Visible to the public Composability 2015Conflict Detection Enabled

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Composability is one of the five hard problems for the Science of Security. The work cited here was presented in 2015.

Gabriel Fernandez et al.“Seeking Time-Composable Partitions of Tasks for COTS Multicore Processors,” Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC), 2015 IEEE 18th International Symposium on, Auckland, 2015, vol., no., pp. 208–217. doi:10.1109/ISORC.2015.43
Abstract: The timing verification of real-time single core systems involves a timing analysis step that yields an Execution Time Bound (ETB) for each task, followed by a schedulability analysis step, where the scheduling attributes of the individual tasks, including the ETB, are studied from the system level perspective. The transition between those two steps involves accounting for the interference effects that arise when tasks contend for access to shared resource. The advent of multicore processors challenges the viability of this two-step approach because several complex contention effects at the processor level arise that cause tasks to be unable to make progress while actually holding the CPU, which are very difficult to tightly capture by simply inflating the tasks’ ETB. In this paper we show how contention on access to hardware shared resources creates a circular dependence between the determination of tasks’ ETB and their scheduling at runtime. To help loosen this knot we present an approach that acknowledges different flavors of time composability, examining in detail the variant intended for partitioned scheduling, which we evaluate on two real processor boards used in the space domain.
Keywords: formal verification; multiprocessing systems; COTS multicore processors; ETB; circular dependence; execution time bound; hardware shared resources; interference effects; real processor boards; real-time single core systems; schedulability analysis step; seeking time composable partitions; space domain; timing analysis; timing verification; Hardware; Multicore processing; Processor scheduling; Program processors; Resource management; Scheduling; Timing; COTS Multicores; Task Allocation in Multicores; Time Composability (ID#: 16-9527)


J. Waters; J. Pilcher; B. Plutchak; E. Voncolln; D. Grady; R. Patel, “Describing and Reusing Warfighter Processes and Products: An Agile Training Framework,” Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSIMA), 2015 IEEE International Multi-Disciplinary Conference on, Orlando, FL, 2015, vol., no., pp. 140–144. doi:10.1109/COGSIMA.2015.7108189
Abstract: This position paper describes a framework, i.e. a set of design and architecture recommendations, for achieving agile training. The approach for the design is to be process and data driven, focused on reusability, and borrowing basic principles derived from web-based architectures, semantic processing, user-centered design, composability, complexity management, machine-understandability, scalability, gaming and open linked data. The fundamental features of the framework are open, easily understood, easily implemented, and tool-agnostic. With such a framework defined, the training community could collaborate to build out the more extensive cloud content, extend the capability and ensure that the benefits of agile training are achieved, namely more focused and faster training on shared processes anytime, anywhere at reduced cost and without a large support staff.
Keywords: computer based training; military computing; Web-based architectures; agile training framework; cloud content; complexity management; composability; gaming; machine-understandability; open linked data; scalability; semantic processing; user-centered design; warfighter process; warfighter products; Communities; Conferences; Process control; Scalability; Standards; Training; Uniform resource locators; Agile; Decision making; Training; applications; command and control; resource allocation and management; standards; web services (ID#: 16-9528)


Yonglin Lei; Ning Zhu; Jian Yao; Zhi Zhu; H.S. Sarjoughian, “Model-Architecture Oriented Combat System Effectiveness Simulation,” Winter Simulation Conference (WSC), 2015, Huntington Beach, CA, USA, 2015, vol., no., pp. 3190–3191. doi:10.1109/WSC.2015.7408464
Abstract: Combat system effectiveness simulation (CESS) is a special type of complex system simulation. Three non-functional requirements (NFRs), i.e. model composability, domain-specific modeling, and model evolvability are gaining higher priority from CESS users when evaluating different modeling methodologies for CESS. Traditional CESS modeling methodologies are either domain-neutral (lack of domain characteristics consideration and limited support for model composability) or domain-oriented (lack of openness and evolvability) and fall short of the three NFRs. Inspired by the concept of architecture in systems engineering and software engineering fields, we extend it into a concept of model architecture for complex simulation systems, and propose a model-architecture oriented modeling methodology in which model architecture plays a central role in achieving the three NFRs. Various model-driven engineering (MDE) approaches and technologies, including SMP, UML, DSM, and so forth, are applied where possible in representing the CESS model architecture and its components’ behaviors from physical and cognitive domain aspects.
Keywords: Architecture; Complex systems; Computer architecture; Modeling; Software engineering; Standards; Unified modeling language (ID#: 16-9529)


