Visible to the public Location Privacy—Cloaking-Based Approaches, 2014

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Location Privacy—Cloaking-Based Approaches


Location-based services have proven popular both with end users and with distributed systems operators. The research presented here looks at protecting privacy on these systems using cloaking-based methods. The work was published in 2014.

Zheng Jiangyu; Tan Xiaobin; Cliff, Z.; Niu Yukun; Zhu Jin, “A Cloaking-Based Approach to Protect Location Privacy in Location-Based Services,” Control Conference (CCC), 2014 33rd Chinese, vol., no., pp. 5459, 5464, 28-30 July 2014. doi:10.1109/ChiCC.2014.6895872
Abstract: With the widespread use of mobile devices, the location-based service (LBS) applications become increasingly popular, which introduces the new security challenge to protect user’s location privacy. On one hand, a user expects to report his own location as far as possible away from his real location to protect his location privacy. On the other hand, in order to obtain high quality of service (QoS), users are required to report their locations as accurate as possible. To achieve the dedicated tradeoff between privacy requirement and QoS requirement, we propose a novel approach based on cloaking technique. We also discuss the disadvantage of the traditional general system model and propose an improved model. The basic idea of our approach is to select a sub-area from the generated cloaking area as user’s reported location. The sub-area may not contain a user’s real location, which prevents an adversary from performing attack with side information. Specifically, by defining an objective function with a novel location privacy metric and a QoS metric, we are able to convert the privacy issue to an optimization problem. Then, location privacy metric and QoS metric are given. To reduce the complexity of the optimization, a heuristic algorithm is proposed. Through privacy-preserving analysis and comparison with related work [8], we demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach.
Keywords: data protection; invisibility cloaks; mobility management (mobile radio); optimisation; quality of service; smart phones; telecommunication security; QoS metric; cloaking-based approach; heuristic algorithm; location privacy metric; location-based services; mobile devices; optimization problem; privacy preserving analysis; privacy requirement; security; user location privacy protection; Complexity theory; Heuristic algorithms; Measurement; Optimization; Privacy; Quality of service; Servers; Cloaking Area; Location Privacy; Location-based Services; k-anonymity (ID#: 15-6420)

Jagdale, B.N.; Bakal, J.W., “Emerging Trends of Location Privacy Techniques in Location Aided Applications,” Contemporary Computing and Informatics (IC3I), 2014 International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1002, 1006, 27-29 Nov. 2014. doi:10.1109/IC3I.2014.7019826
Abstract: While mobile services are maturing in the Mobile Computing world, location services have started mushrooming in every day work which are making good impact for humans as well as all moving resources. With this development, serious threat of location privacy has emerged and becoming inevitable part of this kind of services. Present systems do not have concrete answer of location privacy because of absence of robust technology, poor governance and business interest. Modern ways need to be practiced, including Cryptography, Collaborative, Distributed and Internationally legal governance protocols. There are dozens of cloaking methods such as dummy users, K-Anonymity, false location queries, dummy queries, cryptography protocols, etc., however no commercial LBS systems guarantees the location privacy. In this paper, we have studied drawbacks of existing techniques. We have proposed either modification or novel methods to protect location privacy. Moreover we have suggested to analyse privacy strength, energy consumption, and accuracy of services, overhead cost such as computing and communication cost.
Keywords: cryptographic protocols; data protection; mobile computing; LBS systems; cloaking methods; collaborative protocol; communication cost analysis; computing cost analysis; cryptography protocol; distributed protocol; energy consumption, analyse; internationally legal governance protocol; location aided applications; location privacy protection; location privacy techniques; location privacy threat; location services; mobile services; overhead cost analysis; privacy strength analysis; service accuracy analysis; Computer architecture; Data privacy; Mobile communication; Mobile computing; Privacy; Protocols; Servers; Location Privacy; Security; distributed (ID#: 15-6421)

