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Resilient Security Architectures (IEEE)


Resilient security architectures are a hard problem in the Science of Security. A survey of the IEEE Digital Library found these scholarly articles about research into resilient security architectures that were published in 2014. A separate listing of works published by ACM is referenced under the heading “Hard Problems: Resilient Security Architectures (ACM).” A great deal of research useful to resilience is coming from the literature on control theory. In addition to the Science of Security community, much of this work is also relevant to the SURE project.


Enose, Nampuraja, "Implementing an Integrated Security Management Framework to Ensure a Secure Smart Grid," Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI, 2014 International Conference on, pp.778, 784, 24-27 Sept. 2014. doi: 10.1109/ICACCI.2014.6968521 Abstract: The paradigm-shifting transition in today's ‘smart grid’ is the perfect convergence of IT and OT systems that build an intelligent electricity system to distribute electricity more effectively all the way from transmission to customer appliances. While this transformation promises immense operational benefits to the utilities, it brings along significant security concerns in terms of increasing the enterprise-class security risk. The challenge for the utilities therefore, is to implement new approaches and tools in building a secure smart grid network that is reliable and resilient. This paper therefore introduces an ‘integrated security management framework’ that offers critical infrastructure-grade security, to multiple utility technologies in establishing an enterprise wide integrated security management system. This comprehensive security architecture offers improved interconnect of diverse systems, and establishes both physical security and cyber-security, integrated to all functional aspects of the grid.
Keywords: Computer architecture; Computer security; Control systems; Reliability; Smart grids; Standards; IT/OT convergence; critical infrastructure; integrated architecture; security management; smart grid (ID#: 15-5471)


Atighetchi, M.; Adler, A., "A Framework for Resilient Remote Monitoring," Resilient Control Systems (ISRCS), 2014 7th International Symposium on, pp.1, 8, 19-21 Aug. 2014. doi: 10.1109/ISRCS.2014.6900090 Abstract: Today's activities in cyber space are more connected than ever before, driven by the ability to dynamically interact and share information with a changing set of partners over a wide variety of networks. To support dynamic sharing, computer systems and network are stood up on a continuous basis to support changing mission critical functionality. However, configuration of these systems remains a manual activity, with misconfigurations staying undetected for extended periods, unneeded systems remaining in place long after they are needed, and systems not getting updated to include the latest protections against vulnerabilities. This environment provides a rich environment for targeted cyber attacks that remain undetected for weeks to months and pose a serious national security threat. To counter this threat, technologies have started to emerge to provide continuous monitoring across any network-attached device for the purpose of increasing resiliency by virtue of identifying and then mitigating targeted attacks. For these technologies to be effective, it is of utmost importance to avoid any inadvertent increase in the attack surface of the monitored system. This paper describes the security architecture of Gestalt, a next-generation cyber information management platform that aims to increase resiliency by providing ready and secure access to granular cyber event data available across a network. Gestalt's federated monitoring architecture is based on the principles of strong isolation, least-privilege policies, defense-in-depth, crypto-strong authentication and encryption, and self-regeneration. Remote monitoring functionality is achieved through an orchestrated workflow across a distributed set of components, linked via a specialized secure communication protocol, that together enable unified access to cyber observables in a secure and resilient way.
Keywords: Web services; information management; security of data; Gestalt platform; attack identification; attack mitigation; communication protocol; computer networks; computer systems; cyber attacks;cyber observables; cyber space; granular cyber event data; mission critical functionality; national security threat; network-attached device; next-generation cyber information management platform; remote monitoring functionality; resilient remote monitoring; Bridges; Firewalls (computing); Monitoring; Protocols;Servers; XML; cyber security; federated access; middleware; semantic web (ID#: 15-5472)


