Visible to the public Resilience Indicators 2015

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Resilience Indicators


Resilience is an important security element in cyber physical systems. The works cited here address the problem of identifying what constitutes resilience, how it can be identified and quantified, and general methods for addressing the problem. These works were presented in 2014 and 2015.

Nieuborg, A.; Koelle, R.; Gluchshenko, O.; Foerster, P., “Towards Evaluating Air Navigation Performance for Estimation of Its Resilience,” in Integrated Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Conference (ICNS), 2014, vol., no., pp. L4-1–L4-10, 8–10 April 2014. doi:10.1109/ICNSurv.2014.6820000
Abstract: This paper addresses operational performance management within air navigation and considers an initial approach to modelling resilience within air navigation and applies it to the current performance framework of performance of air navigation services at European airports. Resilience is an emerging paradigm and has gained the attention of political decision makers and operational planners. In particular, the distinction between nominal and non-nominal situations is closely linked with the identification of disruptions and associated impacts on the quality of service. This paper considers resilience from a system-theoretic perspective. From that perspective, operational performance can be modelled as a situation management problem and resilience aspects can be discussed on the basis of changes of system state within the state space over the considered time horizon. For the purpose of this paper, service levels of air navigation within the airport context are conceptualized on the basis of the performance indicators set forth by the European performance scheme. This exploratory study aims at identifying the fit of the existing scheme to identify and categorize disrupted services. The model is based on a case study analysis of disruptions at two European airports. The case study approach allows to derive an initial set of parameters. The results obtained provide evidence for the conceptual feasibility of addressing resilience from a situation management and state-oriented perspective. Initial requirements can be derived for the adaptation of the current set of performance indicators for air navigation within the airport context and inform further refinement of the performance framework.
Keywords: aircraft navigation; decision making; intelligent transportation systems; quality of service; European airports; European performance scheme; ITS resilience estimation; air navigation performance evaluation; air navigation service; associated impact identification; disrupted service categorisation; disruption identification; modelling resilience; operational performance management; operational performance modelling; operational planner; performance indicators; political decision making; quality of service; situation management problem; state space; time horizon; Airports; Atmospheric modeling; Context; Europe; Navigation; Resilience; System performance  (ID#: 15-7258)


Hardy, T.L., “Resilience: A Holistic Safety Approach,” in Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), 2014 Annual, vol., no., pp. 1-6, 27-30 Jan. 2014. doi:10.1109/RAMS.2014.6798494
Abstract: Decreasing the potential for catastrophic consequences poses a significant challenge for high-risk industries. Organizations are under many different pressures, and they are continuously trying to adapt to changing conditions and recover from disturbances and stresses that can arise from both normal operations and unexpected events. Reducing risks in complex systems therefore requires that organizations develop and enhance traits that increase resilience. Resilience provides a holistic approach to safety, emphasizing the creation of organizations and systems that are proactive, interactive, reactive, and adaptive. This approach relies on disciplines such as system safety and emergency management, but also requires that organizations develop indicators and ways of knowing when an emergency is imminent. A resilient organization must be adaptive, using hands-on activities and lessons learned efforts to better prepare it to respond to future disruptions. It is evident from the discussions of each of the traits of resilience, including their limitations, that there are no easy answers to reducing safety risks in complex systems. However, efforts to strengthen resilience may help organizations better address the challenges associated with the ever-increasing complexities of their systems.
Keywords: emergency management; large-scale systems; reliability; risk management; safety; system recovery; complex systems; high-risk industries; holistic safety approach; resilience; system risk reduction; system safety; Accidents; Hazards; Organizations; Personnel; Resilience; Systematics (ID#: 15-7259)


Schneider, J.; Romanowski, C.; Raj, R.K.; Mishra, S.; Stein, K., “Measurement of Locality Specific Resilience,” in Technologies for Homeland Security (HST), 2015 IEEE International Symposium on, vol., no., pp. 1–6, 14–16 April 2015. doi:10.1109/THS.2015.7225332
Abstract: Resilience has been defined at the local, state, and national levels, and subsequent attempts to refine the definition have added clarity. Quantitative measurements, however, are crucial to a shared understanding of resilience. This paper reviews the evolution of resiliency indicators and metrics and suggests extensions to current indicators to measure functional resilience at a jurisdictional or community level. Using a management systems approach, an input/output model may be developed to demonstrate abilities, actions, and activities needed to support a desired outcome. Applying systematic gap analysis and an improvement cycle with defined metrics, the paper proposes a model to evaluate a community’s operational capability to respond to stressors. As each locality is different—with unique risks, strengths, and weaknesses—the model incorporates these characteristics and calculates a relative measure of maturity for that community. Any community can use the resulting model output to plan and improve its resiliency capabilities.
Keywords: emergency management; social sciences; community operational capability; functional resilience measurement; locality specific resilience measurement; quantitative measurement; resiliency capability; resiliency indicators; resiliency metrics; systematic gap analysis; Economics; Emergency services; Hazards; Measurement; Resilience; Standards; Training; AHP; community resilience; operational resilience modeling; resilience capability metrics (ID#: 15-7260)