Xun Yi; Paulet, R.; Bertino, E.; Varadharajan, V., “Practical k Nearest Neighbor Queries with Location Privacy,” Data Engineering (ICDE), 2014 IEEE 30th International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 640, 651, March 31 2014–April 4 2014. doi:10.1109/ICDE.2014.6816688
Abstract: In mobile communication, spatial queries pose a serious threat to user location privacy because the location of a query may reveal sensitive information about the mobile user. In this paper, we study k nearest neighbor (kNN) queries where the mobile user queries the location-based service (LBS) provider about k nearest points of interest (POIs) on the basis of his current location. We propose a solution for the mobile user to preserve his location privacy in kNN queries. The proposed solution is built on the Paillier public-key cryptosystem and can provide both location privacy and data privacy. In particular, our solution allows the mobile user to retrieve one type of POIs, for example, k nearest car parks, without revealing to the LBS provider what type of points is retrieved. For a cloaking region with n×n cells and m types of points, the total communication complexity for the mobile user to retrieve a type of k nearest POIs is O(n+m) while the computation complexities of the mobile user and the LBS provider are O(n + m) and O(n2m), respectively. Compared with existing solutions for kNN queries with location privacy, our solutions are more efficient. Experiments have shown that our solutions are practical for kNN queries.
Keywords: communication complexity; data privacy; mobility management (mobile radio); pattern recognition; public key cryptography; query processing; LBS querying; Paillier public-key cryptosystem; cloaking region; computation complexities; data privacy; k nearest POIs retrieval; k nearest car parks; k nearest points of interest; kNN queries; location privacy preservation; location-based service provider querying; mobile communication; mobile user; practical k nearest neighbor queries; spatial queries; total communication complexity; user location privacy; Data privacy; Databases; Games; Middleware; Mobile communication; Privacy; Protocols (ID#: 15-6422)

Bidi Ying; Makrakis, D., “Protecting Location Privacy with Clustering Anonymization in Vehicular Networks,” Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 2014 IEEE Conference on, vol., no., pp. 305, 310, April 27 2014–May 2 2014. doi:10.1109/INFCOMW.2014.6849249
Abstract: Location privacy is an important issue in location-based services. A large number of location cloaking algorithms have been proposed for protecting location privacy of users. However, these algorithms cannot be used in vehicular networks due to constrained vehicular mobility. In this paper, we propose a new method named Protecting Location Privacy with Clustering Anonymization (PLPCA) for location-based services in vehicular networks. This PLPCA algorithm starts with a road network transforming to an edge-cluster graph in order to conceal road information and traffic information, and then provides a cloaking algorithm based on A-anonymity and l-diversity as privacy metrics to further enclose a target vehicle's location. Simulation analysis shows our PLPCA has good performances like the strength of hiding of road information & traffic information.
Keywords: data privacy; graph theory; mobility management (mobile radio); pattern clustering; telecommunication security; vehicular ad hoc networks; PLPCA algorithm; edge-cluster graph; k-anonymity; l-diversity; location based service; location cloaking algorithm; protecting location privacy with clustering anonymization; road information hiding; road network transforming; traffic information hiding; vehicular ad hoc network; vehicular mobility; Clustering algorithms; Conferences; Privacy; Roads; Social network services; Vehicle dynamics; Vehicles; cluster; location privacy; location-based services; vehicular networks (ID#: 15-6423)

Jagdale, B.N.; Bakal, J.W., “Synergetic Cloaking Technique in Wireless Network for Location Privacy,” Industrial and Information Systems (ICIIS), 2014 9th International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1, 6, 15-17 Dec. 2014. doi:10.1109/ICIINFS.2014.7036480
Abstract: Mobile users access location services from a location based server. While doing so, the user’s privacy is at risk. The server has access to all details about the user. Example the recently visited places, the type of information he accesses. We have presented synergetic technique to safeguard location privacy of users accessing location-based services via mobile devices. Mobile devices have a capability to form ad-hoc networks to hide a user’s identity and position. The user who requires the service is the query originator and who requests the service on behalf of query originator is the query sender. The query originator selects the query sender with equal probability which leads to anonymity in the network. The location revealed to the location service provider is a rectangle instead of exact co-ordinate. In this paper we have simulated the mobile network and shown the results for cloaking area sizes and performance against the variation in the density of users.
Keywords: data privacy; mobile ad hoc networks; mobility management (mobile radio); probability; telecommunication security; telecommunication services; ad-hoc networks; cloaking area sizes; location based server; location privacy; location service provider; location-based services; mobile devices; mobile network; mobile users; query originator; query sender; synergetic cloaking technique; user privacy; wireless network; Ad hoc networks; Cryptography; Databases; Educational institutions; Mobile communication; Privacy; Servers; Cloaking; Collaboration; Location Privacy; Mobile Networks; Performance (ID#: 15-6424)