J. Voas, “Keynote Speech: Foundations of the Internet of Things, by Jeffrey Voas,” Trustworthy Systems and Their Applications (TSA), 2015 Second International Conference on, Hualien, 2015, vol., no., pp. xiii–xiii. doi:10.1109/TSA.2015.11
Abstract: Eight core primitives belonging to most distributed computing systems, and in particular, systems with large amounts of data, scalability concerns, heterogeneity concerns, temporal concerns, actors of unknown pedigree and possible nefarious intent, is presented. Primitives allow formalisms, reasoning, simulations, and reliability and security risk-tradeoffs to be formulated and argued. These eight primitives are basic building blocks for a Network of ‘Things’ (NoT), including the Internet of Things (IoT), an emerging ‘new’ distributed computing paradigm. They are: sensor, snapshot (time), cluster, aggregator, weight, communication channel, eUtility, and decision A composability model and vocabulary that defines principles common to most, if not all NoTs, is needed. For example, “what is the science, if any, underlying the IoT”? Primitives offer answers by allowing comparisons between one NoT architecture to another. They offer a unifying vocabulary that allows for composition and information exchange among differently purposed networks. And they prove useful towards more subtle concerns, including interoperability, composability, and late-binding of assets that come and go on-the-fly, all of which are large concerns for IoT.
Keywords: Internet of Things; inference mechanisms; security of data; Network of Things; communication channel; distributed computing paradigm; distributed computing systems; e Utility; eight core primitives; information exchange; reasoning; security risk-tradeoffs; simulations (ID#: 16-9530)


J.C.S. dos Anjos et al., “SMART: An Application Framework for Real Time Big Data Analysis on Heterogeneous Cloud Environments,” Computer and Information Technology; Ubiquitous Computing and Communications; Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing; Pervasive Intelligence and Computing (CIT/IUCC/DASC/PICOM), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, Liverpool, 2015, vol., no., pp. 199–206. doi:10.1109/CIT/IUCC/DASC/PICOM.2015.29
Abstract: The amount of data that human activities generate poses a challenge to current computer systems. Big data processing techniques are evolving to address this challenge, with analysis increasingly being performed using cloud-based systems. Emerging services, however, require additional enhancements in order to ensure their applicability to highly dynamic and heterogeneous environments and facilitate their use by Small & Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). Observing this landscape in emerging computing system development, this work presents Small & Medium-sized Enterprise Data Analytic in Real Time (SMART) for addressing some of the issues in providing compute service solutions for SMEs. SMART offers a framework for efficient development of Big Data analysis services suitable to small and medium-sized organizations, considering very heterogeneous data sources, from wireless sensor networks to data warehouses, focusing on service composability for a number of domains. This paper presents the basis of this proposal and preliminary results on exploring application deployment on hybrid infrastructure.
Keywords: Big Data; cloud computing; data analysis; data warehouses; small-to-medium enterprises; wireless sensor networks; SMART; SME; cloud-based system; computing system development; data warehouse; heterogeneous cloud environment; real time Big data analysis; small-and-medium-sized enterprise data analytic-in-real time; small-and-medium-sized organization; wireless sensor network; Big data; Cloud computing; Data models; Monitoring; Performance evaluation; Quality of service; Real-time systems; Cloud Computing; Data Analytics; Hybrid Clouds; SMEs (ID#: 16-9531)


