Visible to the public Steganography 2015

SoS Newsletter- Advanced Book Block


SoS Logo



Digital steganography is one of the primary areas of science of security research. Detection and countermeasures are the topics pursued. The articles cited here were presented in 2015. They cover a range of topics, including Least Significant Bit (LSB), LDPC codes, combinations with DES encryption, and Hamming code. The related hard problems are privacy, metrics, and composability.  

Habib, M.; Bakhache, B.; Battikh, D.; El Assad, S., “Enhancement Using Chaos of a Steganography Method in DCT Domain,” Digital Information and Communication Technology and Its Applications (DICTAP), 2015 Fifth International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 204, 209, April 29 2015–May 1 2015. doi:10.1109/DICTAP.2015.7113200
Abstract: Recently, Steganography is widely used for communicating data secretly. It can be divided into two domains spatial and frequency. One of the most used frequency transformation is Discrete Cosine Transform DCT. There are many techniques based on DCT. The most common is the DCT steganography based on Least Significant Bit LSB. Many proposed methods rely on it such as the LSB-DCT randomized bit embedding based on a threshold. This method is simple and provides some security. In this paper, a secure DCT steganography method is proposed. It allows hiding a secret image in another image randomly using Chaos. The chaotic generator Peace Wise Linear Chaotic Map PWLCM with perturbation was selected, it has good chaotic properties and an easy implementation. It was used to obtain the pseudo-random series of pixels in which the secret image will be embedded in their DCT coefficients. It enhances the LSB-DCT technique with threshold. Many metrics have been evaluated such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Structural Similarity (SSIM) Index and the capacity. A supervised universal approach based on Fisher Linear Discriminator (FLD) was used to evaluate the security against the steganalysts. The obtained experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves higher quality and security.
Keywords: discrete cosine transforms; image enhancement; steganography; Fisher linear discriminator; LSB-DCT randomized bit embedding; chaotic generator peace wise linear chaotic map; discrete cosine transform; least significant bit; pseudo-random series; secret image; secure DCT steganography method; supervised universal approach; Chaotic communication; Discrete cosine transforms; Frequency-domain analysis; Generators; PSNR; Security; Chaos; DCT; FLD; LSB-DCT; PSNR; PWLCM; Steganography; threshold (ID#: 15-6609)


Pund-Dange, S.; Desai, C.G., “Secured Data Communication System Using RSA with Mersenne Primes and Steganography,” Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), 2015 2nd International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1306, 1310, 11–13 March 2015. doi: (not provided)
Abstract: To add multiple layers of security our present work proposes a method for integrating together cryptography and Steganography for secure communication using an image file. We have used here combination of cryptography and steganography that can hide a text in an image in such a way so as to prevent any possible suspicion of having a hidden text, after RSA cipher. It offers privacy and high security through the communication channel.
Keywords: data communication; image coding; public key cryptography; steganography; Mersenne primes; RSA cipher; communication channel; cryptography; hidden text; image file; secured data communication system;  Arrays; Ciphers; Encryption; Image color analysis; Public key; Cryptography; Mersenne; Prime RSA; Steganography; factorization (ID#: 15-6610)


Manisha, M.; Malvika, S.S.; Karthikeyan, B.; Vaithiyanathan, V.; Srinivasan, B., “Devanagari Text Embedding in a Gray Image: An Offbeat Approach,” Electronics and Communication Systems (ICECS), 2015 2nd International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1284, 1288, 26–27 Feb. 2015. doi:10.1109/ECS.2015.7124791
Abstract: Steganography is a tool which helps in hiding information that plays a crucial role in many ways and in many lives. With the advent of the Internet, information exchange is possible in many languages other than English. This technology eventually carries with it a disadvantage which is the loss of security and privacy of information. Steganography an insipid medium, is one such way to ensure privacy. Steganography plays a vital role in securing the secret data. In this paper, a different approach is chosen for encoding Devanagari (Hindi) Text in the cover image. This approach of hiding Devanagari (Hindi) and English Text in an alternate manner is very efficient and simple to use. This paper describes a duplet algorithm, one for encoding and another for decoding. The image parameters are calculated by this proposed methodology, which proves that this process is more efficient and innovative.
Keywords: Internet; data encapsulation; image coding; image colour analysis; natural language processing; steganography; text analysis; Devanagari text embedding; English text; Hindi text; Internet; decoding; duplet algorithm; gray image; hiding information; image parameter; information exchange; information privacy; secret data; steganography; Decoding; Histograms; Image coding; Image segmentation; Internet; PSNR; Security; (Devanagari) Hindi Text Steganography; (Devanagari) Hindi Unicode; Image quality measures; Linguistic Steganography; Steganography; alternative encoding (ID#: 15-6611)