Yujia Zhu; Lidong Zhai, “Location Privacy in Buildings: A 3-Dimensional K-Anonymity Model,” Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks (MSN), 2014 10th International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 195, 200, 19-21 Dec. 2014. doi:10.1109/MSN.2014.33
Abstract: Privacy protection has recently received considerable attention in location-based services. In this paper, we show that most of the existing k-anonymity location cloaking algorithms are concerned only and cannot effectively prevent location-dependent attacks when users’ locations have height information. Therefore, adopting the three dimensional location information, we propose a new clique-based cloaking algorithm, called 3d Clique Cloak, to defend against location leaks in indoor environment. The main idea is to expand the MBV (minimum bounding volume) to a three-dimensional space, thus for a user who initiated location services can find k-anonymity cloaking set in the three-dimensional space. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed 3d Clique Cloak algorithm are validated by series of carefully designed experiments.
Keywords: data privacy; indoor radio; mobile computing; solid modelling; telecommunication computing; telecommunication security; 3D K-anonymity model; 3D location information; 3D space; 3d CliqueCloak algorithm; MBV; clique-based cloaking algorithm; indoor environment; k-anonymity location cloaking algorithms; location privacy protection; location-based services; minimum bounding volume; Engines; Floors; Layout; Measurement; Mobile communication; Privacy; indoor localization; k-anonymity; location privacy; location-based services (ID#: 15-6425)

Corser, G.; Huirong Fu; Tao Shu; D’Errico, P.; Ma, W.; Supeng Leng; Ye Zhu, “Privacy-by-Decoy: Protecting Location Privacy Against Collusion and Deanonymization in Vehicular Location Based Services,” Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Proceedings, 2014 IEEE, vol., no., pp. 1030, 1036, 8-11 June 2014. doi:10.1109/IVS.2014.6856595
Abstract: Wireless networks which would connect vehicles via the Internet to a location based service, LBS, also would expose vehicles to online surveillance. In circumstances when spatial cloaking is not effective, such as when continuous precise location is required, LBSs may be designed so that users relay dummy queries through other vehicles to camouflage true locations. This paper introduces PARROTS, Position Altered Requests Relayed Over Time and Space, a privacy protocol which protects LBS users’ location information from LBS administrators even (1) when the LBS requires continuous precise location data in a vehicular ad hoc network, (2) when LBS administrators collude with administrators of vehicular wireless access points (a.k.a. roadside units, or RSUs), and (3) when precise location data might be deanonymized using map databases linking vehicle positions with vehicle owners’ home/work addresses and geographic coordinates. Defense against deanonymization requires concealment of endpoints, the effectiveness of which depends on the density of LBS users and the endpoint protection zone size. Simulations using realistic vehicle traffic mobility models varying endpoint protection zone sizes measure improvements in privacy protection.
Keywords: data privacy; radio access networks; telecommunication security; vehicular ad hoc networks; Internet; LBSs; PARROTS; VANET; dummy queries; endpoint concealment; endpoint protection zone size; location data deanonymization; location privacy protection; map databases; online surveillance; position altered requests relayed over time and space; privacy protocol; privacy-by-decoy; vehicle traffic mobility models; vehicular ad hoc network; vehicular location based services; vehicular wireless access points; wireless networks; Computational modeling; Cryptography; Mathematical model; Measurement; Privacy; Surveillance; Vehicles (ID#: 15-6426)

Jagdale, B.N.; Bakal, J.W., “Myself: Local Perturbation for Location Privacy in LBS Applications,” Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI, 2014 International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1981, 1985, 24-27 Sept. 2014. doi:10.1109/ICACCI.2014.6968641
Abstract: The location security in current location-based services (LBS) meets threat where mobile users have to report their actual location knowledge to the LBS provider in order to get their desired POI, (Points of Interests). We consider location privacy techniques that work using obfuscation operators and provide different information services using different cloaking techniques without any trusted components other than the client’s mobile device. The techniques are then covered according to the random category. It blurs the accurate user location (i.e., a point with coordinates) and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region (e.g. Circle, Rectangle, Pentagon etc.). We have recommended the technique where instead of exchanging cloaking data with peers, user queries directly to LBS. We have presented techniques where first technique which provides different privacy levels using obfuscation operators. The second technique for query processing generates the region of different shapes. Third demonstrates regional cloaking and two more new ideas are presented. We have shown effectiveness and performance of these techniques.
Keywords: data privacy; mobile computing; query processing; LBS applications; POI; cloaking techniques; information services; local perturbation; location privacy; location security; location-based services; mobile users; obfuscation operators; query processing; random category; regional cloaking; Cities and towns; Clocks; Context; Europe; Mobile communication; Robustness; Shape; Cloaking; Location Privacy; Location-Based Services; Security (ID#: 15-6427)