R. Udechukwu; R. Duttay, “Service Definition Semantics for Optical Services on a Choice-Based Network,” Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2015 International Conference on, Pisa, 2015, vol., no., pp. 98–103. doi:10.1109/ONDM.2015.7127281
Abstract: Optical networks continue to provide the high-performance, high-bandwidth substrate of the planetary communication networks. The rapidly increasing and changing variety of demands placed on such networks requires that optical networks be increasingly agile and responsive to end-consumer traffic needs. Because of multiple levels of aggregation, the optical core is generally less responsive to changing needs at access levels. We have previously proposed that providing architectural mechanisms that allow the provider to inform the customer of available alternatives enables a co-optimization of network resources jointly by customers and providers, leading to better performance for the customer while utilizing resources more efficiently for the provider. In this paper, we show how optical switching capabilities may be abstracted as services to enable the automatic composability that is required for such a system. We have successfully demonstrated a proof-of-concept prototype of this architecture in the GENI environment, which we briefly describe.
Keywords: optical fibre networks; optical switches; telecommunication traffic; GENI environment; architectural mechanisms; choice-based network; end-consumer traffic; network resources cooptimization; optical networks; optical services; optical switching capabilities; planetary communication networks; service definition semantics; Adaptive optics; Optical buffering; Optical design; Optical network units; Optical packet switching; Optical switches (ID#: 16-9532)


A. Benin; S. Toledo; E. Tromer, “Secure Association for the Internet of Things,” Secure Internet of Things (SIoT), 2015 International Workshop on, Vienna, Austria, 2015, vol., no., pp. 25–34. doi:10.1109/SIOT.2015.14
Abstract: Existing standards (ZigBee and Bluetooth Low Energy) for networked low-power wireless devices do not support secure association (or pairing) of new devices into a network: their association process is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks. This paper addresses three essential aspects in attaining secure association for such devices. First, we define a user-interface primitive, oblivious comparison, that allows users to approve authentic associations and abort compromised ones. This distills and generalizes several existing approve/abort mechanisms, and moreover we experimentally show that OC can be implemented using very little hardware: one LED and one switch. Second, we provide a new Message Recognition Protocol (MRP) that allows devices associated using oblivious comparison to exchange authenticated messages without the use of public key cryptography (which exceeds the capabilities of many IoT devices). This protocol improves upon previously proposed MRPs in several respects. Third, we propose a robust definition of security for MRPs that is based on universal composability, and show that our MRP protocol satisfies this definition.
Keywords: Bluetooth; Cameras; Light emitting diodes; Materials requirements planning; Protocols; Standards; Zigbee
(ID#: 16-9533)


Gabriel Fernandez et al.“Resource Usage Templates and Signatures for COTS Multicore Processors,” Design Automation Conference (DAC), 2015 52nd ACM/EDAC/IEEE, San Francisco, CA, 2015, vol., no., pp. 1-6. doi:10.1145/2744769.2744858
Abstract: Upper bounding the execution time of tasks running on multi-core processors is a hard challenge. This is especially so with commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware that conceals its internal operation. The main difficulty stems from the contention effects on access to hardware shared resources (e.g, buses) which cause task’s timing behavior to depend on the load that co-runner tasks place on them. This dependence reduces time composability and constrains incremental verification. In this paper we introduce the concepts of resource-usage signatures and templates, to abstract the potential contention caused and incurred by tasks running on a multicore. We propose an approach that employs resource-usage signatures and templates to enable the analysis of individual tasks largely in isolation, with low integration costs, producing execution time estimates per task that are easily composable throughout the whole system integration process. We evaluate the proposal on a 4-core NGMP-like multicore architecture.
Keywords: multiprocessing systems; 4-core NGMP-like multicore architecture; COTS multicore processors; commercial-off-the-shelf hardware; hardware shared resources; low integration cost; resource usage templates; resource-usage signatures; task timing behavior; upper bounding; Delays; Industries; Kernel; Multicore processing; Real-time systems; System-on-chip (ID#: 16-9534)