Kaur, R.; Kaur, J., “Cloud Computing Security Issues and Its Solution: A Review,” Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), 2015 2nd International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1198, 1200, 11–13 March 2015. doi: (not provided)
Abstract: Cloud Computing is a way to increase the capacity or add capabilities dynamically without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel, or licensing new software. As information exchange plays an important role in today’s life, information security becomes more important. This paper is focused on the security issues of cloud computing and techniques to overcome the data privacy issue. Before analyzing the security issues, the definition of cloud computing and brief discussion to under[stand] cloud computing is presented, then it explores the cloud security issues and problem faced by cloud service provider. Thus, defining the Pixel key pattern and Image Steganography techniques that will be used to overcome the problem of data security.
Keywords: cloud computing; data privacy; image coding; security of data; steganography; cloud computing security; cloud service provider; image steganography technique; information exchange; information security; pixel key pattern; Cloud computing; Clouds; Computational modeling; Computers; Image edge detection; Security; Servers; Cloud Computing; Cloud Security; Image steganography; Pixel key pattern; Security issues (ID#: 15-6612)


Vegh, Laura; Miclea, Liviu, “A Simple Scheme for Security and Access Control in Cyber-Physical Systems,” Control Systems and Computer Science (CSCS), 2015 20th International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 294, 299, 27–29 May 2015. doi:10.1109/CSCS.2015.13
Abstract: In a time when technology changes continuously, where things you need today to run a certain system, might not be needed tomorrow anymore, security is a constant requirement. No matter what systems we have, or how we structure them, no matter what means of digital communication we use, we are always interested in aspects like security, safety, privacy. An example of the ever-advancing technology are cyber-physical systems. We propose a complex security architecture that integrates several consecrated methods such as cryptography, steganography and digital signatures. This architecture is designed to not only ensure security of communication by transforming data into secret code, it is also designed to control access to the system and detect and prevent cyber attacks.
Keywords: Computer architecture; Digital signatures; Encryption; Public key; access control; cryptography; cyber attacks; cyber-physical systems; digital signatures; multi-agent systems; steganography (ID#: 15-6613)


Dabrowski, A.; Echizen, I.; Weippl, E.R., “Error-Correcting Codes as Source for Decoding Ambiguity,” Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW), 2015 IEEE, vol., no., pp. 99, 105, 21–22 May 2015. doi:10.1109/SPW.2015.28
Abstract: Data decoding, format, or language ambiguities have been long known for amusement purposes. Only recently it came to attention that they also pose a security risk. In this paper, we present decoder manipulations based on deliberately caused ambiguities facilitating the error correction mechanisms used in several popular applications. This can be used to encode data in multiple formats or even the same format with different content. Implementation details of the decoder or environmental differences decide which data the decoder locks onto. This leads to different users receiving different content based on a language decoding ambiguity. In general, ambiguity is not desired, however in special cases it can be particularly harmful. Format dissectors can make wrong decisions, e.g. A firewall scans based on one format but the user decodes different harmful content. We demonstrate this behavior with popular barcodes and argue that it can be used to deliver exploits based on the software installed, or use probabilistic effects to divert a small percentage of users to fraudulent sites.
Keywords: bar codes; decoding; encoding; error correction codes; fraud; security of data; barcodes; data decoding; data encoding; decoder manipulations; error correction mechanisms; error-correcting codes; format dissectors; fraudulent sites; language decoding ambiguity; security risk; Decoding; Error correction codes; Security; Software; Standards; Synchronization; Visualization; Barcode; Error Correcting Codes; LangSec; Language Security; Packet-in-Packet; Protocol decoding ambiguity; QR; Steganography (ID#: 15-6614)