Wei Zhang; Yue-Ji Wang; Xiao-Lei WangWang, "A Survey of Defense Against P2P Botnets," Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing (DASC), 2014 IEEE 12th International Conference on, pp.97,102, 24-27 Aug. 2014. doi: 10.1109/DASC.2014.26 Abstract: Botnet, a network of computers that are compromised and controlled by the attacker, is one of the most significant and serious threats to the Internet. Researchers have done plenty of research and made significant progress. As the extensive use and unique advantages of peer-to-peer (P2P) technology, the new advanced form of botnets with the P2P architecture have emerged and become more resilient to defense methods and countermeasures than traditional centralized botnets. Due to the underlying security limitation of current system and Internet architecture, and the complexity of P2P botnet itself, how to effectively counter the global threat of P2P botnets is still a very challenging issue. In this paper, we present an overall overview and analysis of the current defense methods against P2P botnets. We also separately analyse the challenges in botnets detection, measurement and mitigation in detail which introduced by the new form of P2P botnets and propose our suggestions to corresponding challenges.
Keywords: Internet; invasive software; peer-to-peer computing; Internet architecture; P2P architecture; P2P botnet complexity; P2P botnet threat; P2P technology; botnet detection; botnet measurement; botnet mitigation; countermeasures; defense method; peer-to-peer technology; security limitation; serious threat; Crawlers; Current measurement; Feature extraction; Monitoring; Peer-to-peer computing; Protocols; Topology; Botnets detection; Botnets measurement; Botnets mitigation; P2P botnet (ID#: 15-5473)


Srivastava, M., "In Sensors We Trust—A Realistic Possibility?," Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS), 2014 IEEE International Conference on, pp.1,1, 26-28 May 2014. doi: 10.1109/DCOSS.2014.65 Abstract: Sensors of diverse capabilities and modalities, carried by us or deeply embedded in the physical world, have invaded our personal, social, work, and urban spaces. Our relationship with these sensors is a complicated one. On the one hand, these sensors collect rich data that are shared and disseminated, often initiated by us, with a broad array of service providers, interest groups, friends, and family. Embedded in this data is information that can be used to algorithmically construct a virtual biography of our activities, revealing intimate behaviors and lifestyle patterns. On the other hand, we and the services we use, increasingly depend directly and indirectly on information originating from these sensors for making a variety of decisions, both routine and critical, in our lives. The quality of these decisions and our confidence in them depend directly on the quality of the sensory information and our trust in the sources. Sophisticated adversaries, benefiting from the same technology advances as the sensing systems, can manipulate sensory sources and analyze data in subtle ways to extract sensitive knowledge, cause erroneous inferences, and subvert decisions. The consequences of these compromises will only amplify as our society increasingly complex human-cyber-physical systems with increased reliance on sensory information and real-time decision cycles.Drawing upon examples of this two-faceted relationship with sensors in applications such as mobile health and sustainable buildings, this talk will discuss the challenges inherent in designing a sensor information flow and processing architecture that is sensitive to the concerns of both producers and consumer. For the pervasive sensing infrastructure to be trusted by both, it must be robust to active adversaries who are deceptively extracting private information, manipulating beliefs and subverting decisions. While completely solving these challenges would require a new science of resilient, secure and trustworthy networked sensing and decision systems that would combine hitherto disciplines of distributed embedded systems, network science, control theory, security, behavioral science, and game theory, this talk will provide some initial ideas. These include an approach to enabling privacy-utility trade-offs that balance the tension between risk of information sharing to the producer and the value of information sharing to the consumer, and method to secure systems against physical manipulation of sensed information.
Keywords: information dissemination; sensors; information sharing; processing architecture; secure systems; sensing infrastructure; sensor information flow; Architecture; Buildings; Computer architecture; Data mining; Information management; Security; Sensors (ID#: 15-5474)



Kannan, S.; Karimi, N.; Sinanoglu, O.; Karri, R., "Security Vulnerability of Emerging Non-volatile Main Memories and Countermeasures," Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol.34, no.1, pp.2-15, Jan. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TCAD.2014.2369741 Abstract: Emerging non-volatile memory devices such as phase change memories and memristors are replacing SRAM and DRAM. However, non-volatile main memories (NVMM) are susceptible to probing attacks even when powered down. This way they may compromise sensitive data such as passwords and keys that reside in the NVMM. To eliminate this vulnerability, we propose sneak-path encryption (SPE), a hardware intrinsic encryption technique for memristor-based NVMMs. SPE is instruction set architecture (ISA) independent and has minimal impact on performance. SPE exploits the physical parameters, such as sneak-paths in crossbar memories, to encrypt the data stored in a memristor-based NVMM. SPE is resilient to a number of attacks that may be performed on NVMMs. We use a cycle accurate simulator to evaluate the performance impact of SPE based NVMM and compare against other security techniques. SPE can secure an NVMM with a ~1.3% performance overhead.
Keywords: Ciphers; Encryption; Memristors; Nonvolatile memory; Random access memory; Encryption; Hardware Security; Memory Security; Memristor; RRAM (ID#: 15-5475)