C. Huebner; A. Fedorov; C. Huth; C. Diedrich, “Extensible Distribution Grid Automation Using IEC 61131 in Simulation and Operation,” International ETG Congress 2015; Die Energiewende - Blueprints for the new energy age; Proceedings of, Bonn, Germany, 2015, vol., no., pp. 1–7. doi: not provided
Abstract: The implementation of active distribution grids as a precondition for the smart energy system requires a decentralized automation approach that is based on proven technologies and standards allowing for flexible extensibility of power grid automation functions. In a decentralized automation approach the secondary substations play a major role and need to be equipped with reliable measurement and control technology. This suggests the use of programmable logic controller (PLC) technology as described by the IEC 61131 standard. Existing secondary substations can be upgraded by such PLC-based systems to provide not just monitoring and remote control but also advanced smart grid functions. The key challenge of future-prove distribution grid automation is the extensibility of these functions in order to satisfy new requirements. Functional extensibility demands modularization and composability which is provided by IEC 61131-3 standard in form of function blocks. The development, evaluation and application of advanced power grid monitoring and control functions requires tools for integrated simulation of function blocks and the power grid model. Such a tool is developed in the research project MD-E4 based on the SIMBA# simulation platform. It is applied for design and evaluation of IEC 61131 based power flow, state estimation and control functions, which are also evaluated in practice by running on physical PLCs that are installed in secondary substations in the distribution grid of Magdeburg.
Keywords: not provided (ID#: 16-9535)


T. Hatanaka; N. Chopra; M.W. Spong, “Passivity-Based Control of Robots: Historical Perspective and Contemporary Issues,” Decision and Control (CDC), 2015 54th IEEE Conference on, Osaka, Japan, 2015, vol., no., pp. 2450–2452. doi:10.1109/CDC.2015.7402575
Abstract: Passivity is one of the most physically appealing concepts in systems and control theory. The stored internal energy in a passive system is bounded from above by the externally supplied energy. It is well known that this energy dissipation property has important implications for closed-loop stability. Additionally, the passivity property is preserved with respect to feedback and parallel interconnections of passive systems. This composability property of passive systems is crucial in designing and analyzing highly networked systems. Due to these desirable features, the passivity paradigm has been widely utilized to achieve outstanding success in robot control, which is the main focus of the session. The tutorial session starts with a historical perspective on passivity-based robot control and its broad applicability to several important problems in robotics. Despite the long history, passivity-based robot control is being actively utilized in addressing emerging problems in robot control. Hence, the remainder of the session presents application of passivity-based robot control to address important research issues in bilateral teleoperation, visual feedback estimation and robot control, cooperative robot control, and mixed human-robot teams.
Keywords: Manipulators; Robot control; Robot kinematics; Synchronization; Tutorials; Visualization (ID#: 16-9536)


J. Valencia; D. Goswami; K. Goossens, “Composable Platform-Aware Embedded Control Systems on a Multi-Core Architecture,” Digital System Design (DSD), 2015 Euromicro Conference on, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, 2015, vol., no.,
pp. 502–509. doi:10.1109/DSD.2015.74
Abstract: In this work, we propose a design flow for efficient implementation of embedded feedback control systems targeted for multi-core platforms. We consider a composable tile-based architecture as an implementation platform and realise the proposed design flow onto one instance of this architecture. The proposed design flow implements the feedback loops in a data-driven fashion leading to time-varying sampling periods with short average sampling period. Our design flow is composed of two phases: (i) representing the timing behaviour imposed by the platform by a finite and known set of sampling periods, which is achieved exploiting the composability of the platform, and (ii) a linear matrix inequality (LMI) based platform-aware control algorithm that explicitly takes the derived platform timing characteristics and the shorter average sampling period into account. Our results show that the platform-aware implementation outperforms traditional control design flows (i.e., almost 2 times) in terms of quality of control (QoC).
Keywords: control engineering computing; control system synthesis; embedded systems; feedback; linear matrix inequalities; multiprocessing systems; time-varying systems; LMI based platform-aware control algorithm; composable platform-aware embedded control systems; composable tile-based architecture; control design flows; embedded feedback control systems; linear matrix inequality; multicore architecture; quality of control; short average sampling period; time-varying sampling periods; Clocks; Context; Control systems; Feedback control; Resource management; Time division multiplexing; Timing; composable; embedded control systems; lmi-based control; multi-core architecture; predictable; quality of control (ID#: 16-9537)


