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International Conferences: Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015


The 2nd International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 was held on 19-20 February 2015 at by the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering at Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity University, Noida, India.  The conference focused on advancements in Signal Processing and Integrated Networks. Researchers from India and abroad gathered to introduce their recent advances in the field and promote the exchange of new ideas, results and techniques and to promote research work, sharing views and getting innovative ideas in this field.  The articles and presentations cited here relate directly to security issues. 


Sharma, Lavanya; Yadav, Dileep Kumar; Bharti, Sunil Kumar, "An Improved Method For Visual Surveillance Using Background Subtraction Technique," Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 421, 426, 19-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095253
Abstract: Moving object detection is an important research area in computer vision. It deals with detecting instances of moving objects of various classes (such as humans, animals, buildings, or vehicles) in digital images and frame sequences for increasing needs of security and surveillance in public or private areas. In this work, proposed improvement enhances the existing model by using some image processing techniques in order to improve detection quality and compared against existing model using metrics like error analysis, precision, recall, f-measure and accuracy. In the existing work, robust estimators were used in order to model an efficient background and then a fast test was used to classify foreground pixel. There were problem of noisy pixels (false detection) due to environmental changes like waving tree leaves, rippling water and lighting effects. The, proposed improvement overcomes the problem of false detection and enhances the detection quality.
Keywords: Background Modeling; Background Subtraction; Hole filling; Morphological Operator; Moving Object Detection (ID#: 15-5129)


Islam, Md.Faruqul; Maheshwari, Saurabh; Kumar, Yogesh, "Energy Efficient Railway Track Security Using Vibration Sensing Network," Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 973, 978, 19-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095254
Abstract: Accidents occurring in railway transportation systems cost a large number of lives. Many people die and several others get physical and mentally injured. There is certain need of advanced and robust techniques that can not only prevent these accidents but also eradicate all possibilities of their occurrence. We are proposing a sensor network which continuously monitors the railway track through the acoustic sensors and detect any discontinuity in the track. The sensor nodes are equipped with the acoustic sensors that can sense the vibration in the railway track due a coming train. They also estimate the theoretical value of vibration knowing their distance from the train. They compare sensed and estimated vibration intensities. If there is a major difference between these intensities then the track is suspected to be broken. The geographical positioning sensors are placed on the trains as well as on sensors. This complete process is real time in nature and should meet the timing deadlines. The nodes placed on the track and the forwarding poles are expected to work regularly for a long period of time without human intervention. These are generally battery operated so should be following some energy efficiency algorithm also. This paper is an attempt to optimize the energy used by the sensor nodes by using proposed intelligent sensor and lazy pole strategy. Very few approaches have been implemented concerning the track breakage detection. The sensors follow the proposed intelligent sensing technique whereas the poles follow the lazy poles strategy to make the approach energy efficient.
Keywords: WSN; multilevel routing; railway track; security; track breakage; vibration sensors (ID#: 15-5130)


Dora, Durga Prasada; Kumar, Sushil; Kaiwartya, Omprakash, "Efficient Dynamic Caching For Geocast Routing In Vanets," Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 979, 983, 19-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095262
Abstract: Virtual warning system which is an integral component of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) can be realized through geocasting in vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs). It enhances road safety and security by targeting a group of vehicles within a specified geospatial region, called Zone of Interest (ZOI) rather than an individual vehicle. Velocity of the node and dynamic topology are major concerns in vehicular traffic environment which differentiates VANETs from mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs). This paper purposes neighbor selection scheme based on overlapping area threshold and efficient caching based on threshold time beaconing system to incorporate caching for geospatial packet dissemination which enhances data packet delivery ratio significantly. Due to this the messages that could not be forwarded because of local maximum problem in greedy forwarding are stored in cache which enhances geocast message delivery success ratio. Simulation results show that the purposed approach not only enhances the caching methodology but also minimizes packet loss as compared to greedy forwarding and greedy perimeter stateless routing (GPSR).
Keywords: caching; geocast routing; overlapping area threshold based caching; vehicular ad-hoc networks (ID#: 15-5131)


