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Forward Error Correction


Controlling errors in data transmission in noisy or lossy circuits is a problem often solved by channel coding or forward error correction. Security resilience can be impacted by loss or noise. The articles cited here are related to this Science of Security concern. This research was presented in 2015 and recovered on October 19, 2015.

Demirdogen, Ibrahim; Lei Li; Chunxiao Chigan, “FEC Driven Network Coding Based Pollution Attack Defense in Cognitive Radio Networks,” in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW), 2015 IEEE, vol., no.,
pp. 259–268, 9–12 March 2015. doi:10.1109/WCNCW.2015.7122564
Abstract: Relay featured cognitive radio network scenario is considered in the absence of direct link between secondary user (SU) and secondary base station (S-BS). Being a realistic deployment use case scenario, relay node can be subjected to pollution attacks. Forward error correction (FEC) driven network coding (NC) method is employed as a defense mechanism in this paper. By using the proposed methods, pollution attack is efficiently defended. Bit error rate (BER) measurements are used to quantify network reliability. Furthermore, in the absence of any attack, the proposed method can efficiently contribute to network performance by improving BER. Simulation results underline our mechanism is superior to existing FEC driven NC methods such as low density parity check (LDPC).
Keywords: cognitive radio; error statistics; forward error correction; network coding; parity check codes; relay networks (telecommunication); telecommunication network reliability; telecommunication security; BER; FEC driven network coding based pollution attack defense; LDPC; bit error rate measurements; low density parity check; network performance; network reliability quantification; relay featured cognitive radio network scenario; secondary base station; secondary user; Bit error rate; Conferences; Forward error correction; Network coding; Pollution; Relays; Reliability (ID#: 15-7476)


de la Fuente, A.; Lentisco, C.M.; Bellido, L.; R. Perez Leal; Pastor, E.; A. Garcia Armada., “Analysis of the Impact of FEC Techniques on a Multicast Video Streaming Service over LTE,” in Networks and Communications (EuCNC), 2015 European Conference on, vol., no., pp. 219–223, June 29 2015–July 2 2015. doi:10.1109/EuCNC.2015.7194072
Abstract: In a multicast video streaming service the same multimedia content is sent to a mass audience using only one multicast stream. In multicast video streaming over a cellular network, due to the nature of the multicast communication, from a source to multiple recipients, and due to the characteristics of the radio channel, different for each receiver, transmission errors are addressed at the application level by using Forward Error Correction (FEC) techniques. However, in order to protect the communication over the radio channel, FEC techniques are also applied at the physical layer. Another important technique to improve the communication of the radio channel is the use of a single-frequency network. This paper analyzes the performance of a video streaming service over a cellular network taking into account the combined impact of different factors that affect the transmission, both the physical deployment of the service and the two levels of FEC.
Keywords: Long Term Evolution; cellular radio; forward error correction; multicast communication; telecommunication security; video streaming; wireless channels; FEC techniques; LTE; application level; cellular network; communication protection; forward error correction techniques; multicast video streaming service; multimedia content; radio channel characteristics; single-frequency network; source-to-multiple recipients; transmission errors; Decoding; Encoding; Forward error correction; Modulation; Robustness; Streaming media; Unicast (ID#: 15-7477)