Ji Young Chun; Hye Lim Lee; Ji Won Yoon, “Passing Go with DNA Sequencing: Delivering Messages in a Covert Transgenic Channel,” Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW), 2015 IEEE, vol., no., pp. 17, 26, 21–22 May 2015. doi:10.1109/SPW.2015.10
Abstract: DNA which carries genetic information in living organisms has become a new steganographic carrier of secret information. Various researchers have used this technique to try to develop watermarks to be used to protect proprietary products, however, as recent advances in genetic engineering have made it possible to use DNA as a carrier of information, we have realized that DNA steganography in the living organism also facilitates a new, stealthy cyber-attack that could be used nefariously to bypass entrance control systems that monitor and screen for files and electronic devices. In this paper, we explain how “DNA-courier” attacks could easily be carried out to defeat existing monitoring and screening techniques. Using our proposed method, we found that DNA as a steganographic carrier of secret information poses a realistic cyber-attack threat by enabling secret messages to be sent to an intended recipient without being noticed by third parties.
Keywords: DNA; genetic engineering; security of data; steganography; DNA sequencing; DNA steganography; DNA-courier attacks; covert transgenic channel; genetic information; living organism; message delivery; monitoring technique; proprietary product protection; screening technique; secret information; secret message; stealthy cyber-attack; steganographic carrier; watermark; DNA; Encoding; Encryption; Genomics; Microorganisms (ID#: 15-6615)


Bobade, S.; Goudar, R., “Secure Data Communication Using Protocol Steganography in IPv6,” Computing Communication Control and Automation (ICCUBEA), 2015 International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 275, 279, 26–27 Feb. 2015. doi:10.1109/ICCUBEA.2015.59
Abstract: In secure data communication Network Security is important. Basically in cryptography Encryption is used for data security. Still attacker can attract towards encrypted data due to different form of data. so this limitation could overcome by using steganography. Steganography is the technique of information hiding. In steganography different carriers can be used for information hiding like image, audio, video, network protocols. Network steganography is a new approach for data hiding. In network steganography network layer protocol of TCP/IP suite are used for data hiding. In Network layer covert channels are used for data hiding. Covert channels violate security policies of the system. Covert channels are either used for steal the information or communicate secrete information overt a network. Covert channel in TCP, IPv4 are previously implemented and studied. IPv6 is a new generation protocol which slowly replaces IPv4 in future because IPv4 is rapidly running out. So there is need to examine security issues related IPv6 protocol. Covert channels are present in IPv6 protocol. 20 bit Flow label field of IPv6 protocol can be used as covert channel. RSA algorithm is used for data Encryption. Chaotic method used for data encoding. Secret data communication is possible in IPv6.
Keywords: IP networks; computer network security; cryptographic protocols; data communication; steganography; transport protocols; IPv6 protocol; RSA algorithm; TCP/IP suite; chaotic method; cryptography encryption; data encoding; data encryption; data hiding; flow label field; information hiding; network layer covert channels; network security; network steganography network layer protocol; protocol steganography; secure data communication; security policy; Chaotic communication; Encoding; Logistics; Protocols; Security; Chaos Theory; Covert channel; Network Security; Steganography; TCP/IP (ID#: 15-6616)


Mishra, R.; Bhanodiya, P., “A Review on Steganography and Cryptography,” Computer Engineering and Applications (ICACEA), 2015 International Conference on Advances in, vol., no., pp.119,122, 19–20 March 2015. doi:10.1109/ICACEA.2015.7164679
Abstract: Today’s information world is a digital world. Data transmission over an unsecure channel is becoming a major issue of concern nowadays. And at the same time intruders are spreading over the internet and being very active. So to protect the secret data from theft some security measures need to be taken. In order to keep the data secret various techniques have been implemented to encrypt and decrypt the secret data. Cryptography and Steganography are the two most prominent techniques from them. But these two techniques alone can't do work as much efficiently as they do together. Steganography is a Greek word which is made up of two words Stegano and graphy. Stegano means hidden and graphy means writing i.e. Steganography means hidden writing. Steganography is a way to hide the fact that data communication is taking place. While cryptography converts the secret message in other than human readable form but this technique is having a limitation that the encrypted message is visible to everyone. In this way over the internet, intruders may try to apply heat and trial method to get the secret message. Steganography overcome the limitation of cryptography by hiding the fact that some transmission is taking place. In steganography the secret message is hidden in other than original media such as Text, Image, video and audio form. These two techniques are different and having their own significance. So in this paper we are going to discuss various cryptographic and steganographic techniques used in order the keep the message secret.
Keywords: cryptography; data communication; steganography; Internet; cryptographic techniques; data transmission; digital world; hidden writing; secret data decryption; secret data encryption; secret data protection; security measures; steganographic techniques; Computers; Encryption; Image color analysis; Image edge detection; Media; Cipher Text; Cryptanalysis; Cryptograph; LSB; Steganalysis; Steganography (ID#: 15-6617)