Bhattacharjee, Suchismita; Rajkumari, Roshni; Marchang, Ningrinla, "Effect Of Colluding Attack In Collaborative Spectrum Sensing," Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 223, 227, 19-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095266
Abstract: Collaborative spectrum sensing (CSS) is an approach that enhances the spectrum sensing performance where multiple secondary users (SUs) cooperate to make the final sensing decision in a cognitive radio network (CRN). In CSS, the SUs are generally assumed to report correct local sensing result to the fusion center (FC). But, some SUs may be compromised and start reporting false local sensing decision to the FC to disrupt the network. CSS can also be severely affected by compromised nodes working together. Such a type of attack is termed as colluding attack and nodes that launch colluding attacks are known as colluding nodes. In this paper, we study the effect of colluding nodes in collaborative spectrum sensing. We also show that the presence of colluding attack results in higher as network performance degradation compared to independent attack especially when the presence of attackers is high. Hence, colluding attacks are of much security concern.
Keywords: Cognitive radio; Infrastructure-based CR; Spectrum sensing data falsification; colluding nodes (ID#: 15-5132)


Dwivedi, Rudresh; Dey, Somnath, "Cancelable Iris Template Generation Using Look-Up Table Mapping," Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 785, 790, 19-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095296
Abstract: One of the potential passiveness in a biometric system is the invasion of stored biometric template, which may lead to serious security and privacy thefts. The emerging need of biometric approaches is evolved from privacy invasion and irrevocable issues of identity thefts as passwords and tokens can be easily compromised. To address these issues, the notion of cancelable biometrics is introduced to signify biometric templates that can be canceled and replaced with the inclusion of another independent authentication factor. Cancelable biometric generation technique based on randomized look-up table mapping has been proposed in this paper. The technique uses a decimal vector, which is evaluated from a row vector. Row vector is generated by applying 1-D Log Gabor filter on the raw iris template. The decimal vector is then mapped to look-up table based on the position of bits. The proposed approach enables an operation of cancelable iris biometric systems at a high security level. Experiments which are carried out on the CASIA V3 Interval iris database confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Although, the accuracy of the proposed approach is confirmed as 94.26% but the approach is efficient if we consider the security and non-revocable perspectives.
Keywords: Look-up table; biometric; cancelable; iris biometric (ID#: 15-5133)


Kashyap, Katyayani; Sarma, Manash P.; Sarma, Kandarpa K.; Mastorakis, Nikos, "Generation Of Orthogonal Logistic Map Sequences For Faded Channels In Spread Spectrum Modulation," Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 253, 258, 19-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095304
Abstract: Spread spectrum system are techniques by which signals are spreaded in the frequency domain and plays a very important role in wireless communication system. For secure communication, chaotic spreading sequence is advantageous but most of them are non-orthogonal. This paper presents the design of an orthogonal chaotic spreading sequence for application in Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS SS) system for faded wireless channels. Enhancing the quality of service (QOS) and security of data transmission are prime issues which can better be addressed with chaotic sequences. In this paper, generation and application of orthogonal chaotic sequence is done and a comparison with non orthogonal chaotic sequence is presented. Also the generated orthogonal spreading sequence is applied for DS SS system using different channels and the results are compared. The comparison factors are bit error rate (BER), mutual information, signal power and computational time, which finally states the efficiency of generated code. Again a multiplier-less chaotic sequence generator is proposed for lower power requirement than the existing one.
Keywords: Chaotic code; DS SS; Logistic map; Orthogonal chaotic code; Rayleigh fading; Rician fading (ID#: 15-5134)


Mishra, Manoj K.; Sengar, Sandeep Singh; Mukhopadhyay, Susanta, "Algorithm For Secure Visual Communication," Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 831, 836, 19-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095310
Abstract: The enormous size of video data of natural scene and objects is a practical threat to storage, transmission. The efficient handling of video data essentially requires compression for economic utilization of storage space, access time and the available network bandwidth of the public channel. In addition, the protection of important video is of utmost importance so as to save it from malicious intervention, attack or alteration by unauthorized users. Therefore, security and privacy has become an important issue. Since from past few years, number of researchers concentrate on how to develop efficient video encryption for secure video transmission, a large number of multimedia encryption schemes have been proposed in the literature like selective encryption, complete encryption and entropy coding based encryption. Among above three kinds of algorithms, they all remain some kind of shortcomings. In this paper, we have proposed a lightweight selective encryption algorithm for video conference which is based on efficient XOR operation and symmetric hierarchical encryption, successfully overcoming the weakness of complete encryption while offering a better security. The proposed algorithm guarantees security, fastness and error tolerance without increasing the video size.
Keywords: GDH.3; H.264/AVC; RC4; video encryption (ID#: 15-5135)


