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DNA Cryptography 2015

DNA-based cryptography is a developing interdisciplinary area combining cryptography, mathematical modeling, biochemistry and molecular biology as the basis for encryption. Research includes authentication, steganography, and masking.  This research was presented in 2015.

Sundaram, G.S.; Pavithra, S.; Arthi, A.; Bala, B.M.; Mahalakshmi, S., "Cellular Automata Based DNA Cryptography Algorithm," in Intelligent Systems and Control (ISCO), 2015 IEEE 9th International Conference on, pp. 1-6, 9-10 Jan. 2015. doi: 10.1109/ISCO.2015.7282333

Abstract: DNA cryptography is a new area of research in cryptographic field. In this DNA component is used as the information carrier. Most of the encryption techniques based on the cellular automata have limitations. To overcome this lacuna, we propose a novel DNA cryptography algorithm with cellular automata to achieve randomness, parallelism, uniformity, reversibility and stable. Finally a comparison is made with the research works based on the cryptographic attack parameter.

Keywords: biocomputing; cellular automata; cryptography; DNA component; DNA cryptography algorithm; cellular automata; cryptographic attack parameter; cryptographic field; encryption technique; information carrier; lacuna; research work; Algorithm design and analysis; Automata; Ciphers; Conferences; DNA; Encryption; Cellular automata; DNA; Thymine; Uracil (ID#: 16-8950)



Shweta; Indora, Sanjeev, "Cascaded DNA Cryptography and Steganography," in Green Computing and Internet of Things (ICGCIoT), 2015 International Conference on, pp. 104-107, 8-10 Oct. 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICGCIoT.2015.7380438

Abstract: The redundancy in English words helps the unauthorized entity to guess the cipher text. The DNA sequences do not follow such properties. It means the conversion of message to DNA sequences make it robust against attacks. This paper performs the DNA cryptography and then hides the DNA sequence in to the random frame of a video. The result analysis shows that the frame is imperceptible. The video seems to be same. The enhancement in PSNR value and reduction in MSE shows the effectiveness of the technique.

Keywords: Cryptography; DNA; Indexes; MATLAB; Media; Observers; Robustness; Cryptography; DNA Cryptography; Frame; MSE; PSNR; video (ID#: 16-8951)



Singh, A.; Singh, R., "Information Hiding Techniques Based on DNA Inconsistency: An Overview," in Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 2068-2072, 11-13 March 2015.  Doi:  (not provided)

Abstract: Redundancy of words and characters in English language helps cryptanalysts in guessing the cipher text. DNA sequences do not follow any linguistic properties. Hence, translating any language first to DNA sequences and then applying cryptography technique upon it can prevent the attacks based on frequency analysis.. DNA cryptography is a branch of cryptography derived from DNA computing and based on difficult biological processes. In this paper, various operations that can be used in DNA computation along with DNA based cryptographic techniques have been discussed. Further, how advancement in DNA computation can bring a serious problem to traditional cryptographic system has also been explained. The work is concluded with the challenges to present DNA cryptographic system and future direction in this field.

Keywords: biocomputing; cryptography; data encapsulation; DNA computation; DNA computing; DNA cryptography; DNA inconsistency; DNA sequences; English language; biological processes; character redundancy; cipher text; cryptography technique; frequency analysis; information hiding techniques; word redundancy; DNA; DNA computing; Encoding; Encryption; Entropy; Indexes; Cryptography; DNA coding sequence; DNA cryptography; Hybridization; Indexing; Microdots (ID#: 16-8952)



Gupta, S.; Jain, A., "Efficient Image Encryption Algorithm Using DNA Approach," in Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 726-731, 11-13 March 2015.  Doi:  (not provided)

Abstract: DNA computing is a new computational field which harnesses the immense parallelism, high density information and low power dissipation that brings probable challenges and opportunities to conventional cryptography. In recent years, many image encryption algorithms have been proposed using DNA solicit but many are not secure as such. In this regard, this paper proposes an improved and efficient algorithm to encrypt a grayscale image of any size based on DNA sequence addition operation. The original image is encrypted into two phases. In the first phase, the intermediate cipher is obtained by addition of the DNA sequence matrix and masking matrix. In the second phase, pixel values are scrambled to make it more robust. In this way the original image is encrypted. The results of simulated experiment and security analysis of the proposed image encryption algorithm, evaluated from histogram analysis and key sensitivity analysis, depicts that scheme not only can attain good encryption but can also hinder exhaustive attack and statistical attack. Thus, results are passable.

