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Quick Response(QR)Code 2015

QR codes are used to store information in two dimensional grids which can be decoded quickly. The work here deals with extending its encoding and decoding implementation for user authentication and access control as well as tagging.  For the Science of Security community, the work is relevant to cyber physical systems, cryptography, and resilience.  The work cited here was presented in 2015.

Xiangpeng Fu; Kaiying Feng; Changzhong Wang; Junxing Zhang, "Improving Fingerprint Based Access Control System Using Quick Response Code," in Computational Intelligence and Virtual Environments for Measurement Systems and Applications (CIVEMSA), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, pp.1-5, 12-14 June 2015. doi: 10.1109/CIVEMSA.2015.7158611

Abstract: Access control systems have been widely used in physical security to authenticate the passing people and control their entrance. The existing systems can be classified into the fingerprint based system, the proximity card based system, etc. according to the adopted authentication techniques. However, proximity cards are easy to lose, while fingerprints also become less reliable because they can be copied to make fakes. It appears access control systems relying on only one single authentication technique can be really risky. In this paper, we improve the traditional fingerprint based access control system with an additional authentication process and a remote authorization scheme, both of which are based on Quick Response Code (QR code). The second authentication process leverages the one-time password (OTP) and the personalized response to a challenge contained in the QR code to enhance security. The authorization scheme assists a remote manager to grant temporary access to otherwise unauthorized personnel using the time-stamped authorization information stored in the QR code. We have implemented the prototype of the proposed system in the .NET framework. Our experiments show the prototype takes about 77 ms to offer more rigorous authentication and 134 ms to provide both strengthened authentication and authorization.

Keywords: QR codes; authorisation; fingerprint identification; message authentication;.NET framework; OTP;QR code; Quick Response code; authentication process; fingerprint based access control system; one-time password; personalized response; physical security; remote authorization scheme; remote manager; time-stamped authorization information; Authentication; Authorization; Fingerprint recognition; Generators; Servers; QR code; authentication; physical security (ID#: 15-8924)



Suresh, M.; Saravana Kumar, P.; Sundararajan, T.V.P., "IoT Based Airport Parking System," in Innovations in Information, Embedded and Communication Systems (ICIIECS), 2015 International Conference on, pp. 1-5, 19-20 March 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICIIECS.2015.7193216

Abstract: The proliferation of technology paves way to new kind of devices that can communicate with other devices to produce output mostly on wireless communication. Wirelessly communicating embedded devices are brought to one another in a single link over Internet called IoT (Internet of Things). If all objects and people in daily life were equipped with identifiers, computers could manage and inventory them. Besides using RFID, the tagging of things may be achieved through such technologies as near field communication, barcodes, QR codes and digital watermarking. Here new method of using embedded technology to provide such application, Arduino is used as an embedded controller to interface Ethernet shield with a PC/Laptop to provide IoT over Ethernet. A user can use this parking service in the airport scenario provided by airport authority with user ID and password. Whenever a user need to check the vehicle in the parking lot, uses the ID and password to logon into the airport web link and view the status of the car in the parking lot using IoT. IoT Based Airport Parking System is discussed here to implement Arduino environment as IoT application.

Keywords: Internet of Things; airports; embedded systems; intelligent transportation systems; local area networks; radio links; Arduino environment; Internet of Things; IoT based airport parking system; QR codes; RFID; airport web link; digital watermarking; embedded controller; embedded technology; interface Ethernet; laptop; near field communication; single link; user ID; wireless communication; Airports; Boards; Conferences; Internet of things; Technological innovation; Vehicles; IoT (Internet of Things); QR code (Quick Response Code); RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) (ID#: 15-8925)



Hogpracha, W.; Vongpradhip, S., "Recognition System for QR Code on Moving Car," in Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), 2015 10th International Conference on, pp. 14-18, 22-24 July 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICCSE.2015.7250210

Abstract: Most researches about QR code recognition were about reading QR code from image or read from motionless object. This paper proposes a system which read QR code from motion object where QR code attached on a windshield. The experiment was done by recording a video file, while the car was moving at various speeds then analyze video files. From the experiment results, the identification success rate of 100 percent was achieved when the car was moving under 30 kilometer per hour. At the speed of 60 kilometer per hour, the identification success rate was 30 percent.