Xu Zhang; Gyoung-Bae Kim; Hae-Young Bae, “An Adaptive Spatial Cloaking Method for Privacy Protection in Location-Based Service,” Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC), 2014 International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 480, 485, 22-24 Oct. 2014. doi:10.1109/ICTC.2014.6983186
Abstract: Location privacy has been a serious concern for mobile users who use location-based services. However, existing cloaking methods suffer from computation and communication cost due to the large cloaking area. In this paper, we propose an adaptive spatial cloaking method based on the semantic locations to protect users’ privacy. The cloaking region is generated in an asymmetric way and can obtain a reasonable cloaking size. The performance exhibits that our proposed method renders good performance in efficiency and scalability by improving computation and communication overhead.
Keywords: data protection; invisibility cloaks; mobile radio; adaptive spatial cloaking method; communication cost; communication overhead; computation cost; location privacy; location-based service; user privacy protection; Computer architecture; Indexes; Mobile radio mobility management; Privacy; Semantics; Servers; Trajectory; Location Privacy; Location-based Service; Spatial Cloaking (ID#: 15-6428)

Dhawale, S.P.; Raut, A.R., “Analysis of Location Monitoring Techniques with Privacy Preservation in WSN,” Communication Systems and Network Technologies (CSNT), 2014 Fourth International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 649, 653, 7-9 April 2014. doi:10.1109/CSNT.2014.136
Abstract: The trend of location surveillance system is increasing day-by-day, so the range of such services providing systems like GPS and PDA’s conjointly increase parallel. As a result of this, we tend to get the precise and applicable location of monitoring object. However at an equivalent time the foremost necessary issue of privacy is missing. WSN chiefly consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors that monitor physical or environmental conditions and cooperatively pass their data through the wireless network to a main location in WSN. The main challenges in wireless sensor network are heterogeneousness, distributed processing, low bandwidth communication, large scale coordination and secured location monitoring. There is a variety of applications that are developed on the basis of wireless sensor network, such as navigation, habitat monitoring, objects detection and tracking. Location monitoring systems are used to detect human activities and provide monitoring services with low privacy. This paper gives comparative analysis of the location monitoring and privacy providing schemes. There are some problems in previous papers that are: wrong location providing, provide precise location except privacy, providing privacy as well location except the data used is static data. The method proposed in this paper is more reliable to overcome such problems.
Keywords: Global Positioning System; data privacy; surveillance; telecommunication security; wireless sensor networks; GPS; PDA; WSN; distributed processing; environmental condition; habitat monitoring; human activity detection; location surveillance system; low bandwidth communication; navigation; object detection; object tracking; privacy preservation; secured location monitoring technique; spatially distributed autonomous sensor; wireless sensor network; Data privacy; Monitoring; Peer-to-peer computing; Privacy; Sensors; Servers; Wireless sensor networks; Anonymization; Wireless sensor network; cloaking; location monitoring; privacy preserving (ID#: 15-6429)

Niu, B.; Qinghua Li; Xiaoyan Zhu; Guohong Cao; Hui Li, “Achieving K-Anonymity in Privacy-Aware Location-Based Services,” INFOCOM, 2014 Proceedings IEEE, vol., no., pp. 754, 762, April 27 2014-May 2 2014. doi:10.1109/INFOCOM.2014.6848002
Abstract: Location-Based Service (LBS) has become a vital part of our daily life. While enjoying the convenience provided by LBS, users may lose privacy since the untrusted LBS server has all the information about users in LBS and it may track them in various ways or release their personal data to third parties. To address the privacy issue, we propose a Dummy-Location Selection (DLS) algorithm to achieve k-anonymity for users in LBS. Different from existing approaches, the DLS algorithm carefully selects dummy locations considering that side information may be exploited by adversaries. We first choose these dummy locations based on the entropy metric, and then propose an enhanced-DLS algorithm, to make sure that the selected dummy locations are spread as far as possible. Evaluation results show that the proposed DLS algorithm can significantly improve the privacy level in terms of entropy. The enhanced-DLS algorithm can enlarge the cloaking region while keeping similar privacy level as the DLS algorithm.
Keywords: data privacy; mobile computing; DLS algorithm; cloaking region; dummy-location selection algorithm; entropy metric; k-anonymity; privacy-aware location-based services; untrusted LBS server; user information; Algorithm design and analysis; Computers; Conferences; Entropy; Measurement; Privacy; Servers (ID#: 15-6430)