M. Nikitchenko, “Intensionality, Compositionality, and Nominativity in Information System Development,” Intelligent Computing and Information Systems (ICICIS), 2015 IEEE Seventh International Conference on, Cairo, 2015, vol., no., pp. 1–2. doi:10.1109/IntelCIS.2015.7397186
Abstract: Summary form only given. Process of information system development consists of several phases including, in particular, system analysis, specification, design, and implementation. Each of these phases is based on some abstractions that can be roughly divided into two groups of general and specific abstractions respectively. In this talk we address to such general abstractions as intensionality, compositionality, and nominativity. Intensionality is understood in the traditional sense as a counterpart to extensionality that together complete each other and define the main aspects of notions in their integrity. Compositionality means that a system is constructed of smaller subsystems with the help of special construction operations called compositions. Nominativity emphasizes the importance of naming relations for system aspects description. We analyze and illustrate the use of the above mentioned abstractions in different phases of system development. Considering conventional mathematical formalisms we admit that they are based on the extensionality principle that restricts and complicates usage of such formalisms in system development. Therefore we construct formal mathematical structures based on the principles of intensionality, compositionality, and nominativity. These structures can be considered generalizations of traditional notions of algebras and logics for classes of “dynamic” data and functions. Introduction of such formalisms permits us to define also a special kind of intensionalized computability that better reflects specifics of executable components of information systems. We compare the constructed formalisms with the existing ones and demonstrate that they a rather expressive and more adequate for information system development.
Keywords: abstracting; information systems; abstractions; compositionality; compositions; construction operations; design phase; dynamic data; dynamic functions; formal mathematical structures; implementation phase; information system development process; intensionality; intensionalized computability; nominativity; specification phase; system analysis phase; system aspect description; Biographies (ID#: 16-9538)


J.D. Haynes; D. Wisniewski; K. Görgen; I. Momennejad; C. Reverberi, “FMRI Decoding of Intentions: Compositionality, Hierarchy and Prospective Memory,” Brain-Computer Interface (BCI), 2015 3rd International Winter Conference on, Sabuk, South Korea, 2015, vol., no., pp. 1–3. doi:10.1109/IWW-BCI.2015.7073031
Abstract: In recent years multivariate decoding has allowed to test where and how mental representations can be decoded from neuroimaging signals, which sheds light on how these representations are encoded in the brain. In one line of experiments, we investigated how intentions are encoded in fMRI signals, thus revealing information in medial and lateral prefrontal regions. These informative neural representations were even present prior to the person’s awareness of their chosen intention. In comparison, for cued intentions we found information predominantly in lateral, but not medial prefrontal cortex. Intention coding in prefrontal cortex followed a compositional code and could also be observed across extended delays during which participants were busy performing other tasks. Taken together, our results suggest a systematic, compositional and hierarchical code in prefrontal cortex which intentions are encoded across delays while the mind is busy working on other tasks.
Keywords: biomedical MRI; brain; image coding; medical image processing; neurophysiology; FMRI decoding-of-intentions; brain encoding; compositional code; compositionality memory; extended delays; fMRI signal encoding; hierarchy memory; informative neural representations; intention coding; lateral prefrontal regions; medial prefrontal regions; multivariate decoding; neuroimaging signals; person awareness; prefrontal cortex; prospective memory; Decision support systems; Decoding; Libet-experiment; fMRI; intention; task set (ID#: 16-9539)