Saravanan, R.; Saminadan, V.; Thirunavukkarasu, V., “VLSI Implementation of BER Measurement for Wireless Communication System,” in Innovations in Information, Embedded and Communication Systems (ICIIECS), 2015 International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1–5, 19–20 March 2015. doi:10.1109/ICIIECS.2015.7193074
Abstract: This paper presents the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the wireless communication system. The complexity of modern wireless communication system are increasing at fast pace. It becomes challenging to design the hardware of wireless system. The proposed system consists of MIMO transmitter and MIMO receiver along with a realistic fading channel. To make the data transmission more secure when the data are passed into channel Crypto-System with Embedded Error Control (CSEEC) is used. The system supports data security and reliability using forward error correction codes (FEC). Security is provided through the use of a new symmetric encryption algorithm, and reliability is provided by the use of FEC codes. The system aims at speeding up the encryption and encoding operations and reduces the hardware dedicated to each of these operations. The proposed system allows users to achieve more security and reliable communication. The proposed BER measurement communication system consumes low power compared to existing systems. Advantage of VLSI based BER measurement it that they can be used in the Real time applications and it provides single chip solution.
Keywords: MIMO communication; VLSI; cryptography; error statistics; fading channels; forward error correction; radio receivers; radio transmitters; telecommunication control; BER measurement communication system; CSEEC; FEC codes; MIMO receiver; MIMO transmitter; VLSI implementation; bit error rate; cryptosystem with embedded error control; data reliability; data security; data transmission; fading channel; forward error correction codes; symmetric encryption algorithm; wireless communication system; Bit error rate; Encryption; Receivers; Very large scale integration; Wireless communication; BER; Crypto-System; (ID#: 15-7478)


Yejian Chen, “Superimposed Pilots Based Secure Communications for a System with Multiple Antenna Arrays,” in Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2015 IEEE 81st, vol., no., pp. 1–5, 11–14 May 2015. doi:10.1109/VTCSpring.2015.7146116
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate secure communications by introducing superimposed pilots for multiple antenna system. The superimposed pilots enable the trellis-based joint channel tracking and data detection for the user of interest. Further, by adjusting the power ratio between the data symbol and superimposed pilot symbol, the secure capacity region can be established. The user of interest can appropriately select the Forward Error Correction (FEC) code rate, to prevent any possible eavesdropping. In this paper, we present the achievable secure capacity region for multiple antenna system, and verify it via Monte Carlo simulation as well.
Keywords: Monte Carlo methods; antenna arrays; error correction codes; forward error correction; telecommunication security; FEC code rate; Monte Carlo simulation; data detection; data symbol; eavesdropping; forward error correction code; multiple antenna array; power ratio; secure capacity region; secure communication; superimposed pilot symbol; trellis-based joint channel tracking; Binary phase shift keying; Communication system security; Decoding; MIMO; Noise; Security; Wireless communication (ID#: 15-7479)


Liang Tang; Ambrose, J.A.; Kumar, A.; Parameswaran, S., “Dynamic Reconfigurable Puncturing for Secure Wireless Communication,” in Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE), 2015, vol., no., pp. 888–891, 9–13 March 2015. doi: (not provided)
Abstract: The ubiquity of wireless devices has created security concerns on the information being transferred. It is critical to protect the secret information in every layer of wireless communication to thwart any type of attacks. A dynamic reconfigurable puncturing based security mechanism, named RePunc, is proposed in this paper to provide an extra level of security at the physical layer. RePunc utilizes the puncturing feature of Forward Error Correction (FEC) to insert the secure information in the punctured positions of the standard information encoded data. The punctured patterns are dynamically changed and passed as a secret key from the sender to the receiver. An eavesdropper will not be able to detect the transmission of the secure information since the inserted secure information will be processed as channel noise by the eavesdropper’s receiver. However, the rightful receiver will be able to successfully decode the secure packets by knowingly differentiating the secure information and the standard information before the FEC decoding. A case study of RePunc implementation for WiFi communication is presented in this paper, showing the extreme high security complexity with low hardware overhead.
Keywords: computer network security; decoding; forward error correction; private key cryptography; radio receivers; software radio; ubiquitous computing; wireless LAN; wireless channels; FEC decoding; RePunc security mechanism; Wi-Fi communication; channel noise; dynamic reconfigurable puncturing; eavesdropper receiver; forward error correction; high security complexity; low hardware overhead; secret information protection; secret key cryptography; secure wireless communication; wireless devices ubiquity; Decoding; Hardware; IEEE 802.11 Standards; Random access memory; Receivers; Security (ID#: 15-7480)