Borges Hink, R.C.; Beaver, J.M.; Buckner, M.A.; Morris, T.; Adhikari, U.; Shengyi Pan, "Machine Learning for Power System Disturbance and Cyber-Attack Discrimination," Resilient Control Systems (ISRCS), 2014 7th International Symposium on, pp.1,8, 19-21 Aug. 2014. doi: 10.1109/ISRCS.2014.6900095 Abstract: Power system disturbances are inherently complex and can be attributed to a wide range of sources, including both natural and man-made events. Currently, the power system operators are heavily relied on to make decisions regarding the causes of experienced disturbances and the appropriate course of action as a response. In the case of cyber-attacks against a power system, human judgment is less certain since there is an overt attempt to disguise the attack and deceive the operators as to the true state of the system. To enable the human decision maker, we explore the viability of machine learning as a means for discriminating types of power system disturbances, and focus specifically on detecting cyber-attacks where deception is a core tenet of the event. We evaluate various machine learning methods as disturbance discriminators and discuss the practical implications for deploying machine learning systems as an enhancement to existing power system architectures.
Keywords: learning (artificial intelligence); power engineering computing; power system faults; security of data; cyber-attack discrimination; machine learning; power system architectures; power system disturbance; power system operators; Accuracy; Classification algorithms; Learning systems; Protocols; Relays; Smart grids; SCADA; Smart grid; cyber-attack; machine learning (ID#: 15-5476)


Mozaffari-Kermani, M.; Kai Tian; Azarderakhsh, R.; Bayat-Sarmadi, S., "Fault-Resilient Lightweight Cryptographic Block Ciphers for Secure Embedded Systems," Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE, vol.6, no.4, pp.89, 92, Dec. 2014. doi: 10.1109/LES.2014.2365099 Abstract: The development of extremely-constrained embedded systems having sensitive nodes such as RFID tags and nanosensors necessitates the use of lightweight block ciphers. Nevertheless, providing the required security properties does not guarantee their reliability and hardware assurance when the architectures are prone to natural and malicious faults. In this letter, error detection schemes for lightweight block ciphers are proposed with the case study of XTEA (eXtended TEA). Lightweight block ciphers such as XTEA, PRESENT, SIMON, and the like might be better suited for low-resource deeply-embedded systems compared to the Advanced Encryption Standard. Three different error detection approaches are presented and according to our fault-injection simulations, high error coverage is achieved. Finally, field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementations of these proposed error detection structures are presented to assess their efficiency and overhead. The schemes presented can also be applied to lightweight hash functions with similar structures, making the presented schemes suitable for providing reliability to their lightweight security-constrained hardware implementations.
Keywords: cryptography; embedded systems; error correction; fault tolerant computing; field programmable gate arrays; nanosensors; radiofrequency identification; telecommunication network reliability; FPGA; PRESENT; RFID tags; SIMON; XTEA; advanced encryption standard; error detection schemes; extended TEA; extremely-constrained secure embedded systems; fault-resilient lightweight cryptographic block ciphers; field-programmable gate array; lightweight hash functions; nanosensors; sensitive nodes; tiny encryption algorithm; Ciphers; Cryptography; Data security; Encryption; Fault diagnosis; Field programmable gate arrays; Cryptography; error detection; security (ID#: 15-5477)


He Li; Peng Li; Song Guo; Shui Yu, "Byzantine-Resilient Secure Software-Defined Networks With Multiple Controllers," Communications (ICC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 695, 700, 10-14 June 2014. doi: 10.1109/ICC.2014.6883400 Abstract: Software-defined network (SDN) is the next generation of networking architecture that is dynamic, manageable, cost-effective, and adaptable, making it ideal for the high-bandwidth, dynamic nature of today's applications. In SDN, network management is facilitated through software rather than low-level device configurations. However, the centralized control plane introduced by SDN imposes a great challenge for the network security. In this paper, we present a secure SDN structure, in which each device is managed by multiple controllers rather than a single one as in a traditional manner. It can resist Byzantine attacks on controllers and the communication links between controllers and SDN switches. Furthermore, we design a cost-efficient controller assignment algorithm to minimize the number of required controllers for a given set of switches. Extensive simulations have been conducted to show that our proposed algorithm significantly outperforms random algorithms.
Keywords: fault tolerant control; telecommunication control; telecommunication network management; telecommunication security; Byzantine attacks; SDN switches; centralized control plane; communication links; cost-efficient controller assignment algorithm; multiple controllers; network management; network security; networking architecture; secure SDN structure; software-defined network; Bismuth; Control systems; Fault tolerance; Fault tolerant systems; Protocols; Resource management; Security (ID#: 15-5478)