Kamila, Sabyasachi; Roy, Ratnakirti; Changder, Suvamoy, "A DWT Based Steganography Scheme With Image Block Partitioning," Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 471, 476, 19-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095311
Abstract: Steganography is a branch of information hiding. It hides the existence of a secret message by embedding it in a cover media. In this paper, a new method for color image steganography is proposed in frequency domain where Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) of the cover image is used to differentiate high frequency and low frequency information of each pixel of the image. Proposed method hides secret bits in three higher frequency components making sure that the embedding impact on the cover image is minimum and not centralized in sensitivity domain. Experimental results reveal a good visual quality of the stego image with desirable steganalysis resisting characteristics.
Keywords: 2D-DWT; Dynamic Blocking; PairingFunction; Security; Steganography (ID#: 15-5136)


Kashyap, Katyayani; Sarma, Manash P.; Sarma, Kandarpa K.; Mastorakis, Nikos, "Logistic Map Based Spread Spectrum Modulation In Faded Wireless Channel," Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 270, 274, 19-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095325
Abstract: Spread spectrum modulation finds a very important place in wireless communication due to many striking features like robustness to noise and interference, application of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and so on. But generation of an efficient spreading code is always challenging and crucial too. This paper presents a design of chaotic spreading sequence for application in a Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS SS) based system with the considerations of a faded wireless channel. Enhancing the security of data transmission is a main issue and can better be addressed with a chaotic sequence. Generation and application of chaotic sequence is done and a comparison with Gold sequence is presented which clearly indicates achieving better performance with simplicity of design. Performance evaluation is done in terms of BER, computational time and mutual information for faded channel taking into considerations of different modulation schemes, which finally dictates the efficiency of the generated code in high data rate modulation schemes.
Keywords: BPSK; DPSK; DS SS; Gold code; Logistic map code; QPSK (ID#: 15-5137)


Ankur; Divyanjali; Bhardwaj, Trishansh, "A Dissection of Pseudorandom Number Generators," Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 318, 323, 19-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095369
Abstract: Security over the network has become the most challenging issue with the day by day increase in use of internet and other such services provided by network. The secure transmission, storage and access of data or information are the key issues for security. To understand and implement security one needs to first know in deep the concept of pseudorandom numbers because they play a major role in internet security. Pseudo-random number generators are used to generate these numbers which can be then used as keys or in any other form. In this paper we have presented various pseudorandom number generators that are used for security purpose to generate the encryption keys, SSL connection, database security etc. There is a need to understand how and for what purpose these pseudorandom number generators can be used. We also elaborate some of the limitations of the same.
Keywords: Inversive Congruential Generator; Lagged Fibonacci Generator; Linear Congruential Generator; Pseudorandom generators; Random numbers (ID#: 15-5138)


Roy, Aniket; Maiti, Arpan Kumar; Ghosh, Kuntal, "A Perception Based Color Image Adaptive Watermarking Scheme in YCbCr Space," Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 537, 543, 19-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095399
Abstract: Copyright protection has now become a challenging domain in real life scenario. Digital watermarking scheme is an important tool for copyright protection technique. A good quality watermarking scheme should have high perceptual transparency, and should also be robust enough against possible attacks. A well-known (Lewis-Barni) Human Visual System (HVS) based watermarking model is fairly successful with respect to the first mentioned criterion, though its effectiveness in color images has not been claimed. Furthermore, it is true that although several watermarking schemes are available in literature for grayscale images, relatively few works have been done in color image watermarking, and the little that have been done, have mostly been tested in RGB, YUV, YIQ color spaces. Thus the question remains that, which is the optimal color space for color image watermarking and whether this HVS model is applicable for that color space. There are two main contributions of the present work with respect to the above. First, it claims that for color image watermarking, the YCbCr space can be used as the perceptually optimum color space, the Cb component being the optimal color channel here. Second, it also tests the effectiveness of the above-mentioned HVS model in that color space. These have been achieved by using the HVS model to propose a new non-blind (original image and the watermark logo image both are needed for extraction) image adaptive Discrete Wavelet transform and Singular Value Decomposition (DWT-SVD) based color image watermarking scheme in YCbCr color space. The multi-resolution property of DWT and stability of SVD additionally makes the scheme robust against attacks, while the Arnold scrambling, of the watermark, enhances the security in our method. The experimental results support the superiority of our scheme over the existing methods.
Keywords: DWT; SVD; YCbCr color space; color image watermarking; perceptual transparency; robustness (ID#: 15-5139)