Stecklina, O.; Kornemann, S.; Grehl, F.; Jung, R.; Kranz, T.; Leander, G.; Schweer, D.; Mollus, K.; Westhoff, D., “Custom-Fit Security for Efficient and Pollution-Resistant Multicast OTA-Programming with Fountain Codes,” in Innovations for Community Services (I4CS), 2015 15th International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1–8, 8–10 July 2015. doi:10.1109/I4CS.2015.7294492
Abstract: In this work we describe the implementation details of a protocol suite for a secure and reliable over-the-air reprogramming of wireless restricted devices. Although, recently forward error correction codes aiming at a robust transmission over a noisy wireless medium have extensively been discussed and evaluated, we believe that the clear value of the contribution at hand is to share our experience when it comes to a meaningful combination and implementation of various multihop (broadcast) transmission protocols and custom-fit security building blocks: For a robust and reliable data transmission we make use of fountain codes a.k.a. rateless erasure codes and show how to combine such schemes with an underlying medium access control protocol, namely a distributed low duty cycle medium access control (DLDC-MAC). To handle the well known problem of packet pollution of forward-error-correction approaches where an attacker bogusly modifies or infiltrates some minor number of encoded packets and thus pollutes the whole data stream at the receiver side, we apply homomorphic message authentication codes (HomMAC). We discuss implementation details and the pros and cons of the two currently available HomMAC candidates for our setting. Both require as the core cryptographic primitive a symmetric block cipher for which, as we will argue later, we have opted for the PRESENT, PRIDE and PRINCE (exchangeable) ciphers in our implementation.
Keywords: Ciphers; Decoding; Encoding; Programming; Protocols; Receivers; Wireless sensor networks; OTA programming; homomorphic message authentication; robust fountain codes; wireless sensor networks (ID#: 15-7481)


Hanumanthappa, M.; Rashmi, S.; Reddy, M.V., “Metrics for Evaluating Phonetics Machine Translation in Natural Language Processing Through Modified Edit Distance Algorithm-A Naïve Approach,” in Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI), 2015 International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1–7, 8–10 Jan. 2015. doi:10.1109/ICCCI.2015.7218113
Abstract: Uninhabited mistakes while writing happens are unstoppable. There are certain common errors that occur during writing such as missing letters, extra letters, disordered letters, and misspelled letters. These kind of common spelling errors are called phonetics spelling errors. These are of a major concern while dealing with phonetics. Out of various problems that the phoneticians are trying to solve, major portion of it concentrates on varieties of spelling errors. Phonetic structures are greatly emphasized based on the effectiveness, appropriateness and accuracy. In order to keep abreast with the changing and challenging trends of Natural Language Processing (NLP), it is of great importance that one should resolve the problems of spelling errors. To achieve the goal, numerous realistic and practical approaches have to be adopted that make use of spelling correction algorithms such as Edit distance, Habit distance, Soundex and Asoundex. Through the analysis of these algorithms, a new interface is put forward that calculates the Edit distance, thereby showing the overall comparative study of phonetic algorithms with the proposed modified Edit Distance algorithm. The interface computes the Edit distance between two strings in appropriate and intuitive way, contemplating with the comparisons shown in the distance table. The Results show that an average of 0.937 recall and 0.947 precision have been achieved with the F-measure 0.9417. Through these results, it is evident that the recall and F-measures are improved in the proposed Edit-Distance algorithm. The revised version of the edit distance algorithm consistently attains finer quality results in comparison with the traditional edit distance algorithm.
Keywords: natural language processing; speech processing; Asoundex; F-measures; Soundex; habit distance; modified edit distance algorithm; phonetics machine translation metrics; phonetics spelling errors; spelling correction algorithms; Accuracy; Algorithm design and analysis; Computers; Context; Informatics; Natural language processing; Writing; Ambiguity; Edit distance; Natural Language Processing (NLP); Phonetics (ID#: 15-7482)