Chiaradonna, S.; Di Giandomenico, F.; Murru, N., “On a Modeling Approach to Analyze Resilience of a Smart Grid Infrastructure,” in Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC), 2014 Tenth European, vol., no., pp.166–177, 13–16 May 2014. doi:10.1109/EDCC.2014.34
Abstract: The evolution of electrical grids, both in terms of enhanced ICT functionalities to improve efficiency, reliability and economics, as well as the increasing penetration of renewable redistributed energy resources, results in a more sophisticated electrical infrastructure which poses new challenges from several perspectives, including resilience and quality of service analysis. In addition, the presence of interdependencies, which more and more characterize critical infrastructures (including the power sector), exacerbates the need for advanced analysis approaches, to be possibly employed since the early phases of the system design, to identify vulnerabilities and appropriate countermeasures. In this paper, we outline an approach to model and analyze smart grids and discuss the major challenges to be addressed in stochastic model-based analysis to account for the peculiarities of the involved system elements. Representation of dynamic and flexible behavior of generators and loads, as well as representation of the complex ICT control functions required to preserve and/or re-establish electrical equilibrium in presence of changes need to be faced to assess suitable indicators of the resilience and quality of service of the smart grid.
Keywords: critical infrastructures; power system control; power system reliability; smart power grids; stochastic processes; ICT control functions; ICT functionalities; critical infrastructure; electrical equilibrium; power system economics; power system efficiency; quality of service; renewable redistributed energy resource; smart grid infrastructure resilience; stochastic model based analysis; Analytical models; Generators; Load modeling; Low voltage; Smart grids; Substations; Voltage control; Electrical Smart Grid; Interdependencies; Modeling Framework; SAN Formalism; Stochastic Process (ID#: 15-7261)


Wong, E., “Resilience in Next Generation Access Networks: Assessment of Survivable TWDM-PONs,” in Communications (ICC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 4166–4172, 10–14 June 2014. doi:10.1109/ICC.2014.6883974
Abstract: In addressing the requirements of next-generation passive optical networks, the time and wavelength division multiplexed PON (TWDM-PON) has been selected as the next technology solution beyond 10 Gbps PONs. Due to the increased network reach and customer base, many of which are business customers, rapid fault detection and subsequent restoration of services are critical. Fault protection for conventional PONs has previously been extensively explored. Application of these existing schemes is however inappropriate for TWDM-PONs as an increased network reach and customer base necessitate highly sensitive monitoring modules for fiber/device fault detection. The existing use of upstream transmissions as a loss of signal (LOS) indicator at the central office is also unsuitable due to the sleep/doze mode nature of the optical network units. Here, survivable TWDM-PON architectures which combine rapid fault detection and protection switching to provide resilience are proposed. These architectures do not rely on upstream transmissions for LOS activation. Each exploits highly-sensitive monitoring modules with fast-response fault detection and subsequent protection switching and requiring only very low levels of monitoring input power. The maximum achievable network reach and split ratio, and the survivability of all three schemes are analyzed and compared.
Keywords: fault diagnosis; next generation networks; optical fibre subscriber loops; telecommunication network reliability; time division multiplexing; wavelength division multiplexing; fault detection; fault protection; next generation access networks; optical network units; passive optical networks; sleep-doze mode; survivable TWDM-PON architectures; Monitoring; Optical fiber couplers; Optical fiber devices; Optical network units; Propagation losses; Network restoration; protection switching; time and wavelength multiplexed passive optical network (ID#: 15-7262)


Articles listed on these pages have been found on publicly available internet pages and are cited with links to those pages. Some of the information included herein has been reprinted with permission from the authors or data repositories. Direct any requests via Email to for removal of the links or modifications to specific citations. Please include the ID# of the specific citation in your correspondence.