Yang, Q.; Hu, X.; Qin, Z., "Secure Systolic Montgomery Modular Multiplier Over Prime Fields Resilient to Fault-Injection Attacks," Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol.23, no.9, pp.1889-1902, September 2015. doi: 10.1109/TVLSI.2014.2356015 Abstract: This paper focuses on the security architecture for Montgomery modular multiplication over prime fields (MMMopfs). We propose a class of noninterleaved systolic secure architectures for MMMopf. Each of the proposed secure architectures has two modules, in which one is a main function module (MFM) which computes MMMopf, the other is an error detection module (EDM) which detects faults either owing to natural causes or deliberate fault injection by an attacker. In our secure architectures, several computing types of systolic array structures are adopted to implement the MFMs, and two error-detecting styles based on linear arithmetic codes are employed to construct the EDMs. We explore various combinations of computing types and error-detecting styles to get some excellent secure architectures. The best implementation of our secure architecture of Style-I can detect 99.9985% of faults in processing elements (PEs), with an average delay of 8.56% of whole Montgomery modular multiplication (MMM) computing time, and about 26.73% overhead resources. Meanwhile, the throughput rate of its MFM is 34.44% higher than that of the best pure MMMopf implementation in literature, with almost the same hardware consumption. The error detection capability, overhead proportion, and the average error-reporting delay of our secure architectures are comparable with or better than Hariri and Reyhani-Masoleh’s work on secure MMM over binary extension fields. Moreover, our secure architecture of Style-II can localize 90.63% of injected PEs faults, on condition that the number of affected PEs does not exceed 3. The property of our secure architectures that the injected faults could be localized and detected is novel and valuable.
Keywords: Arrays; Delays; Hardware; Prediction algorithms; Registers; Throughput; Concurrent error detection; Montgomery modular multiplication (MMM);systolic array (ID#: 15-5479)


Binun, A.; Bloch, M.; Dolev, S.; Kahil, M.R.; Menuhin, B.; Yagel, R.; Coupaye, T.; Lacoste, M.; Wailly, A., "Self-Stabilizing Virtual Machine Hypervisor Architecture for Resilient Cloud," Services (SERVICES), 2014 IEEE World Congress on, pp.200,207, June 27 2014-July 2 2014. doi: 10.1109/SERVICES.2014.44 Abstract: This paper presents the architecture for a self-stabilizing hypervisor able to recover itself in the presence of Byzantine faults regardless of the state it is currently in. Our architecture is applicable to wide variety of underlying hardware and software and does not require augmenting computers with special hardware. The actions representing defense and recovery strategies can be specified by a user. We describe our architecture in OS-independent terms, thus making it applicable to various virtualization infrastructures. We also provide a prototype extending the Linux-based hypervisor KVM with the self-stabilizing functionality. These features allow augmenting KVM with robustness functionality in the coming stages and moving to cloud management system architectures such as OpenStack to support more industrial scenarios.
Keywords: cloud computing; virtual machines; virtualisation; Byzantine faults; Linux-based hypervisor KVM;OS-independent terms; OpenStack; cloud management system architectures; resilient cloud; robustness functionality; self-stabilizing functionality; self-stabilizing virtual machine hypervisor architecture; virtualization infrastructures; Computer architecture; Context; Hardware; Kernel; Security; Virtual machine monitors; Virtual machining; IaaS; hypervisor; resilience; self-stabilization (ID#: 15-5480)