N. Mavridis; S.B. Kundig; N. Kapellas, “Acquisition of Grounded Models of Adjectival Modifiers Supporting Semantic Composition and Transfer to a Physical Interactive Robot,” Advanced Robotics (ICAR), 2015 International Conference on, Istanbul, 2015, vol., no., pp. 244–251. doi:10.1109/ICAR.2015.7251463
Abstract: Compositionality is a property of natural language which is of prime importance: It enables humans to form and conceptualize potentially novel and complex ideas, by combining words. On the other hand, the symbol grounding problem examines the way meaning is anchored to entities external to language, such as sensory percepts and sensory-motor routines. In this paper we aim towards the exploration of the intersection of compositionality and symbol grounding. We thus propose a methodology for constructing empirically derived models of grounded meaning, which afford composition of grounded semantics. We illustrate our methodology for the case of adjectival modifiers. Grounded models of adjectively modified and unmodified colors are acquired through a specially designed procedure with 134 participants, and then computational models of the modifiers “dark” and “light” are derived. The generalization ability of these learnt models is quantitatively evaluated, and their usage is demonstrated in a real-world physical humanoid robot. We regard this as an important step towards extending empirical approaches for symbol grounding so that they can accommodate compositionality: a necessary step towards the deep understanding of natural language for situated embodied agents, such as sensor-enabled ambient intelligence and interactive robots.
Keywords: ambient intelligence; human-robot interaction; humanoid robots; natural language processing; adjectival modifiers; compositionality; grounded model acquisition; learnt models; natural language; physical interactive robot; real-world physical humanoid robot; semantic composition; sensor-enabled ambient intelligence; sensory percepts; sensory-motor routines; situated embodied agents; symbol grounding problem; Color; Computational modeling; Grounding; Image color analysis; Robot sensing systems; Semantics; adjectival modifiers; interactive robots; symbol grounding (ID#: 16-9540)


A. McIver; C. Morgan; T. Rabehaja, “Abstract Hidden Markov Models: A Monadic Account of Quantitative Information Flow,” Logic in Computer Science (LICS), Proceedings of the 2015 30th Annual ACM/IEEE Symposium on, Kyoto, 2015, vol., no.,
pp. 597–608. doi:10.1109/LICS.2015.61
Abstract: Hidden Markov Models, HMM’s, are mathematical models of Markov processes whose state is hidden but from which information can leak via channels. They are typically represented as 3-way joint probability distributions. We use HMM’s as denotations of probabilistic hidden-state sequential programs, after recasting them as “abstract” HMM’s, i.e. computations in the Giry monad D, and equipping them with a partial order of increasing security. However to encode the monadic type with hiding over state X we use DX→D2X rather than the conventional X→DX. We illustrate this construction with a very small Haskell prototype. We then present uncertainty measures as a generalisation of the extant diversity of probabilistic entropies, and we propose characteristic analytic properties for them. Based on that, we give a “backwards”, uncertainty-transformer semantics for HMM’s, dual to the “forwards” abstract HMM’s. Finally, we discuss the Dalenius desideratum for statistical databases as an issue in semantic compositionality, and propose a means for taking it into account.
Keywords: entropy; functional languages; functional programming; hidden Markov models; programming language semantics; statistical databases; statistical distributions; 3-way joint probability distribution; Dalenius desideratum; Giry monad; Haskell prototype; Markov process; abstract HMM; abstract hidden Markov models; mathematical model; monadic account; monadic type encoding; probabilistic entropy; probabilistic hidden-state sequential program; quantitative information flow; semantic compositionality; statistical database; uncertainty measure; uncertainty-transformer semantics; Hidden Markov models; Joints; Markov processes; Measurement uncertainty; Probabilistic logic; Semantics; Uncertainty; Abstract hidden Markov models; Giry Monad; Quantitative information flow (ID#: 16-9541)


S. Gujrati; H. Zhu; G. Singh, “Composable Algorithms for Interdependent Cyber Physical Systems,” Resilience Week (RWS), 2015, Philadelphia, PA, 2015, vol., no., pp. 1–6. doi:10.1109/RWEEK.2015.7287431
Abstract: Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) applications are being increasingly used to provide services in domains such as health-care, transportation, and energy. Providing such services may require interactions between applications, some of which may be unpredictable. Understanding and mitigating such interactions require that CPSs be designed as open and composable systems. Composition has been studied extensively in the literature. To complement this work, this paper studies composition of cyber algorithms with user behaviors in a CPS. Traditional middleware algorithms have been designed by abstracting away the underlying system and providing users with high-level APIs to interact with the physical system. In a CPS, however, users may interact directly with the physical system and may perform actions that are part of the services provided. We find that by accounting for user interactions and including them as part of the solution, one can design algorithms that are more efficient, predictable and resilient. To accomplish this, we propose a framework to model both the physical and the cyber systems. This framework allows specification of both physical algorithms and cyber algorithms. We discuss how such specifications can be composed to design middleware that leverages user actions. We show that such composite solutions preserve invariants of the component algorithms such as those related to functional properties and fault-tolerance. Our future work involves developing a comprehensive framework that uses compositionality is a key feature to address interdependent behavior of CPSs.
Keywords: formal specification; human computer interaction; middleware; object-oriented programming; open systems; software fault tolerance; user centred design; CPS applications; CPS interdependent behavior; component algorithm; composable algorithms; composable systems; cyber algorithm; energy domain; fault-tolerance; functional properties; health-care domain; high-level API; interdependent cyber-physical systems; middleware algorithm design; middleware design; physical system interaction; specification composition; transportation domain; user action; user behavior; user interaction; Algorithm design and analysis; Computational modeling; Middleware; Prediction algorithms; Sensors; Vehicles (ID#: 16-9542)