Das, P.; Kushwaha, S.C.; Chakraborty, M., “Multiple Embedding Secret Key Image Steganography Using LSB Substitution and Arnold Transform,” Electronics and Communication Systems (ICECS), 2015 2nd International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 845, 849, 26–27 Feb. 2015. doi:10.1109/ECS.2015.7125033
Abstract: Cryptography and steganography are the two major fields available for data security. While cryptography is a technique in which the information is scrambled in an unintelligent gibberish fashion during transmission, steganography focuses on concealing the existence of the information. Combining both domains gives a higher level of security in which even if the use of covert channel is revealed, the true information will not be exposed. This paper focuses on concealing multiple secret images in a single 24-bit cover image using LSB substitution based image steganography. Each secret image is encrypted before hiding in the cover image using Arnold Transform. Results reveal that the proposed method successfully secures the high capacity data keeping the visual quality of transmitted image satisfactory.
Keywords: image coding; security of data; steganography; transforms; Arnold transform; LSB substitution; covert channel; cryptography; data security; secret image encryption; secret key image steganography; Digital images; Histograms; Public key; Transforms; Visualization; Arnold Transform; Digital Image Steganography; Spatial domain (ID#: 15-6618)


Madhuravani, B.; Murthy, D.S.R.; Reddy, P.B.; Rama Rao, K.V.S.N., “Strong Authentication Using Dynamic Hashing and Steganography,” Computing, Communication & Automation (ICCCA), 2015 International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 735, 738,
15–16 May 2015. doi:10.1109/CCAA.2015.7148490
Abstract: Now a day’s online services became part of our life which performs communication digitally. This digital communication needs confidentiality and data integrity to protect from unauthorized use. Security can be provided by using two popular methods cryptography and steganography. Cryptography scrambles the message so that it cannot be understood, where as the steganography hides the message in another medium which cannot be detected by normal human eye. This paper introduces a technique which provides high security to the digital communication by using dynamic hashing for integrity and also embedding the data in image file using steganography to misguide attacker. There by providing high security for the communication between two parties.
Keywords: Internet; cryptography; data integrity; image coding; steganography; confidentiality; digital communication; dynamic hashing; image file; online services; strong authentication; Automation; Cryptography; Distortion; Histograms; Message authentication; Receivers; Cryptography; Human Visual System (HVS); Least Significant Bit (LSB); Steganography (ID#: 15-6619)


Mani, M.R.; Lalithya, V.; Rekha, P.S., “An Innovative Approach for Pattern Based Image Steganography,” Signal Processing, Informatics, Communication and Energy Systems (SPICES), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1, 4, 19–21 Feb. 2015. doi:10.1109/SPICES.2015.7091380
Abstract: Currently, image steganography methods are becoming popular in the field of data authentication and image processing. This provides efficient way of communication between sender and receiver without any loss in the originality of the cover image. So, the present paper proposes a novel method called as pattern based image steganography. The proposed method allows the sender to embed the secret message into hierarchical divided sub sections. During the first stage, the input cover image is divided into 25×25 non overlapped windows. Then further each window is divided into 5×5 sub sections. Then among them, the sub sections will be selected based on the pattern ‘Z’. Next, in the second stage, within each selected 5×5 sub section, the pixels will be selected based on the pattern ‘a’. Finally, in the selected pixels, 1 bit Least Significant Method (LSB) is used for embedding the message. The proposed method is experimented with nine cover images and the performance of the proposed method is measured with several measures viz., Mean Square Error (MSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). The results show the effeciency of the proposed method.
Keywords: image processing; mean square error methods; steganography; LSB; MAE; PSNR; RMSE; cover image; data authentication; hierarchical divided sub sections; image steganography methods; least significant method; mean absolute error; nonoverlapped windows; pattern based image steganography; peak signal to noise ratio; root mean square error; secret message; Computed tomography; Cryptography; Magnetic resonance imaging; Receivers; Robustness; Signal to noise ratio; Cover image; Pattern; Performance Measure; Stego image; window (ID#: 15-6620)