Hoefling, M.; Mill, C.G.; Menth, M., "Distributed Load Balancing for Resilient Information-Centric SeDAX Networks," Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS), 2014 IEEE, pp. 1, 9, 5-9 May 2014. doi: 10.1109/NOMS.2014.6838254 Abstract: SeDAX is a publish/subscribe information-centric networking architecture where publishers send messages to the appropriate message broker over a Delaunay-triangulated overlay network. Resilient data forwarding and data redundancy enable a high level of reliability. Overlay nodes and topics are addressed via geo-coordinates. A topic is stored on primary and secondary nodes, those nodes closest and second-closest to the topic's coordinate, respectively. The overlay automatically reroutes a topic's messages to its secondary node should its primary node fail. Currently, SeDAX determines the coordinate of a topic by hashing its name. This kind of topic allocation is static, which can lead to unintended load imbalances. In this paper, we propose a topic delegation mechanism to make the assignment of topics to nodes dynamic. Our proposed mechanism is the only existing method to improve the flexibility and resource management of the SeDAX architecture so far. We define the load of SeDAX nodes and coordinates at different levels of resilience. On this basis, we develop distributed algorithms for load balancing. Simulations show that significant load imbalance can occur with static topic assignment and that the proposed algorithms achieve very good load balancing results.
Keywords: computer network security; distributed algorithms; overlay networks; resource allocation; telecommunication network reliability; Delaunay-triangulated overlay network; SeDAX; data redundancy; distributed algorithms; geocoordinates; load balancing; message broker; overlay nodes; primary nodes; publish-subscribe information-centric networking architecture; resilient data forwarding;resource management; secondary nodes; static topic assignment; topic allocation; topic delegation mechanism; Computer architecture; Load management; Load modeling; Measurement; Overlay networks; Resilience; Resource management (ID#: 15-5481)


Leontiadis, I.; Molva, R.; Onen, M., "A P2P Based Usage Control Enforcement Scheme Resilient to Re-Injection Attacks," A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), 2014 IEEE 15th International Symposium on, pp. 1,8, 19-19 June 2014. doi: 10.1109/WoWMoM.2014.6918974 Abstract: Existing privacy controls based on access control techniques do not prevent massive dissemination of private data by unauthorized users. We suggest a usage control enforcement scheme that allows users to gain control over their data during its entire lifetime. The scheme is based on a peer-to-peer architecture whereby a different set of peers is randomly selected for data assignment. Usage control is achieved based on the assumption that at least t out of any set of n peers will not behave maliciously. Such a system would still suffer from re-injection attacks whereby attackers can gain ownership of data and the usage policy thereof by simply re-storing data after slight modification of the content. In order to cope with re-injection attacks the scheme relies on a similarity detection mechanism. The robustness of the scheme has been evaluated in an experimental setting using a variety of re-injection attacks.
Keywords: authorisation; data privacy; peer-to-peer computing; P2P based usage control enforcement scheme; access control techniques; data assignment; peer-to-peer architecture; privacy control; re-injection attacks; similarity detection mechanism; Access control; Cryptography; Distributed databases; Peer-to-peer computing; Protocols; Resistance (ID#: 15-5482)


Martins, G.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Dubey, A.; Koutsoukos, X.D., "Performance Evaluation of an Authentication Mechanism in Time-Triggered Networked Control Systems," Resilient Control Systems (ISRCS), 2014 7th International Symposium on, pp.1,6, 19-21 Aug. 2014. doi: 10.1109/ISRCS.2014.6900098 Abstract: An important challenge in networked control systems is to ensure the confidentiality and integrity of the message in order to secure the communication and prevent attackers or intruders from compromising the system. However, security mechanisms may jeopardize the temporal behavior of the network data communication because of the computation and communication overhead. In this paper, we study the effect of adding Hash Based Message Authentication (HMAC) to a time-triggered networked control system. Time Triggered Architectures (TTAs) provide a deterministic and predictable timing behavior that is used to ensure safety, reliability and fault tolerance properties. The paper analyzes the computation and communication overhead of adding HMAC and the impact on the performance of the time-triggered network. Experimental validation and performance evaluation results using a TTEthernet network are also presented.
Keywords: authorisation; computer network security; local area networks; networked control systems; HMAC; TTEthernet network; authentication mechanism; communication overhead; computation overhead; fault tolerance property; hash based message authentication; message confidentiality; message integrity; network data communication; reliability property; safety property; security mechanisms; time triggered architectures; time-triggered networked control systems; timing behavior; Cryptography; Message authentication; Receivers; Switches; Synchronization; HMAC; Performance Evaluation; Secure Messages; TTEthernet; Time-Trigger Architectures (ID#: 15-5483)