Cabrera, Josue; Alonso, Jesus B.; Travieso, Carlos M.; Ferrer, Miguel A.; Hernriquez, Patricia; Dutta, Malay Kishore; Singh, Anushikha, "Emotional States Discrimination In Voice In Secure Environments," Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 843, 847, 19-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095414
Abstract: In this paper we present the use of emotions in security. The access control security systems by speech recognition can be complemented by means of an emotions discrimination system from the speech. An emotions recognition system has the advantage of increasing the security allowing identifying if an authorized user in the system is being coerced while he executes speech identification, reflecting his speech some nervousness. In this study we use four emotional states. We use three emotional states that would produce alarm in a security system: anxiety, hot anger and panic. and a fourth emotional state that corresponds to emotions set without interest for the security, like happiness, shame, sadness, boredom or the absence of emotion (neutral), and that we have called rest. In our simulations, the proposed emotions discrimination system has obtained an average accuracy about 79%.
Keywords: Emotion recognition; feature extraction; speech (ID#: 15-5140)


Goswami, Sudhir; Goswami, Jyoti; Kumar, Nagresh, "Unusual Event Detection In Low Resolution Video For Enhancing ATM Security," Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 848, 853, 19-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095435
Abstract: In real world applications, tracking target in low resolution video is a challenging task because there is loss of discriminative detail in the visual appearance of moving object. The existing methods are mostly based on the enhancement of LR (low resolution) video by super resolution techniques. But these methods require high computational cost. This cost further increases if we are dealing with events detection. In this paper we present an algorithm which is able to detect unusual events without such type of conversion and well suited for enhancement of security of ATMs where conventional low resolution cameras are generally used due to their low cost. Proposed algorithm only uses close morphological operation with disk like structuring element in the preprocessing steps to cope up with low resolution video. It further uses rolling average background subtraction technique to detect foreground object from dynamic background in a scene. Our proposed algorithm is able to recognize the occurrence of uncommon events such as overcrowding or fight in the low resolution video simply by using statistical property, standard deviation of moving objects. It is fast enough because it process low resolution frames and could be helpful in surveillance system for enhancing the security of ATMs where conventional camera of low resolution are still used. It does not use any classifier and avoids the requirement of training the system initially.
Keywords: ATM security; Object Tracking; Unusual event detection; background subtraction; video surveillance (ID#: 15-5141)


Mehta, Rajesh; Vishwakarma, Virendra P.; Rajpal, Navin, "Lagrangian Support Vector Regression Based Image Watermarking In Wavelet Domain," Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 854, 859, 19-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095436
Abstract: To enhance the imperceptibility and robustness against image processing operations, the advantage of artificial neural network (ANN) and machine learning algorithms such as support vector regression (SVR), extreme learning machine (ELM) etc. are employed into watermarking applications. In this paper, Lagrangian support vector regression (LSVR) based blind image watermarking scheme in wavelet domain is proposed. The good learning capability, high generalization property against noisy datasets and less computational cost of LSVR compared to traditional SVR and ANN based algorithms makes the proposed scheme more imperceptible and robustness. Firstly, four sub images of host image are obtained using sub sampling. Each sub image is decomposed using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to obtain the low frequency subband. Low frequency coefficients of each sub image are used to form the dataset act as input to LSVR. The output obtained by trained LSVR is used to embed the binary watermark. The security of the watermark is enhanced by applying Arnold transformation. Experimental results show the imperceptibility and robustness of the proposed scheme against several image processing attacks. The visual quality of watermarked image is quantified by the peak-signal-to noise ratio (PSNR) and the similarity between the original and extracted watermark is evaluated using bit error rate (BER). Performance of the proposed scheme is verified by comparing with the state-of-art techniques.
Keywords: Bit error rate; Lagrangian support vector regression; Peak signal to noise ratio; Wavelet transform (ID#: 15-5142)


Ali, Sadaf Syed; Prakash, Surya, "Enhanced Fingerprint Shell," Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 801, 805, 19-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095438
Abstract: Most of the fingerprint based biometric systems directly store fingerprint information in the form of minutiae template. A fingerprint is permanently associated with a user and cannot be changed unlike passwords in case of token-based systems. If the fingerprint of a user is compromised, it is lost forever. Hence ensuring security of fingerprint data is essential. In this paper, a key based technique, called Enhanced fingerprint Shell, has been presented for securing fingerprint template. This technique is an enhanced version of the key based technique named as Fingerprint Shell proposed by Moujahdi et al. The proposed technique transforms a fingerprint template by using a pair of keys defined uniquely for every individual. If the transformed template is compromised, user has an option to generate a new template using a new pair of keys. The proposed technique has been evaluated on IIT Kanpur fingerprint database. Experimental results have been found encouraging and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
Keywords: Biometric security; Diversity; Fingerprint; Minutiae; Revocability (ID#: 15-5143)


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