Pehlivanoglu, M.K.; Savas, B.K.; Duru, N., “LSB Based Steganography over Video Files Using Koblitz’s Method,” Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU), 2015 23rd, vol., no., pp. 1034,1037, 16–19 May 2015. doi:10.1109/SIU.2015.7130009
Abstract: In this work we aimed to Least Significant Bit (LSB) based information hiding over video files using Koblitz’s Method over Elliptic Curve Cryptography. After which the message to be sent to the recipient converted into ASCII characters, single index characters are encrypted by Koblitz’s Method, (x,y) pairs obtained, and it is assumed that these pairs (x,y) express as a coordinate points. The pixel value on the relevant frame of single index points replaced with next double index ASCII character’s binary value using LSB method. After repeating the same process for all characters in the message, the message is hidden into the video frames.
Keywords: steganography; video coding; ASCII characters; Koblitz method; LSB based steganography; information hiding; least significant bit; message hiding; video files; Art; Conferences; Elliptic curve cryptography; Indexes; PSNR; Watermarking; Cryptography; Elliptic Curve Cryptography; Image Processing; Koblitz’s Method; LSB; Steganography; Video Processing; Video Steganography (ID#: 15-6621)


Vegh, L.; Miclea, L., “Access Control in Cyber-Physical Systems Using Steganography and Digital Signatures,” Industrial Technology (ICIT), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1504, 1509, 17–19 March 2015. doi:10.1109/ICIT.2015.7125309
Abstract: In a world in which technology has an essential role, security of the systems we use is a crucial aspect. Most of the time this means ensuring communications’ security, protecting data and it automatically makes us think of cryptography, changing the form of the data so no one can view it without authorization. Cyber-physical systems are more and more present in critical applications in which security is of the utmost importance. In the present paper, we propose a look on security not by encrypting data but by controlling the access to the system. For this we combine digital signatures with an encryption algorithm with divided private key in order to control access to the system and to define roles for each user. We also add steganography, to increase the level of security of the system.
Keywords: authorisation; data protection; digital signatures; private key cryptography; steganography; access control; authorization; communication security; cryptography; cyber-physical systems; data protection; divided private key; encryption algorithm; Access control; Digital signatures; Encryption; Multi-agent systems; Public key; digital signature; hierarchical access; multi-agent systems (ID#: 15-6622)


Karakis, R.; Capraz, I.; Bilir, E.; Güler, I., “A New Method of Fuzzy Logic-Based Steganography for the Security of Medical Images,” Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU), 2015 23rd, vol., no., pp. 272, 275, 16–19 May 2015. doi:10.1109/SIU.2015.7129812
Abstract: Dicom (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) files stores the personal data of patients in file headers. The personal data of patients can be obtained illegally while archiving and transmitting Dicom files. Therefore, the personal rights of patients can also be invaded. It can be also changed the treatment of disease. This study proposes a new fuzzy logic-based steganography method for the security of medical images. It provides to select randomly the least significant bits (LSB) of image pixels. The message which combined of personal data and comment of doctor, are compressed and encrypted to prevent the attacks.
Keywords: cryptography; data compression; fuzzy logic; image coding; medical image processing; steganography; disease treatment; encryption; fuzzy logic-based steganography; image compression; image pixel; least significant bits; medical image security; patient personal data; Cryptography; DICOM; Histograms; Internet; Watermarking; Medical data security; image steganography; least significant bit (ID#: 15-6623)


Kulkarni, S.A.; Patil, S.B., “A Robust Encryption Method for Speech Data Hiding in Digital Images for Optimized Security,” Pervasive Computing (ICPC), 2015 International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1, 5, 8–10 Jan. 2015. doi:10.1109/PERVASIVE.2015.7087134
Abstract: Steganography is a art of hiding information in a host signal. It is very important to hide the secret data efficiently, as many attacks made on the data communication. The host signal can be a still image, speech or video and the message signal that is hidden in the host signal can be a text, image or an audio signal. The cryptography concept is used for locking the secret message in the cover file. The cryptography makes the secret message not understood unless the decryption key is available. It is related with constructing and analyzing various methods that overcome the influence of third parties. Modern cryptography works on the disciplines like mathematics, computer science and electrical engineering. In this paper a symmetric key is developed which consists of reshuffling and secret arrangement of secret signal data bits in cover signal data bits. In this paper the authors have performed the encryption process on secret speech signal data bits-level to achieve greater strength of encryption which is hidden inside the cover image. The encryption algorithm applied with embedding method is the robust secure method for data hiding.
Keywords: cryptography; image coding; speech coding; cover image; cryptography concept; data communication; decryption key; digital images; embedding method; host signal; optimized security; robust encryption method; secret signal data bit reshuffling; secret signal data bit secret arrangement; speech data hiding; steganography; symmetric key; Encryption; Noise; Receivers; Robustness; Speech; Transmitters; Cover signal; Cryptography; Secret key; Secret signal (ID#: 15-6624)