Keywords: QR codes; image coding; image recognition; video recording; video signal processing; QR code recognition; motionless object; moving car; recognition system; video file; Automotive components; Bar codes; Image recognition;2D Barcode; QR Code; Quick Response Code; car; vehicle; windshield (ID#: 15-8926)



Mahajan, J.R.; Patil, N.N., "Alpha Channel for Integrity Verification Using Digital Signature on Reversible Watermarking QR," in Computing Communication Control and Automation (ICCUBEA), 2015 International Conference on, pp. 602-606, 26-27 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICCUBEA.2015.123

Abstract: Based on the increased awareness towards digital rights in commercial activity, the internet and media demands protection to enhance security. In this paper, predicated level of reversible watermarking scheme for image integrity and tamper detection or localization aspect. The proposed integrity analysis process is based on the region of interest watermarking with signatures and the use of alpha channel. Also integrity is analyzed at three distinct levels, which are used for the detection of modification, modified location and forensic analysis respectively. Behind this a digital watermark with 2D Barcode is a widely interesting research in the security field. Here this paper proposes a matrix barcode with the three level image watermarking using QR code and digital signature to verify image copyrights. A new watermarking method via the use of alpha channel is proposed. The alpha channel is used for controlling the transparency of the image. In proposed watermarking framework, it allows a user with an appropriate hash function SHA to verify the authenticity, integrity & ownership of an image. It is used as a metric in localization of tampered regions. The schemes successfully localize attack. The analysis scheme has shows high fidelity and is capable of localizing modified regions in watermarked image or localization of tampering. Mainly the channel watermarking can added to make system more robust to detect tampering attacks. Sole Purpose is to verify the integrity i.e. tamper verification.

Keywords: QR codes; copyright; cryptography; data integrity; digital signatures; feature extraction; image coding; image watermarking; 2D barcode; QR code; alpha channel; authenticity verification; digital signature; hash function; image copyright; image integrity; image watermarking; integrity verification; reversible watermarking scheme; tamper detection; Authentication; Digital images; Digital signatures; Multimedia communication; Robustness; Watermarking; Alpha Channel; Authentication; Image security; Quick Response Codes; Watermarking (ID#: 15-8927)



Misun Ahn; Seunghyun Hong; Sungwon Lee, "A Research on the QR Code Recognition Improvement Using the Cloud-Based Pre-Generated Image Matching Scheme," in Information Networking (ICOIN), 2015 International Conference on, pp. 356-357, 12-14 Jan. 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICOIN.2015.7057912

Abstract: This paper describes a method to recognize a Quick Response Code (QR) a novel. The QR Code is a two-dimensional code, which is currently used in various fields. According to the salient growth smartphone market, the recognition distance of QR Code is increased but the recognition angle is still limited. To tackle the issue, we propose a QR Code recognition method using `cloud-based pre-generated image matching'. Our experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: QR codes; cloud computing; image coding; image matching; smart phones; QR code recognition method; cloud-based pregenerated image matching scheme; quick response code; smartphone market; two-dimensional code; Cameras; Image matching; Image recognition; Mobile handsets; Servers; Shape; Cloud Computing; QR Code; Recognition (ID#: 15-8928)



Bajpai, M.K., "Researching through QR Codes in Libraries," in Emerging Trends and Technologies in Libraries and Information Services (ETTLIS), 2015 4th International Symposium on, pp. 291-294, 6-8 Jan. 2015. doi: 10.1109/ETTLIS.2015.7048214

Abstract: The reach of information is now much easier and effective in the age of information technology. Electronic documents and resources have changed the entire paradigm of education and research. Students, teachers, professionals, academicians and researchers may get their information on their desktop/laptop/Smartphone through electronic platform. The availability of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and their use has also produced some challenges amongst the library professionals to make optimum use of information resources available. It has been observed that in spite of awareness programs, several e-resources are being underutilized or less used. There are several tools which may be used to raise the usage of e-resources to the maximum. One of them is QR Code technology. Quick Response codes are basically made for product promotion more likely as Bar-codes. In this paper a working model is presented which can be used in the Libraries to maximize the usage of e-books and other products and services of the Library.

Keywords: QR codes; academic libraries; digital libraries; electronic publishing; information resources; library automation; ICT; QR code technology; academic libraries; bar-codes; desktop; e-books; e-resources; electronic documents; electronic platform; electronic resources; information and communication technology; information resources; laptop; library products; library professionals; library services; product promotion; quick response codes; smartphone; Educational institutions; Electronic publishing; Internet; Libraries; Market research; Software; Academic Libraries; QR Codes; Quick Response Code; Smartphone; e-books (ID#: 15-8929)



Md Numan-Al-Mobin, A.; Cross, W.M.; Kellar, J.J.; Anagnostou, D.E., "RFID Integrated QR Code Tag Antenna," in Microwave Symposium (IMS), 2015 IEEE MTT-S International, pp. 1-3, 17-22 May 2015. doi: 10.1109/MWSYM.2015.7167044

Abstract: This paper presents an entirely new RFID tag antenna design that incorporates the QR (Quick Response) code for security purposes. The tag antenna is designed to work at 2.45 GHz frequency. The RFID integrated QR code tag antenna is printed with an additive material deposition system that enables to produce a low cost tag antenna with extended security.