Brunina, D.; Porto, S.; Jain, A.; Lai, C.P.; Antony, C.; Pavarelli, N.; Rensing, M.; Talli, G.; Ossieur, P.; O'Brien, P.; Townsend, P.D., “Analysis of Forward Error Correction in the Upstream Channel of 10Gb/S Optically Amplified TDM-PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), 2015, vol., no., pp. 1–3, 22–26 March 2015. doi:10.1364/OFC.2015.Th4H.3
Abstract: We experimentally investigate the performance of forward error correction operated in burst-mode using a burst-mode receiver. We show reduced error correction capability due to transients from the burst-mode receiver at the start of each burst.
Keywords: forward error correction; optical fibre amplifiers; optical receivers; passive optical networks; time division multiplexing; wavelength division multiplexing; bit rate 10 Gbit/s; burst mode receiver; burst mode switching; forward error correction; optically amplified TDM-PON; reduced error correction; upstream channel; Adaptive optics; Bit error rate; Forward error correction; Optical amplifiers; Optical attenuators; Optical filters; Passive optical networks (ID#: 15-7483)


Wenjie Ji; Wei Zhang; Xingru Peng; Zhibin Liang, “16-Channel Two-Parallel Reed-Solomon Based Forward Error Correction Architecture for Optical Communications,” in Digital Signal Processing (DSP), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 239–243, 21–24 July 2015. doi:10.1109/ICDSP.2015.7251867
Abstract: This paper presents a high-efficiency two-parallel Reed-Solomon (RS) decoder based on the compensated simplified reformulated inversionless Berlekamp-Massey (CS-RiBM) algorithm. To achieve high speed and low hardware complexity, the key equation solver (KES) block is designed by pipelining and folding processing. With TSMC 90nm process, the simulation results reveal that the 16-Channel proposed architecture can operate up to 625 MHz and achieve a throughput rate of 156 Gbps with a total gate count of 269,000. The area of the proposed decoder is at least 35.6% fewer with the same technology, which meets the demands of next generation short-reach optical systems.
Keywords: Reed-Solomon codes; channel coding; decoding; forward error correction; next generation networks; parallel processing; pipeline processing; telecommunication computing; 16-channel two-parallel reed-solomon based forward error correction architecture; CS-RiBM algorithm; KES block; RS decoder; TSMC process; bit rate 156 Gbit/s; compensated simplified reformulated inversionless Berlekamp-Massey algorithm; folding processing; key equation solver block; next generation short-reach optical system; optical communication; pipelining processing; size 90 nm; Clocks; Computational modeling; Computer architecture; Logic gates; folding; optical communication systems; pipelined (ID#: 15-7484)


Bouras, C.; Kanakis, N., “Online AL-FEC Protection over Mobile Unicast Services,” in Networks and Communications (EuCNC), 2015 European Conference on, vol., no., pp. 229–233, June 29 2015–July 2 2015. doi:10.1109/EuCNC.2015.7194074
Abstract: Forward error correction (FEC) is a method for error control of data transmission adopted in several mobile multicast standards. FEC is a feedback free error recovery method where the sender introduces redundant data in advance with the source data enabling the recipient to recover from different arbitrary packet losses. Recently, the adoption of FEC error control method has been boosted by the introduction of powerful Application Layer FEC (AL-FEC) codes i.e., RaptorQ codes. Furthermore, several works have emerged aiming to address the efficient application of AL-FEC protection introducing deterministic or randomized online algorithms. The investigation of AL-FEC application as primary or auxiliary error protection method over mobile multicast environments is a well investigated field. However, the opportunity of utilizing the AL-FEC over mobile unicast services as the only method for error control, replacing common feedback based methods that are now considered to be obsolete, is not yet examined. In this work we provide an analysis on the feasibility of AL-FEC protection over unicast delivery utilizing online algorithms on the application of AL-FEC codes with exceptional recovery performance.
Keywords: forward error correction; mobile radio; multicast communication; telecommunication standards; RaptorQ codes; application layer FEC codes; data transmission; error control; feedback free error recovery; forward error correction; mobile multicast standards; mobile unicast services; online AL-FEC protection; Algorithm design and analysis; Forward error correction; Mobile communication; Mobile computing; Packet loss; Unicast; online algorithms (ID#: 15-7485)