Kounev, Velin; Tipper, David; Grainger, Brandon M.; Reed, Gregory, "Analysis of an Offshore Medium Voltage DC Microgrid Environment—Part II: Communication Network Architecture," T&D Conference and Exposition, 2014 IEEE PES, pp.1,5, 14-17 April 2014. doi: 10.1109/TDC.2014.6863567 Abstract: The microgrid is a conceptual solution proposed as a plug-and-play interface for various types of renewable generation resources and loads. The high-level technical challenges associated with microgrids include (1) operation modes and transitions that comply with IEEE1547 and (2) control architecture and communication. In Part I, the emphasis is on the design of an electrical control architecture for an offshore oil drilling platform powered by wind generation. Engineering a distributed control system having safety critical features, requiring real-time performance is challenging. In this follow-up article we introduce the communication framework for the microgrid scenario under investigation. In all communication networks, scholastic delays and performance are inherent. The only feasible approach is to put bounds on the random processes, qualitatively define the worst cases, and build the distributed control system to be resilient enough to tolerate those behaviors. This is the approach taken by this paper. We propose a communication architecture, discuss performances requirements of the sub-systems, and layout network solutions meeting those specifications.
Keywords: Communication Network Performance and Availability; DC Microgrids; Distributed Control Architecture; Security (ID#: 15-5484)


Rege, A.; Ferrese, F.; Biswas, S.; Li Bai, "Adversary Dynamics and Smart Grid Security: A Multiagent System Approach," Resilient Control Systems (ISRCS), 2014 7th International Symposium on, pp.1, 7, 19-21 Aug. 2014. doi: 10.1109/ISRCS.2014.6900101 Abstract: Power grid is the backbone of infrastructures that drive the US economy and security, which makes it a prime target of cybercriminals or state-sponsored terrorists, and warrants special attention for its protection. Commonly used approaches to smart grid security are usually based on various mathematical tools, and ignore the human behavior component of cybercriminals. This paper introduces a new dimension to the cyberphysical system architecture, namely human behavior, and presents a modified CPS framework, consisting of a. cyber system: SCADA control system and related protocols, b. physical system: power grid infrastructure, c. the adversary: cybercriminals, and d. the defender: system operators and engineers. Based on interviews of ethical hackers, this paper presents an adversary-centric method that uses adversary's decision tree along with control theoretic tools to develop defense strategies against cyberattacks on power grid.
Keywords: SCADA systems; computer crime; decision trees; multi-agent systems; power engineering computing; power system control; power system protection; power system security; protocols; smart power grids; SCADA control system; Smart Grid protection; US economy; US security; adversary-centric method; cyberattack; cybercriminals; cyberphysical system architecture; decision tree; ethical hackers; human behavior; mathematical tools; modified CPS framework; multiagent system approach; power grid; power grid infrastructure; protocols; smart grid security; Computer crime; Control systems; Decision making; Mathematical model; Power grids; Power system dynamics; Grid security; cyber attackers; cyberphysical systems; ethical hackers; human behavior (ID#: 15-5485)


Tao Yin; Yongzheng Zhang; Shuhao Li, "DR-SNBot: A Social Network-Based Botnet with Strong Destroy-Resistance," Networking, Architecture, and Storage (NAS), 2014 9th IEEE International Conference on, pp.191, 199, 6-8 Aug. 2014. doi: 10.1109/NAS.2014.37 Abstract: Social network-based botnets have become an important research direction of botnets. To avoid the single-point failure of existing centralized botnets, we propose a Social Network-based Botnet with strong Destroy-Resistance (DR-SNBot). By enhancing the security of the Command and Control (C&C) channel and introducing a divide-and-conquer and automatic reconstruction mechanism, we greatly improve the destroy-resistance of DR-SNBot. Moreover, we design the pseudo code for nickname generation algorithm, botmaster and bot respectively. Then, we construct the DR-SNBot via sin a blog and make simulated experiments to evaluate it. Furthermore, we make comparisons of controllability between botnets Mrrbot and DR-SNBot. The experimental results indicate that DRSNBot is more resilient. It is not only available in real-world environment, but also resistant enough to varying degrees of C&C-server removals in simulated environment.
Keywords: command and control systems; divide and conquer methods; invasive software; social networking (online); C&C channel; C&C-server removals; Command and Control channel; DR-SNBot; botmaster; botnets Mrrbot; centralized botnets; divide-and-conquer and automatic reconstruction mechanism; nickname generation algorithm; single-point failure; social network-based botnet; strong destroy-resistance; Blogs; Computer architecture; Image reconstruction; Registers; Security; Servers; Social network services; botnet; command and control channel; network security; reconstruction mechanism; social networks (ID#: 15-5486)


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