Keywords: QR codes; UHF antennas; microstrip antennas; radiofrequency identification; telecommunication security; QR code tag antenna; RFID tag antenna design; frequency 2.45 GHz; quick response code; Antenna measurements; Antennas; Data communication; Electronic mail; Resonant frequency; ISM frequency band; QR code; RFID; antenna; bar code antenna; security applications; supply-chain management; tag (ID#: 15-8930)



Khandal, D.; Somwanshi, D., "A Novel Cost Effective Access Control and Auto Filling Form System Using QR Code," in Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI), 2015 International Conference on, pp. 1-5, 10-13 Aug. 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICACCI.2015.7275575

Abstract: QR codes are used to store information in two dimensional grids which can be decoded quickly. The proposed work here deals with Quick response (QR) code extending its encoding and decoding implementation to design a new articulated user authentication and access control mechanism. The work also proposes a new simultaneous registration system for offices and organizations. The proposed system retrieves the candidate's information from their QR identification code and transfers the data to the digital application form, along with granting authentication to authorized QR image from the database. The system can improve the quality of service and thus it can increase the productivity of any organization.

Keywords: QR codes; authorisation; cryptography; decoding; image coding; information retrieval; information storage; quality of service; QR identification code; articulated user authentication design; authorized QR image; auto filling form system; candidate information retrieval; cost effective access control system; data transfer; decoding implementation; digital application form; encoding implementation; information storage; offices; organizations; quality of service improvement; quick response code; registration system; two-dimensional grid; Decoding; Handwriting recognition; IEC; ISO; Image recognition; Magnetic resonance imaging; Monitoring; Authentication; Automated filling form; Code Reader; Embedded system; Encoding-Decoding; Proteus; QR codes; Security (ID#: 15-8931)



Zhu Siyang, "Deformed Two-Dimension Code Quick Recognition Algorithm Design and Implementation in Uncertain Environment," in Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation (ICMTMA), 2015 Seventh International Conference on, pp.322-325, 13-14 June 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICMTMA.2015.83

Abstract: This paper proposes a recognition algorithm for solving the puzzle of Quickly Response (QR) identification at highly deviated shooting angle. This algorithm includes five procedures, i.e. Binarization processing, edge detection, Hough transformation, morphological processing and projective geometry transformation, and it has been simulated and verified by java language environment and android mobile terminal environment, and some operation had been implemented, such as write and find information by scanning or reading two-dimension code.

Keywords: Hough transforms; Java; QR codes; edge detection; geometry; mobile computing; smart phones; Android mobile terminal environment; Hough transformation; Java language environment; QR code identification; Quick Response code recognition algorithm; binarization processing; edge detection; morphological processing; projective geometry transformation; Accuracy; Algorithm design and analysis; Encoding; Error correction codes; Image edge detection; Image segmentation; Deformed; Recognition algorithm; Two-dimension code (ID#: 15-8932)



Yang Tian; Kaigui Bian; Guobin Shen; Xiaochen Liu; Xiaoguang Li; Moscibroda, T., "Contextual-Code: Simplifying Information Pulling from Targeted Sources in Physical World," in Computer Communications (INFOCOM), 2015 IEEE Conference on, pp. 2245-2253, April 26 2015-May 1 2015. doi: 10.1109/INFOCOM.2015.7218611

Abstract: The popularity of QR code clearly indicates the strong demand of users to acquire (or pull) further information from interested sources (e.g., a poster) in the physical world. However, existing information pulling practices such as a mobile search or QR code scanning incur heavy user involvement to identify the targeted posters. Meanwhile, businesses (e.g., advertisers) are also interested to learn about the behaviors of potential customers such as where, when, and how users show interests in their offerings. Unfortunately, little such context information are provided by existing information pulling systems. In this paper, we present Contextual-Code (C-Code) - an information pulling system that greatly relieves users' efforts in pulling information from targeted posters, and in the meantime provides rich context information of user behavior to businesses. C-Code leverages the rich contextual information captured by the smartphone sensors to automatically disambiguate information sources in different contexts. It assigns simple codes (e.g., a character) to sources whose contexts are not discriminating enough. To pull the information from an interested source, users only need to input the simple code shown on the targeted source. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of C-Code design. Users can effectively and uniquely identify targeted information sources with an average accuracy over 90%.