Ben Niu; Zhengyan Zhang; Xiaoqing Li; Hui Li, “Privacy-Area Aware Dummy Generation Algorithms for Location-Based Services,” Communications (ICC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 957, 962, 10-14 June 2014. doi:10.1109/ICC.2014.6883443
Abstract: Location-Based Services (LBSs) have been one of the most popular activities in our daily life. Users can send queries to the LBS server easily to learn their surroundings. However, these location-related queries may result in serious privacy concerns since the un-trusted LBS server has all the information about users and may track them in various ways. In this paper, we propose two dummy-based solutions to achieve k-anonymity for privacy-area aware users in LBSs with considering that side information may be exploited by adversaries. We first choose some candidates based on a virtual circle or grid method, then blur these candidates into the final positions of dummy locations based on the entropy-based privacy metric. Security analysis and evaluation results indicate that the V-circle solution can significantly improve the privacy anonymity level. The V-grid solution can further enlarge the cloaking region while keeping similar privacy level.
Keywords: data privacy; query processing; ubiquitous computing; V-circle solution; cloaking region; entropy-based privacy metric; k-anonymity; location-based services; location-related queries; privacy-area aware dummy generation algorithm; privacy-area aware users; security analysis; Entropy; Information systems; Mobile communication; Privacy; Resistance; Security; Servers (ID#: 15-6431)

Ben Niu; Qinghua Li; Xiaoyan Zhu; Hui Li, “A Fine-Grained Spatial Cloaking Scheme for Privacy-Aware Users in Location-Based Services,” Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN), 2014 23rd International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1, 8, 4-7 Aug. 2014. doi:10.1109/ICCCN.2014.6911813
Abstract: In Location-Based Services (LBSs) mobile users submit location-related queries to the untrusted LBS server to get service. However, such queries increasingly induce privacy concerns from mobile users. To address this problem, we propose FGcloak, a novel fine-grained spatial cloaking scheme for privacy-aware mobile users in LBSs. Based on a novel use of modified Hilbert Curve in a particular area, our scheme effectively guarantees k-anonymity and at the same time provides larger cloaking region. It also uses a parameter σ for users to make fine-grained control on the system overhead based on the resource constraints of mobile devices. Security analysis and empirical evaluation results verify the effectiveness and efficiency of our scheme.
Keywords: data privacy; mobile computing; FGcloak; Hilbert Curve; LBS; fine grained spatial cloaking scheme; fine-grained control; location based services; novel fine-grained spatial cloaking scheme; privacy aware mobile users; privacy aware users; security analysis; Algorithm design and analysis; Control systems; Mobile communication; Privacy; Security; Servers; Standards (ID#: 15-6432)

Sato, F., “User Location Anonymization Based on Secret Computation,” Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA), 2014 Ninth International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 410, 415, 8-10 Nov. 2014. doi:10.1109/BWCCA.2014.96
Abstract: Recently, highly accurate positioning devices enable us to provide various types of location based services (LBS). Since location information may reveal private information, preserving location privacy has become a significant issue in LBS. Lots of different techniques for securing the location privacy have been proposed, for instance the concept of Silent period, the concept of Dummy node, and the concept of Cloaking-region. However, many of these were not focused on information leakage on the servers. In this paper, we propose a user location management method based on the secure computation algorithm which protects information leakage from the location management servers. This algorithm is based on the multi-party computation and the computation complexity is not so high. We evaluated the proposed scheme in comparison with the method based on the homomorphic cryptographic method.
Keywords: cryptography; data privacy; cloaking-region; computation complexity; dummy node; homomorphic cryptographic method; location based services; location privacy; secure computation algorithm; silent period; user location anonymization; user location management method; Encryption; Mobile communication; Privacy; Quality of service; Registers; Servers; location anonymization; location based services; location privacy (ID#: 15-6433)