V. Koutsoumpas, “A Model-Based Approach for the Specification of a Virtual Power Plant Operating in Open Context,” Software Engineering for Smart Cyber-Physical Systems (SEsCPS), 2015 IEEE/ACM 1st International Workshop on, Florence, 2015, vol., no., pp. 26–32. doi:10.1109/SEsCPS.2015.13
Abstract: Nowadays, it’s widely accepted that the paradigm of closed context systems has altered. As software systems in combination with physical systems, termed Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) evolve to more and more complex structures to meet the continuously increasing complexity of requirements, they are faced with a variety of challenges. Those systems have to operate in an open context, meaning that the system boundary between the system and the environment changes over time. Furthermore, the operating system has to adapt its behavior to the observed environmental changes. Hence, there is a high need for the establishment of a seamless modeling framework which fosters the modeling of systems operating in open context. In this paper: 1) we explore how a modeling theory based on fuzzy logic allows for a formal specification of such systems 2) we embed the modeling theory to the SPES development method established within the German research project SPES by showing the compositionality of our approach 3) we illustrate on a show case how the approach can be applied exemplary for modeling the behavior of a Virtual Power Plant (VPP).
Keywords: formal specification; fuzzy logic; operating systems (computers); power engineering computing; power plants; CPSs; SPES German research project; SPES development method; cyber physical systems; model-based approach; modeling theory; operating system; software systems; virtual power plant specification; Context; Context modeling; Fuzzy logic; Syntactics; Uncertainty; Unified modeling language (ID#: 16-9543)


S. Calzavara; A. Rabitti; M. Bugliesi, “Compositional Typed Analysis of ARBAC Policies,” Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF), 2015 IEEE 28th, Verona, 2015, vol., no., pp. 33–45. doi:10.1109/CSF.2015.10
Abstract: Model-checking is a popular approach to the security analysis of ARBAC policies, but its effectiveness is hindered by the exponential explosion of the ways in which different users can be assigned to different role combinations. In this paper we propose a paradigm shift, based on the observation that, while verifying ARBAC by exhaustive state search is complex, realistic policies often have rather simple security proofs, and we propose to use types as an effective tool to leverage this simplicity. Concretely, we present a static type system to verify the security of ARBAC policies, along with a sound and complete type inference algorithm used to automate the verification process. We then introduce compositionality results, which identify sufficient conditions to preserve the security guarantees obtained by the verification of different sub-policies when these sub-policies are combined together: this compositional reasoning is crucial when policy administration is highly distributed and naturally supports the security analysis of evolving ARBAC policies. We evaluate our approach by implementing TAPA, a static analyser for ARBAC policies based on our theory, which we test on a number of relatively large, publicly available policies from the literature.
Keywords: authorisation; formal specification; formal verification; program diagnostics; reasoning about programs; type theory; ARBAC policy; TAPA; compositional reasoning; compositional typed analysis; exponential explosion; model-checking; paradigm shift; policy administration; realistic policy; security analysis; security guarantee; security proof; state search; static analyser; type inference algorithm; verification process; Access control; Algorithm design and analysis; Labeling; Safety; Semantics; Syntactics (ID#: 16-9544)


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