Keywords: binary codes; smart phones; ubiquitous computing; QR code; contextual code; information pulling; interested source; physical world; quick-response code; rich context information; smartphone sensors; targeted information sources; targeted sources; user behavior; Business; Context; IEEE 802.11 Standard; Interference; Magnetic separation; Sensor phenomena and characterization (ID#: 15-8933)



Tzu-Han Chou; Chuan-Sheng Ho; Yan-Fu Kuo, "QR Code Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks," in Advanced Robotics and Intelligent Systems (ARIS), 2015 International Conference on, pp. 1-5, 29-31 May 2015. doi: 10.1109/ARIS.2015.7158354

Abstract: Barcodes have been long used for data storage. Detecting and locating barcodes in images of complex background is an essential yet challenging step in the process of automatic barcode reading. This work proposed an algorithm that localizes and segments two-dimensional quick response (QR) barcodes. The localization involved a convolutional neural network that could detect partial QR barcodes. Majority voting was then applied to determine barcode locations. Then image processing algorithms were implemented to segment barcodes from the background. Experimental results show that the proposed approach was robust to detect QR barcodes with rotation and deformation.

Keywords: QR codes; image segmentation; object recognition; automatic barcode reading; barcode detection; barcode location; complex background images; convolutional neural networks; data storage; image processing algorithms; partial QR barcode detection; two-dimensional quick response barcode segmentation; Convolution; Face recognition; Feature extraction; Image recognition; Image segmentation; Neurons; Training (ID#: 15-8934)



Leal, J.; Couto, R.; Costa, P.M.; Galvão, T., "Exploring Ticketing Approaches Using Mobile Technologies: QR Codes, NFC and BLE," in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on, pp. 7-12, 15-18 Sept. 2015. doi: 10.1109/ITSC.2015.9

Abstract: There is a growing interest in integrating public transportation with the smartphone and mobile ticketing provides just that. To do so, different technologies can be used, such as Near Field Communication, Quick Response Codes and Bluetooth Low Energy. This paper explores the possibility of implementing a mobile ticketing solution, with focus on the ticket validation process, using these technologies. They are analyzed and compared at different levels and two possible approaches proposed. Both solutions are presented in terms of infrastructure and maintenance cost, as well as passenger interaction and benefit. The feasibility and performance of the technologies is analyzed and presented in the context of the proposed approaches. As a result, a mobile ticketing solution can be implemented using different technologies, and their choice depends on factors such as the available funds, the intended interaction level, performance and the size of the target audience.

Keywords: codes; mobile communication; near-field communication; smart phones; BLE; NFC; QR codes; exploring ticketing approaches; integrating public transportation; maintenance cost; mobile technologies; mobile ticketing; passenger interaction; smartphone; target audience; ticket validation process; Bluetooth; Context; Lighting; Mobile communication; Performance evaluation; Vehicles; ble; bluetooth; mobile ticketing solution; nfc; public transport; qr codes (ID#: 15-8935)



John, R.A.; Raahemifar, K., "Designing a 2D Color Barcode," in Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE), 2015 IEEE 28th Canadian Conference on, pp. 297-301, 3-6 May 2015.  doi: 10.1109/CCECE.2015.7129203

Abstract: The barcode technology has undergone many dramatic changes during the past few years. This is due to the increased need for encoding more data into the barcode. One of the latest developments in the barcode technology is color barcode, developed by Microsoft's High Capacity Color Barcode (HCCB). With four or eight colors, color barcodes are now used extensively in certain areas such as airports, print advertising and mobile phones compared to the 2D black and white barcodes such as Quick Response (QR) code and data matrix. This paper provides an overview of six papers related to color barcode and later introduces an algorithm developed to encode data using binarization and grouping of bits to form a color barcode and also to decode data from color barcode.