Yong Wang; Long-ping He; Jing Peng; Jie Hou; Yun Xia, “A Context-Dependent Privacy Preserving Framework In Road Networks,” Communications (ICC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 628, 633, 10-14 June 2014. doi:10.1109/ICC.2014.6883389
Abstract: The prevalence of Location Based Services (LBSs) increases personal privacy concerns due to the untrustworthy service providers. We demonstrate a context-dependent privacy preserving framework for users whose movements are confined by the underlying road networks. Both the location privacy and query privacy in continuous queries are preserved as they are closely related. For continuous query services, different positions on a user’s trajectory may have different privacy sensitivities. In addition, privacy is about users’ feelings and varies among them. Hence, a Policy Service (PS) is introduced to generate context-dependent privacy strategies according to user-defined privacy profiles. Meanwhile, a semi-honest Anonymizing Service (AS) is employed to generate prediction-based cloaks with history information for users while satisfying their privacy strategies. The PS and AS interact with each other in the way to ensure neither of them can obtain both the location information and the query contents. The simulated results show the effectiveness of our framework in the view of privacy preserving and system performance.
Keywords: cloud computing; data privacy; query processing; LBS; context-dependent privacy preserving framework; continuous query services; history information; location based services; location privacy; policy service; prediction-based cloaks; privacy sensitivity; query privacy; semihonest anonymizing service; underlying road networks; user trajectory; user-defined privacy profiles; Privacy; Quality of service; Resistance; Roads; Security; Sensitivity; Trajectory; Location Based Services (LBSs); continuous query service; privacy preserving; road networks (ID#: 15-6434)

Pandit, A.; Polina, P.; Kumar, A.; Bin Xie, “CAPPA: Context Aware Privacy Protecting Advertising—An Extension to CLOPRO Framework,” Services Computing (SCC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 805, 812, June 27 2014–July 2 2014. doi:10.1109/SCC.2014.109
Abstract: Advent of 4G networks, IPV6 and increased number of subscribers to these, has triggered many free applications that are easy to install on smart mobile devices, a primary computing device for many. The free application markets are sustainable as revenue model for most of these service providers is through profiling of users and pushing of the advertisements to the users. This imposes a serious threat to user’s privacy. Most of the existing solutions starve the developers of their revenue by falsifying / altering the information of the users. In this paper, we attempt to bridge this gap by extending our integrated Context Cloaking Privacy Protection framework (CLOPRO) that achieves identity privacy, location privacy, and query privacy without depriving the service provider of sustainable revenue generated through the use of the Context Aware Privacy Preserving Advertising (CAPPA). The CLOPRO framework has been shown to provide privacy to the user while using location based services. In this paper we demonstrate how this framework can be extended to deliver the advertisements / coupons based on users interests, specified at the time of registration, and the current context of the user without revealing these details to the service provider. The original service requests of the registered users are modified by the CLOPRO framework using concepts of clustering and abstraction. The results are filtered to deliver the relevant information to the user. Since the advertisements received are relevant to the user, the click rate is likely to increase ensuring increased revenue for service provider. The proposed framework has O(n) complexity.
Keywords: advertising data processing; data privacy; information services; mobile computing; pattern clustering;4G networks; CAPPA framework; CLOPRO framework; IPV6;Internet protocol; O(n) complexity; abstraction concept; clustering concept; context aware privacy protecting advertising; context cloaking privacy protection framework; fourth-generation networks; free application markets; identity privacy; location based services; location privacy; query privacy; service provider; smart mobile devices; user privacy; Advertising; Context; Context-aware services; Mobile communication; Mobile handsets; Privacy; Servers; Abstraction; Anonymization; Clustering; Context Aware Advertising; Context Cloaking; Location Based Services; Privacy Protection
(ID#: 15-6435)

