performance. For LTE networks, we present the theoretical analysis of the proposed scheme to show that similar performance can also be achieved.
Keywords: Long Term Evolution; WiMax; broadband networks; cryptographic protocols; electronic messaging; message authentication; mobility management (mobile radio); multimedia communication; public key cryptography; quality of service; telecommunication security; vehicular ad hoc networks;4G multihop wireless network; ECDH protocol; LTE networks; QoS; WiMax network; distributed security architecture; elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman protocol; handover user; hasty authentication; long term evolution; message exchange; mobile broadband services; multimedia application; multimedia service; quality of service; safety application; security standard; security threat mitigation; vehicular communication ;vehicular network; vehicular user; worldwide interoperable for microwave access; Authentication; Long Term Evolution; Quality of service; Spread spectrum communication; WiMAX; Distributed security; ECDH; LTE; Long-Term Evolution (LTE); Multihop; WiMAX; Worldwide interoperable for Microwave Access (WiMAX);elliptic curve Diffie??Hellman (ECDH); multihop (ID#: 15-4289)


Saavedra Benitez, Y.I.; Ben-Othman, J.; Claude, J.-P., "Performance Evaluation of Security Mechanisms in RAOLSR Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks," Communications (ICC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 1808, 1812, 10-14 June 2014. doi: 10.1109/ICC.2014.6883585 In this paper, we have proposed the IBE-RAOLSR and ECDSA-RAOLSR protocols for WMNs (Wireless Mesh Networks), which contributes to security routing protocols. We have implemented the IBE (Identity Based Encryption) and ECDSA (Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm) methods to secure messages in RAOLSR (Radio Aware Optimized Link State Routing), namely TC (Topology Control) and Hello messages. We then compare the ECDSA-based RAOLSR with IBE-based RAOLSR protocols. This study shows the great benefits of the IBE technique in securing RAOLSR protocol for WMNs. Through extensive ns-3 (Network Simulator-3) simulations, results have shown that the IBE-RAOLSR outperforms the ECDSA-RAOLSR in terms of overhead and delay. Simulation results show that the utilization of the IBE-based RAOLSR provides a greater level of security with light overhead.
Keywords: cryptography; routing protocols; telecommunication control; telecommunication network topology; wireless mesh networks; ECDSA-RAOLSR protocols; IBE-RAOLSR protocols; WMN; elliptic curve digital signature algorithm; hello messages; identity based encryption; network simulator-3 simulations ;radio aware optimized link state routing; routing protocols; security mechanisms; topology control; wireless mesh networks; Delays; Digital signatures; IEEE 802.11 Standards; Routing; Routing protocols; IBE; Identity Based Encryption; Radio Aware Optimized Link State Routing; Routing Protocol; Security; Wireless Mesh Networks (ID#: 15-4290)


Articles listed on these pages have been found on publicly available internet pages and are cited with links to those pages. Some of the information included herein has been reprinted with permission from the authors or data repositories. Direct any requests via Email to for removal of the links or modifications to specific citations. Please include the ID# of the specific citation in your correspondence.