Keywords: biocomputing; cryptography; image processing; sensitivity analysis; DNA computing; DNA masking matrix; DNA sequence addition operation; DNA sequence matrix; exhaustive attack; grayscale image; histogram analysis; image encryption algorithm; intermediate cipher; key sensitivity analysis; security analysis; statistical attack; Algorithm design and analysis; DNA; Encryption; Histograms; Image coding; Matrix converters; DNA encoding; DNA sequence addition and subtraction; chaotic maps; image encryption (ID#: 16-8953)



Jana, Sunanda; Maji, Arnab Kumar; Pal, Rajat Kumar, "A Novel Sudoku Solving Technique Using Column Based Permutation," in Advanced Computing and Communication (ISACC), 2015 International Symposium on, pp. 71-77, 14-15 Sept. 2015. doi: 10.1109/ISACC.2015.7377318

Abstract: “Sudoku” is the Japanese abbreviation of “Suuji wa dokushin ni kagiru”, which means “the numbers must occur only once”. It is a challenging and interesting puzzle that trains our mind logically. In recent years, solving Sudoku puzzles has become a widespread phenomenon. The problem of solving a given Sudoku puzzle finds numerous applications in the domain of Steganography, Visual Cryptography, DNA Computing, Watermarking, etc. Thus, solving the Sudoku puzzle in efficient manner is very important. However, incidentally all the existing Sudoku solving techniques are primarily either guess based heuristics or computation intensive soft computing methodologies. They also solve the puzzle by traversing on each and every individual cell. In this paper, a novel Sudoku solving technique is proposed which solves Sudoku puzzles without guessing a cell and by generating only the desired permutations among columns, which consist of only groups of cells.

Keywords: Algorithm; backtracking; cell; column; difficulty level; permutation; Sudoku (ID#: 16-8954)



Saranya, M.R.; Mohan, A.K.; Anusudha, K., "Algorithm for Enhanced Image Security using DNA and Genetic Algorithm," in Signal Processing, Informatics, Communication and Energy Systems (SPICES), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, pp.1-5, 19-21 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SPICES.2015.7091462

Abstract: An efficient image encryption algorithm with improved image security has been developed by using chaotic function, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing and genetic algorithm (GA). A chaotic sequence of desired length is generated by using the logistic map function whose initial value is calculated using the secret key. A number of DNA masks are generated and these masks along with the chaotic sequences are used to encrypt the digital image. Finally genetic algorithm is employed to get the best mask for encryption. The proposed method can resist various types of attacks and produce high entropy and very low correlation between pixels.

Keywords: DNA; correlation methods; cryptography; entropy; genetic algorithms; image processing; DNA masks; chaotic sequence; correlation; deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing; digital image; entropy; genetic algorithm; image encryption algorithm; image security enhancement; logistic map function; DNA; Decision support systems; Encoding; Encryption; Entropy; Genetic algorithms; Logistics; Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA);Entropy; Genetic algorithm (GA);Image encryption; Logistic map (ID#: 16-8955)



Saranya, M.R.; Mohan, A.K.; Anusudha, K., "A Hybrid Algorithm for Enhanced Image Security Using Chaos and DNA Theory," in Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI), 2015 International Conference on, pp. 1-4, 8-10 Jan. 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICCCI.2015.7218102

Abstract: An image encryption algorithm based on chaotic theory and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing is proposed here. Initially, two chaotic sequences are generated from the logistic map function, one for image permutation and other for image diffusion. The two internal secret keys derived from the 120 bit user defined secret key serve as the initial condition for the chaotic sequences. Both the image and the mask for diffusion are encoded into DNA sequences using the possible eight DNA complementary rules. After that, image permutation and diffusion operations are performed in the DNA domain. DNA XOR operation is used to carry out diffusion which significantly reduces the correlation between adjacent pixels of the plain image. Simulation results and performance analysis show that the proposed work has high security, large key space, and high key sensitivity and it is also able to resist all types of attacks.