Chunhui Piao; Xiaoyan Li; Xiao Pan, “Research on the User Privacy Protection Method in Mobile Commerce,” e-Business Engineering (ICEBE), 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 177, 184, 5-7 Nov. 2014. doi:10.1109/ICEBE.2014.39
Abstract: The wide application of mobile commerce has brought great convenience to people’s work and lives, however, the risk of privacy disclosure has been receiving more and more attention from the academia and industry. In this paper, after analyzing the privacy concerns in mobile commerce, the commonly used privacy preserving technologies in mobile environments are discussed. A privacy preserving operation model for the mobile commerce alliance providing location-based services is established. Aiming at preventing the sensitive homogeneity attack, an anonymity model for sensitive information is defined formally. Based on the anonymity model, a new cloaking algorithm named as EMDASS is described in detail, whose basic idea is exchanging and merging users. This algorithm can be used to protect the mobile user’s location, identifier and other sensitive information on road networks. Finally, the availability of the privacy preserving algorithm proposed is illustrated by an example.
Keywords: data privacy; mobile commerce; risk management; EMDASS; anonymity model; cloaking algorithm; location-based services; mobile commerce alliance; mobile environments; mobile user location protection; privacy disclosure risk; privacy preserving algorithm; privacy preserving operation model; privacy preserving technologies; road networks; sensitive homogeneity attack; sensitive information; user privacy protection method; Business; Mobile computing; Mobile radio mobility management; Privacy; Roads; Sensitivity; Mobile commerce; Mobile commerce alliance; Privacy preserving algorithm; Sensitive information
(ID#: 15-6436)

Pournajaf, L.; Li Xiong; Sunderam, V.; Goryczka, S., “Spatial Task Assignment for Crowd Sensing with Cloaked Locations,” Mobile Data Management (MDM), 2014 IEEE 15th International Conference on, vol. 1, no., vol., no., pp. 73, 82, 14-18 July 2014. doi:10.1109/MDM.2014.15
Abstract: Distributed mobile crowd sensing is becoming a valuable paradigm, enabling a variety of novel applications built on mobile networks and smart devices. However, this trend brings several challenges, including the need for crowd sourcing platforms to manage interactions between applications and the crowd (participants or workers). One of the key functions of such platforms is spatial task assignment which assigns sensing tasks to participants based on their locations. Task assignment becomes critical when participants are hesitant to share their locations due to privacy concerns. In this paper, we examine the problem of spatial task assignment in crowd sensing when participants utilize spatial cloaking to obfuscate their locations. We investigate methods for assigning sensing tasks to participants, efficiently managing location uncertainty and resource constraints. We propose a novel two-stage optimization approach which consists of global optimization using cloaked locations followed by a local optimization using participants’ precise locations without breaching privacy. Experimental results using both synthetic and real data show that our methods achieve high sensing coverage with low cost using cloaked locations.
Keywords: computational complexity; distributed sensors; mobile computing; optimisation; NP-hard problem; cloaked locations; crowd sourcing platforms; distributed mobile crowd sensing; global optimization approach; local optimization approach; location uncertainty management; mobile networks; privacy concerns; resource constraints; smart devices; spatial cloaking; spatial task assignment; two-stage optimization approach; Estimation; Mobile communication; Optimization; Privacy; Sensors; Servers; Uncertainty (ID#: 15-6437)

Sangeetha, S.; Dhanabal, S.; Kaliappan, V.K., “Optimization of K-NN Query Processing in Road Networks Using Frequent Query Retrieval Table,” Computing and Communication Technologies (WCCCT), 2014 World Congress on, vol., no., pp. 228, 230, Feb. 27 2014–March 1 2014. doi:10.1109/WCCCT.2014.22
Abstract: Location Based Services has been widely used to guide the user with real time information. The efficient query processing and preserving the privacy of the user is a key challenge in these applications. There have been many researches for anonymity in the spatial network by generating cloaking region in the Road networks and a K-NN algorithm is used for processing query in this region. If the same query is issued frequently and processing these queries continuously is an issue. In this paper, a novel Frequent Query Retrieval Table (FQRT) is proposed to increase the efficiency of query processing in the K-NN algorithm. FQRT maintains the results of the frequently occurring queries and can be retrieved when the same query is issued in the cloaking region. The proposed FQRT algorithm reduces the query processing time and the network expansion cost.
Keywords: data privacy; mobile computing; optimisation; query processing; FQRT; K-NN query processing optimization; cloaking region; frequent query retrieval table; location based services; network expansion cost; road networks; spatial network; user guidance; user privacy preservation; Algorithm design and analysis; Mobile communication; Privacy; Query processing; Roads; Servers; Time factors; Query Processing; Road Networks; k-NN Queries (ID#: 15-6438)


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