Poornima, D.; Vijayashaarathi, S., “Streaming High Definition Video over Heterogeneous Wireless Networks (HWN),” in Electronics and Communication Systems (ICECS), 2015 2nd International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 199–205, 26–27 Feb. 2015. doi:10.1109/ECS.2015.7124892
Abstract: Video transmission over the heterogeneous networks faces many challenges due to available bandwidth, link delay, frame lost, throughput, reliability, network congestion. In video streaming it is important that the video stream must reach the users within allocated time and also without errors in video frames which leads to packet loss. Hence to avoid the packet loss and to enhance the Packet Delivery Ratio(PDR) and Throughput of the networks a modified Forward Error Correction mechanism was proposed by considering the feedback information (frame count, buffer status, round trip time (RTT)). Simulation results compares the performance in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR), throughput and handover delay under various video packet rate and packet intervals.
Keywords: forward error correction; radio networks; video streaming; HWN; PDR; feedback information; heterogeneous wireless networks; high definition modified forward error correction mechanism; packet delivery ratio; video transmission; Bandwidth; Forward error correction; Receivers; Streaming media; Throughput; Wireless networks; FEC (Forward Error Correction); HDVideo; MFEC (Modified Forward Error Correction) (ID#: 15-7486)


Muppalla, S.; Vaddempudi, K.R., “A Novel VHDL Implementation of UART with Single Error Correction and Double Error Detection Capability,” in Signal Processing And Communication Engineering Systems (SPACES), 2015 International Conference on, vol., no., pp. 152–156, 2–3 Jan. 2015. doi:10.1109/SPACES.2015.7058236
Abstract: In an industrial working environment employing multiprocessor communication using UART, noise is likely to affect the data and data may be received with errors. This kind of error occurrence may affect the working of the system resulting in an improper control. Several existing UART designs are incorporating error detection logic. This kind of logic, if detects errors, requires retransmission of corresponding data frames which take additional time for automatic repeat request (ARQ) and retransmission of data. Linear block codes like hamming code have forward error correction (FEC) as well as error detection capability. This paper presents a novel VLSI implementation of UART designed to include (8,4) extended hamming code called SEC-DED code that can correct upto one error and detect up to two errors. This improves the noise immunity of the system optimizing the error free reception of data. The whole design is implemented in Xilinx ISE 12.3 simulator targeted to Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA.
Keywords: Hamming codes; automatic repeat request; block codes; computer interfaces; error correction; error detection; field programmable gate arrays; forward error correction; hardware description languages; linear codes; telecommunication equipment; FEC; Hamming code; SEC-DED code; UART; VHDL; VLSI; Xilinx ISE 12.3 simulator; Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA; automatic repeat request; data retransmission; double error detection; error detection logic; extended hamming code; linear block codes; multiprocessor communication; single error correction; Clocks; Decoding; Educational institutions; Error correction; Receivers; Registers; Transmitters; FEC (Forward Error Correction); Hamming Code; Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART); Xilinx ISE (ID#: 15-7487)