Keywords: biocomputing; chaos ;image coding; private key cryptography; 120 bit user defined secret key; DNA XOR operation; DNA complementary rules; DNA theory; chaotic sequences; chaotic theory; deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing; enhanced image security; high security; hybrid algorithm; image diffusion; image encryption algorithm; internal secret keys; key sensitivity; key space; logistic map function; plain image; Chaotic communication; Correlation; DNA; Encryption; Entropy; chaotic map; deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA);image encryption; key image; key sensitivity; key space; logistic map function (ID#: 16-8956)



Verma, I.; Jain, S.K., "Biometrics Security System: A Review of Multimodal Biometrics Based Techniques for Generating Crypto-Key," in Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 1189-1192, 11-13 March 2015.  Doi:  (not provided)

Abstract: In today's world the life is very fast we want to do everything so quickly and easily without putting much physical and mental effort. With the advancement of technology we are provided with higher level of knowledge through the invention of different devices. However each technological innovation has its pros and cons. One of the emerging devise for biometric security system is Smartphone's we are using today. Today we cannot think of living without smart phones as they have become the part of our life. We depend on our phone for our so man day to day activities like paying bills connecting with friends and office, making money transaction. But using the traditional security features we cannot get appropriate security as anyone who knows the password to unlock my phone can get access to my phone. Using biometrics traits like fingerprint, voice, face, and iris one cannot get access to the device. In this paper we focus on how biometrics help in making the device more secure and fool proof and what were the lacking in the traditional methods of security system which give birth to the implementation of biometric security system.

Keywords: biometrics (access control); cryptography; biometric security system; biometrics traits; crypto-key; multimodal biometrics based techniques; security features; smartphone; technological innovation; Cryptography; Face; Fingerprint recognition; Iris recognition; Biometrics; DNA; Face; Fingerprint; Hand geometry; Iris; Retina; Vein geometry (ID#: 16-8957)



Strizhov, M.; Ray, I., "Substring Position Search over Encrypted Cloud Data Using Tree-Based Index," in Cloud Engineering (IC2E), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 165-174, 9-13 March 2015.  doi: 10.1109/IC2E.2015.33

Abstract: Existing Searchable Encryption (SE) solutions are able to handle simple Boolean search queries, such as single or multi-keyword queries, but cannot handle substring search queries over encrypted data that also involves identifying the position of the substring within the document. These types of queries are relevant in areas such as searching DNA data. In this paper, we propose a tree-based Substring Position Searchable Symmetric Encryption (SSP-SSE) to overcome the existing gap. Our solution efficiently finds occurrences of a substrings over encrypted cloud data. We formally define the leakage functions and security properties of SSP-SSE. Then, we prove that the proposed scheme is secure against chosen-keyword attacks that involve an adaptive adversary. Our analysis demonstrates that SSP-SSE introduces very low overhead on computation and storage.

Keywords: cloud computing; cryptography; query processing; trees (mathematics); DNA data; SSP-SSE; adaptive adversary; boolean search queries; chosen-keyword attacks; cloud data; leakage functions; multikeyword queries; security properties; single keyword queries; substring position search; substring position searchable symmetric encryption; tree-based index; Cloud computing; Encryption; Indexes; Keyword search; Probabilistic logic; cloud computing; position heap tree; searchable symmetric encryption; substring position search (ID#: 16-8958)