Keywords: bar codes; decoding; image colour analysis; 2D color barcode technology; HCCB; Microsoft high capacity color barcode; airports; bit binarization; bit grouping; data decoding; mobile phones; print advertising; Color; Computers; Decoding; Encoding; Image color analysis; Mobile communication; Mobile handsets (ID#: 15-8936)



Tretinjak, M.F., "The Implementation of QR Codes in the Educational Process," in Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO), 2015 38th International Convention on, pp. 833-835, 25-29 May 2015. doi: 10.1109/MIPRO.2015.7160387

Abstract: Quick Response (QR) codes are two-dimensional (2-D) barcodes that can contain information such as URL links (e.g. a link to YouTube video, website link) and text (e.g. contact details, product details). These square pattern codes consist of black modules on a white background. QR code generator is software that stores data (e.g. URL link, text, Google maps location) into a QR code. This encoded data can be decoded by scanning the QR code symbol with a mobile device that is equipped with a camera and a QR code reader software. QR codes have a number of purposes; they are mostly used in manufacturing (e.g. product traceability, process control, inventory and equipment management), warehousing and logistics (e.g. item tracking), retailing (e.g. sales management), healthcare (e.g. medical records management, patient identification, equipment and device tracking), transportation (e.g. ticketing and boarding passes), office automation (e.g. document management), marketing and advertising (e.g. mobile marketing, electronic tickets, coupons, payments). This paper will describe various methods for the implementation of QR codes in the educational process. Experience from the School of Electrical Engineering in Zagreb shows that QR codes supports both independent and collaborative learning and can create an interactive learning environment.

Keywords: QR codes; computer aided instruction; electrical engineering computing; electrical engineering education; image sensors; interactive systems; mobile handsets; QR code generator; QR code reader software; QR code symbol; URL links; Zagreb; advertising; black modules; camera; collaborative learning; educational process; electrical engineering school; healthcare; independent learning; interactive learning environment; logistics; marketing; mobile device; office automation; quick response codes; retailing; square pattern codes; transportation; two-dimensional barcodes; warehousing; white background; Cameras; Electrical engineering; Generators; Google; Mobile handsets; Software; Uniform resource locators (ID#: 15-8937)



Nikou, S.A.; Economides, A.A., "The Effects of Perceived Mobility and Satisfaction on the Adoption of Mobile-Based Assessment," in Interactive Mobile Communication Technologies and Learning (IMCL), 2015 International Conference on, pp. 167-171, 19-20 Nov. 2015. doi: 10.1109/IMCTL.2015.7359579

Abstract: Mobile-based Assessment is increasingly used in different educational settings. Its successful implementation though depends on user acceptance. While previous research provides evidence on acceptance of mobile learning and computer-based assessment, there are not many studies focusing explicitly on the acceptance of Mobile-based Assessment. This study examines the impact of Perceived Mobility, Satisfaction, Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use on students' Behavioral Intention to Use Mobile-based Assessment. 47 secondary school students, using their mobile devices and Quick Response (QR) - coding technology, participated in an outdoor Mobile-based Assessment procedure during their visit in a Botanic Garden. Partial Least Squares (PLS) was used for the data analysis of the recorded students' perceptions about the Mobile-based Assessment. Results show that Perceived Mobility, Satisfaction, Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use are all significant determinants of Behavioral Intention to Use mobile-based assessment. Several important implications for designing and implementing mobile-based assessment procedures are discussed.

Keywords: behavioural sciences computing; least squares approximations; mobile learning; PLS; behavioral intention; computer-based assessment; educational settings; mobile learning; mobile-based assessment; partial least squares; perceived ease of use; perceived mobility; perceived usefulness; quick response coding technology; user acceptance; Data analysis; Education; Focusing; Instruments; Mobile communication; Mobile handsets; QR codes; mobile learning; mobile-based assessment; motivation; outdoor education; perceived mobility; technology acceptance model (ID#: 15-8938)



Gao, Lei; Liu, Yu; Yuan, Yubo; Wang, Xiaokun, "Design and Implementation of Optical Cable Label System for Smart Substation Based on QR Code," in TENCON 2015 - 2015 IEEE Region 10 Conference, pp. 1-5, 1-4 Nov. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2015.7372848

Abstract: The conventional optical cable labels in smart substations contain too little information to support operation or maintenance. To solve this problem, this paper introduced a QR (Quick Response) code system for labeling and identification of optical cable labels in China's smart substations. The label format is specified for three kinds of cables, and the implementation methods of generation module and identification module are also stated. The generation module can provide design drawings of secondary system, QR code labels and database for handheld terminals. The identification module can quickly identify the optical cable by scanning the QR code and show its physical connection and virtual circuit to users. In that way, scan-and-read for signal circuits is achieved, which improves the efficiency of commissioning, operation and maintenance work in smart substations.

Keywords: Databases; Optical design; Optical fiber cables; Optical fibers; Substations; Wiring; QR code; database; optical cable label; smart substation (ID#: 15-8939)



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