Kumar, A.A.; Santhosha; Jagan, A., “Two Layer Security for Data Storage in Cloud,” Futuristic Trends on Computational Analysis and Knowledge Management (ABLAZE), 2015 International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 471, 474, 25–27 Feb. 2015. doi:10.1109/ABLAZE.2015.7155041
Abstract: Cloud data security is one of the critical factors of business conviction. Increasing internet bugs and intrusion necessitate efficient security mechanism. The work presented here proposed a two layer mechanism for providing efficient and computationally light security procedure. At the first layer public key cryptography has been used, whereas second layer is totally based on steganography. RSA method is used for key exchange and AES for encryption and decryption to make the method computationally efficient. Since the second layer shuffles the encrypted messages in stegad images so security is much higher than individual approach and other existing approaches. The cloud is computationally very efficient and these processes computationally very light so availability of data is unaffected through it.
Keywords: cloud computing; public key cryptography; security of data; steganography; Internet bugs; RSA method; cloud data security; computationally light security procedure; data storage; first layer public key cryptography; intrusion necessitate efficient security mechanism; stegad images; two layer security; Cloud computing; Computational efficiency; Encryption; Public key cryptography; Secure storage; Cloud storage; data availability; data security (ID#: 15-6625)


SaiKrishna, A.; Parimi, S.; Manikandan, G.; Sairam, N., “A Clustering Based Steganographic Approach for Secure Data Communication,” Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies (ICCPCT), 2015 International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1, 5,
19–20 March 2015. doi:10.1109/ICCPCT.2015.7159515
Abstract: A major challenge in data communication is to provide security for the message during transmission. For achieving this goal various cryptographic and steganographic algorithms are used. Steganography provides impending means to hide the existence of private data. In this paper two new approaches are proposed for embedding the data using clustering algorithm. The objective of clustering is to group the pixels for the embedding process.
Keywords: cryptography; data communication; pattern clustering; steganography; clustering based steganographic approach; cryptographic algorithm; data communication security; embedding process; message security; Algorithm design and analysis; Clustering algorithms; Computers; Cryptography; Histograms; Robustness; Data Hiding; Image Steganography; K-means Clustering; LSB Technique; Security (ID#: 15-6626)


Yamamoto, Hirotsugu, “Unconscious Imaging (UcI) and Its Applications for Digital Signage,” Information Optics (WIO), 2015 14th Workshop on, vol., no., pp. 1, 3, 1–5 June 2015. doi:10.1109/WIO.2015.7206897
Abstract: This paper proposes a technique to make watching digital signage enjoyable experiences. The proposed technique is based on unconscious imaging (UcI). UcI is composed of two conversions: the first conversion is conscious to unconscious conversion, where apparently visual information is embedded, encrypted, or modulated into unconscious image; the second conversion is unconscious to conscious conversion, where imperceptible information becomes apparent by decoding, detection, or demodulaltion. The second conversion gives viewers enjoyable sensation. Examples for UcI include secure display by use of visual cryptography, a waving-hand steganography by use of temporal modulation, and an aerial LED signage that hides optical hardware and gives only aerial screen.
Keywords: Decoding; Encryption; Imaging; Light emitting diodes; Three-dimensional displays; Visualization; aerial imaging; secure display; unconscious imaging; waving-hand steganography (ID#: 15-6628)