Xin Jin; Yulu Tian; Chenggen Song; Guangzheng Wei; Xiaodong Li; Geng Zhao; Huaichao Wang, "An Invertible and Anti-Chosen Plaintext Attack Image Encryption Method Based on DNA Encoding and Chaotic Mapping," in Chinese Automation Congress (CAC), 2015, pp. 1159-1164, 27-29 Nov. 2015. doi: 10.1109/CAC.2015.7382673

Abstract: With the rapid development of network, more and more digital images need to be stored and communicated. Due to the openness and network sharing, the problems of digital image security become an important threat In this paper, we propose a novel gray image encryption algorithm based on chaotic mapping and DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) encoding. We solve the error of irreversibility of a previous work, which can only encrypt the plain image, and cannot decrypt the cipher image with the correct secret key and can be attacked by the chosen plaintext. To make the algorithm invertible, we encode the input gray image by DNA encoding and generate a random matrix based on the logistic chaotic mapping. The DNA addition operation is conducted on the random matrix follow by the DNA complement operation guided by a random binary matrix generate by 2 logistic chaotic mapping sequences. We solve the problem of the irreversibility successfully. In addition, the algorithm can now resistant the several attacks such as chosen plaintext attack, brute-force attack, and statistic attack.

Keywords: Cryptography; DNA; ISO; Resists; Welding; DNA encoding; chaotic mapping; cloud security; image encryption (ID#: 16-8959)



Aieh, A.; Sen, A.; Dash, S.R.; Dehuri, S., "Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) for a Shared Secret Key Cryptosystem with Diffie Hellman Key Sharing Technique," in Computer, Communication, Control and Information Technology (C3IT), 2015 Third International Conference on, pp. 1-6, 7-8 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/C3IT.2015.7060130

Abstract: A shared secret key based symmetric cryptographic algorithm using Diffie Hellman key sharing technique has been proposed in the paper. The shared secret key is used for encryption as well as decryption of the intended plain text. But, we are not transferring the original shared secret key through the channel. We are using Diffie Hellman key sharing technique to generate the shared secret key in both the side by exchanging the public key of the sender and receiver with each other through the channel DNA Hybridization technique has been used to produce the cipher text from the DNA sequence of plain text and the shared secret key. A numerical study with the basic parametric assumption confirms that the proposed cryptosystem is very scalable, secure and robust to use in real time system.

Keywords: biocomputing; public key cryptography; real-time systems; DNA sequence; Diffie Hellman key sharing technique; channel DNA hybridization technique; cipher text; decryption; deoxyribonucleic acid; encryption; public key; real time system; shared secret key based symmetric cryptographic algorithm; shared secret key cryptosystem; shared secret key generation; Ciphers; DNA; Encryption; Public key; Receivers; DNA Hybridization; Diffie Hellman Key sharing; Encryption-Decryption; Prime (ID#: 16-8960)



Mohammed Misbahuddin, C. S. Sreeja; “A Secure Image-Based Authentication Scheme Employing DNA Crypto and Steganography;” WCI '15 Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Women in Computing and Informatics, August 2015, Pages 595-601. Doi: 10.1145/2791405.2791503

Abstract: Authentication is considered as one of the critical aspects of Information security to ensure identity. Authentication is generally carried out using conventional authentication methods such as text based passwords, but considering the increased usage of electronic services a user has to remember many id-password pairs which often leads to memorability issues. This inspire users to reuse passwords across e-services, but this practice is vulnerable to security attacks. To improve security strength, various authentication techniques have been proposed including two factor schemes based on smart card, tokens etc. and advanced biometric techniques. Graphical Image based authentication systems has received relevant diligence as it provides better usability by way of memorable image passwords. But the tradeoff between usability and security is a major concern while strengthening authentication. This paper proposes a novel two-way secure authentication scheme using DNA cryptography and steganography considering both security and usability. The protocol uses text and image password of which text password is converted into cipher text using DNA cryptography and embedded into image password by applying steganography. Hash value of the generated stego image is calculated using SHA-256 and the same will be used for verification to authenticate legitimate user.

Keywords: Authentication, DNA, DNA Cryptography, DNA Steganography, Image password, Information security (ID#: 16-8961)



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