Lopacinski, L.; Nolte, J.; Buechner, S.; Brzozowski, M.; Kraemer, R., “Design and Implementation of an Adaptive Algorithm for Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request,” in Design and Diagnostics of Electronic Circuits & Systems (DDECS), 2015 IEEE 18th International Symposium on, vol., no., pp. 263–266, 22–24 April 2015. doi:10.1109/DDECS.2015.32
Abstract: Transmission efficiency is an interesting topic for data link layer developers. The overhead of protocols and coding should be reduced to a minimum. This maximizes a link throughput. This is especially important for high-speed networks, where a small degradation of efficiency will degrade the throughput by several Gbps. We describe a redundancy balancing algorithm for an adaptive hybrid automatic repeat request with Reed-Solomon coding. We introduce a testing environment, most important technical issues, and results generated on a field programmable gate array. The hybrid automatic repeat request and Reed-Solomon algorithms are explained. We provide a mathematical description, and a block diagram of the adaptation algorithm. All necessary algorithm simplifications are explained in details. The algorithm can be represented by basic operations in hardware. In most cases, it finds the optimal coding for a predefined bit error rate.
Keywords: Reed-Solomon codes; automatic repeat request; error statistics; field programmable gate arrays; Reed-Solomon coding; adaptation algorithm; adaptive algorithm design; adaptive algorithm implementation; adaptive bit error rate; block diagram; coding overhead; data link layer; field programmable gate array; high-speed networks; hybrid automatic repeat request; link throughput maximization; optimal coding; protocol overhead; redundancy-balancing algorithm; testing environment; transmission efficiency; Bit error rate; Encoding; Field programmable gate arrays; Forward error correction; Redundancy; Throughput; Wireless communication;100Gbps; FPGA; forward error correction; hybrid ARQ; reed-solomon (ID#: 15-7488)


Badr, Ahmed; Mahmood, Rafid; Khisti, Ashish, “Embedded MDS Codes for Multicast Streaming,” in Information Theory (ISIT), 2015 IEEE International Symposium on, vol., no., pp. 2276–2280, 14–19 June 2015. doi:10.1109/ISIT.2015.7282861
Abstract: We study low-delay streaming codes for erasure channels in point-to-point and multicast scenarios. We consider a sliding window erasure channel which captures the temporal correlation in packet losses observed in real channels. This correlation is often modelled using statistical channels such as Gilbert-Elliott channel. In the point-to-point case, we provide a new class of codes, Embedded Maximum Distance Separable (EMDS) codes, which recovers from channels introducing a mixture of burst and isolated erasures. Moreover, we propose a technique that extends point-to-point codes for the multicast scenario with two receivers that tolerate different delays, T1 and T2. The multicast codes opportunistically decode packets with short delay T1 when the channel is relatively better and with long delay T2 when the channel is worse. Simulations over multicast Gilbert-Elliott channels show that EMDS codes outperform other streaming codes for both users.
Keywords: Decoding; Delays; Encoding; Packet loss; Parity check codes; Receivers; Application Layer Forward Error Correction (AL-FEC); Burst Erasures; Correlated Packet Losses; Low-Delay Streaming Codes; Multicast Channels (ID#: 15-7489)


Fiondella, L.; Gokhale, S.S.; Jun-Hong Cui, “Reliability Analysis of Underwater Sensor Network Packet Transmission,” in Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), 2015 Annual, vol., no., pp. 1–6, 26–29 Jan. 2015. doi:10.1109/RAMS.2015.7105109
Abstract: Underwater sensor networks pose unique challenges to the design of reliable communication. Due to the high bit error rates experienced in this environment, achieving a compromise between reliability and energy efficiency has become a fundamental problem. In this paper, an objective metric to analyze the reliability of various packet transmission methods available for use in underwater sensor networks is developed. Earlier frameworks comparing competing alternatives have made the simplifying assumption that loss rate is homogeneous across the entire network. Such a simplification contradicts the fact that wireless sensor networks exhibit properties such as link asymmetry and are also influenced by phenomenon like radio irregularity. In light of these realities, it is necessary to relax the existing modeling assumptions to produce a more general framework for assessing the various potential solutions. Drawing on concepts from network reliability theory, measures of network system performance are derived. Application of the framework suggests that hop-by-hop forward error correction performs better than end-to-end forward error correction and single-path forwarding.
Keywords: error statistics; forward error correction; marine communication; telecommunication network reliability; wireless sensor networks; high bit error rates; hop-by-hop forward error correction; network reliability theory; underwater sensor network packet transmission method; Energy consumption; Forward error correction; Measurement; Redundancy; Reliability theory; Routing; normalized energy consumption; packet forwarding; underwater sensor network (ID#: 15-7490)