Praveenkumar, Padmapriya; Priyanga, GU; Rajalakshmi, P; Thenmozhi, K; Rayappan, J.B.B; Amirtharajan, Rengarajan, “2π Rotated Key2 Shuffling and Scrambling — A Cryptic Track,” Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI), 2015 International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1, 4, 8–10 Jan. 2015. doi:10.1109/ICCCI.2015.7218069
Abstract: As science grows threats also gets cultivated along with it. Hence Information security is emerging as an integral part of growing technology. In order to achieve this we get into the fields of cryptography, steganography and watermarking. There are many ways to encrypt and decrypt a message to be communicated. Enabling multiple encryptions will disable an intruder to recover the message. In this paper, initially image is circular shifted, scrambled twice, rotated and finally Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode has been applied twice to produce the final encrypted image. These multiple steps strengthen the security of the information. Image metrics like vertical correlation, horizontal correlation and diagonal correlation were computed for gray scale and DICOM images and compared with the available literature.
Keywords: CBC; Circular Shifting; DICOM images; Image Encryption; NPCR; correlation values (ID#: 15-6629)


Sukumar, T.; Santha, K.R., “An Approach for Secret Communication Using Adaptive Key Technique for Gray Scale Images,” Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies (ICCPCT), 2015 International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1, 5, 19–20 March 2015. doi:10.1109/ICCPCT.2015.7159290
Abstract: This work describes an adaptive key technique to hide data in an image. In Stage I, an encryption key has been generated to encrypt an envelope image. The length of the key has been adjusted with respect to size of an image and number of bits required to represent every pixel. In stage II, the encoding key has been generated with respect to size of the message. The key length has been calculated based on number of characters and equivalent bits to represent it. The encoding key encodes the message and its length. Stage III used to superimpose encoded data on encrypted image using data hider. In receiver side, the subsequent process carried out to decrypt image and decoding the data using same methodology that was adapted in the transmitter side. This work carried out for gray scale image and achieves good embedding capacity of 3bpp and also achieves good withstanding capability against to Steganalysis.
Keywords: cryptography; image processing; adaptive key technique; encoding key; encrypted image; encryption key; envelope image; equivalent bits; gray scale images; hide data; pixel representation; secret communication; steganalysis; transmitter side; Arrays; Computers; Encoding; Encryption; Indexes; Payloads; Steganography; decryption; encoding; encryption (ID#: 15-6630)


Venkata Keerthy S; Rhishi Kishore T K C; Karthikeyan B; Vaithiyanathan V; Anishin Raj M M, “A Hybrid Technique for Quadrant Based Data Hiding Using Huffman Coding,” Innovations in Information, Embedded and Communication Systems (ICIIECS), 2015 International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1, 6, 19–20 March 2015. doi:10.1109/ICIIECS.2015.7193011
Abstract: The paper proposes a robust steganography technique to hide the data in an image. The method proposed uses Huffman coding to minimize the number of bits to be embedded and to improve the security of the information. The security aspect is also improved by using a cryptographic substitution cipher and quadrant based embedding of the data. The quadrant based embedding of data bits helps in distribution of bits uniformly over the entire image rather having concentrated data bits over a particular region. The quality of stego image and the embedding capacity is also improved by the usage of Huffman coding. LSB embedding technique is used in the algorithm for concealing the data in the image.
Keywords: Airplanes; Cryptography; Entropy; Huffman coding; MATLAB; Robustness; LSB; data hiding; quadrant based embedding; substitution cipher (ID#: 15-6631)


Jitha, R.T.; Sivadasan, E.T., “A Survey Paper on Various Reversible Data Hiding Techniques in Encrypted Images,” Advance Computing Conference (IACC), 2015 IEEE International, vol., no., pp. 1139, 1143, 12–13 June 2015. doi:10.1109/IADCC.2015.7154881
Abstract: Data hiding is a process of hiding information. There are various techniques used for hiding data. Data hiding can be done in audio, video, image, text, and picture. This method is steganography i.e., embedding data in another data. Usually we use image for data hiding especially digital images. For embedding data in images there are many techniques are used. Some techniques will embed data but embedding cause some distortion to image, some techniques can embed only small amount of data, and some techniques will cause distortion during the extraction of data. So the various methods that are used for embedding and extraction of data are described in this.
Keywords: cryptography; image coding; image watermarking; steganography; data embedding; data extraction; digital images; encrypted images; information hiding; reversible data hiding techniques; steganography; Data mining; Distortion; Encryption; Image coding; Receivers; Watermarking; Data hiding; data Recovery; data encryption; encryption Key (ID#: 15-6632)


Articles listed on these pages have been found on publicly available internet pages and are cited with links to those pages. Some of the information included herein has been reprinted with permission from the authors or data repositories. Direct any requests via Email to for removal of the links or modifications to specific citations. Please include the ID# of the specific citation in your correspondence.