Häger, C.; Amat, A.G.i.; Pfister, H.D.; Alvarado, A.; Brannstrom, F.; Agrell, E., “On Parameter Optimization for Staircase Codes,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), 2015, vol., no., pp. 1–3, 22–26 March 2015. doi: (not provided)
Abstract: We discuss the optimization of staircase code parameters based on density evolution. An extension of the original code construction is proposed, leading to codes with steeper waterfall performance.
Keywords: forward error correction; optical fibre networks; optimisation; FEC codes; density evolution; optical transport networks; parameter optimization; staircase code parameters; steeper waterfall performance; Arrays; Bit error rate; Decoding; Forward error correction; Iterative decoding; Optical fibers; Optimization (ID#: 15-7491)


Geisler, D.J.; Chandar, V.; Yarnall, T.M.; Stevens, M.L.; Hamilton, S.A., “Multi-Gigabit Coherent Communications Using Low-Rate FEC to Approach the Shannon Capacity Limit,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2015 Conference on, vol., no.,
pp. 1–2, 10–15 May 2015. doi:10.1364/CLEO_SI.2015.SW1M.2
Abstract: Combining a rate-¼ forward error-correcting code, a coherent receiver, and an optical phase-locked loop yields near error-free performance with 2-dB photon-per-bit sensitivity, which is <;3-dB from the Shannon limit for a rate-¼, pre-amplified, coherent receiver.
Keywords: forward error correction; optical phase locked loops; optical receivers; Shannon capacity limit; coherent receiver; low-rate FEC; multigigabit coherent communications; near error-free performance; optical phase-locked loop; photon-per-bit sensitivity; rate-¼ forward error-correcting code; Adaptive optics; Forward error correction; Optical receivers; Parity check codes; Sensitivity; Signal to noise ratio (ID#: 15-7492)


Vijayan, A.; Hariharan, B.; Uma, G., “Improving Video Qos in an Error Prone Wireless Network,” in Multimedia and Broadcasting (APMediaCast), 2015 Asia Pacific Conference on, vol., no., pp. 1–6, 23–25 April 2015. doi:10.1109/APMediaCast.2015.7210281
Abstract: Multimedia content over today’s internet has grown tremendously. Real time streaming of multimedia is becoming more and more important. People rely on online video for entertainment, education and communication purposes. YouTube, video conference, virtual classrooms, etc. are some of the most common applications where real time multimedia over internet has become more and more relevant. Since the end user devices are mostly mobile and use wireless technology, streaming multimedia content wirelessly has become very critical. Wireless, being a broadcast open network, is prone to interference, noise, physical obstructions, multipath fading, jamming, etc. Therefore the Quality of Service (QoS) is not very high in a wireless medium. There should be some techniques to reduce the QoS issues. This paper proposes a system to solve some of the problems that reduce the quality in video transmission. We used duplicating packet and error correction techniques to figure out better QoS performance on the wireless network. The system is simulated using Qualnet. The results show considerable improvements in the QoS parameters.
Keywords: Internet; media streaming; quality of service; QoS issues; YouTube; error prone wireless network; multimedia content; quality of service issue; real time streaming; video conference; virtual classrooms; Forward error correction; Interference; Multimedia communication; Quality of service; Streaming media; Wireless networks; Interference; VOIP; Video streaming; Virtual classroom; jamming; multipath fading (ID#: 15-7493)




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