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Smart Grid Security 2015

The primary value of published research in smart grid technologies--the use of cyber-physical systems to coordinate the generation, transmission, and use of electrical power and its sources is because of its strategic importance and the consequences of intrusion. Smart grid is of particular importance to the Science of Security in the areas of resilience, metrics, and composability. The work cited here was presented in 2015. It was selected by the editors for its relevance to the Science of Security hard problems.

Mahmoud, M.M.E.A.; Misic, J.; Akkaya, K.; Shen, X., "Investigating Public-Key Certificate Revocation in Smart Grid," in Internet of Things Journal, IEEE, vol. 2, no. 6, pp.490-503, Dec. 2015.doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2015.2408597

Abstract: The public key cryptography (PKC) is essential for securing many applications in smart grid. For the secure use of the PKC, certificate revocation schemes tailored to smart grid applications should be adopted. However, little work has been done to study certificate revocation in smart grid. In this paper, we first explain different motivations that necessitate revoking certificates in smart grid. We also identify the applications that can be secured by PKC and thus need certificate revocation. Then, we explain existing certificate revocation schemes and define several metrics to assess them. Based on this assessment, we identify the applications that are proper for each scheme and discuss how the schemes can be modified to fully satisfy the requirements of its potential applications. Finally, we study certificate revocation in pseudonymous public key infrastructure (PPKI), where a large number of certified public/private keys are assigned for each node to preserve privacy. We target vehicles-to-grid communications as a potential application. Certificate revocation in this application is a challenge because of the large number of certificates. We discuss an efficient certificate revocation scheme for PPKI, named compressed certificate revocation lists (CRLs). Our analytical results demonstrate that one revocation scheme cannot satisfy the overhead/security requirements of all smart grid applications. Rather, different schemes should be employed for different applications. Moreover, we used simulations to measure the overhead of the schemes.

Keywords: Electricity; Measurement; Privacy; Public key; Smart grids; Substations; Certificate revocation schemes; public key cryptography; public key cryptography (PKC); smart grid communication security (ID#: 15-7994)


YooJin Kwon; Huy Kang Kim; Yong Hun Lim; Jong In Lim, "A behavior-based intrusion detection technique for smart grid infrastructure," in PowerTech, 2015 IEEE Eindhoven , vol., no., pp.1-6, June 29 2015-July 2 2015

doi: 10.1109/PTC.2015.7232339

Abstract: A smart grid is a fully automated electricity network, which monitors and controls all its physical environments of electricity infrastructure being able to supply energy in an efficient and reliable way. As the importance of cyber-physical system (CPS) security is growing, various intrusion detection algorithms to protect SCADA system and generation sector have been suggested, whereas there were less consideration on distribution sector. Thus, this paper first highlights the significance of CPS security, especially the availability as the most important factor in smart grid environment. Then this paper classifies various modern intrusion detection system (IDS) techniques for securing smart grid network. In our approach, we propose a novel behavior-based IDS for IEC 61850 protocol using both statistical analysis of traditional network features and specification-based metrics. Finally, we present the attack scenarios and detection methods applicable for IEC 61850-based digital substation in Korean environment.

Keywords: IEC standards; SCADA systems; power engineering computing; power system security; security of data; smart power grids; statistical analysis; substation protection; CPS security; IEC 61850 protocol; Korean environment; SCADA system protection; behavior-based IDS; behavior-based intrusion detection technique; cyber physical system security; digital substation; electricity infrastructure physical environment; fully automated electricity network reliability; smart grid infrastructure; statistical analysis; Clustering algorithms;Indexes;Inductors;Measurement;Security;Cyber-physical system; IEC 61850;anomaly detection; intrusion detection; smart grid (ID#: 15-7995)


Belghith, A.; Aissa, M., "M2M Performance Metrics: Challenges, Solutions and Research Opportunities," in Web Applications and Networking (WSWAN), 2015 2nd World Symposium on, pp. 1-7, 21-23 March 2015. doi: 10.1109/WSWAN.2015.7210309

Abstract: Machine-to-machine (M2M) communications have emerged as a cutting edge technology for next-generation communications, and are undergoing rapid development and inspiring numerous applications. Machine-to-machine (M2M) communications could enable machines to exchange information without the direct human intervention. Machines in M2M systems could not only collect data for their own use, but also share the data with other machines intelligently. Therefore, M2M communications could be employed efficiently in smart grid, vehicular network, as well as real-time monitoring of patients in e-healthcare system, and so on. This contribution highlights the challenges which arise from M2M performance metrics. We extend our work to highlight the most recent solutions for these challenges and research derived from literature.

Keywords: biomedical communication; health care; next generation networks; patient monitoring; telecommunication security; vehicular ad hoc networks; M2M communications; M2M performance metrics; e-healthcare system; information exchange; machine-to-machine communications; next-generation communications; real-time patient monitoring; smart grid; vehicular network; Long Term Evolution; Measurement; Security; Sensors; Smart grids; Wireless communication; Wireless sensor networks;M2M;QoS;energy efficiency; performance metrics; security (ID#: 15-7996)


Vellaithurai, C.; Srivastava, A.; Zonouz, S.; Berthier, R., "CPIndex: Cyber-Physical Vulnerability Assessment for Power-Grid Infrastructures," in Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 6, no. 2, pp.566-575, March 2015. doi: 10.1109/TSG.2014.2372315

Abstract: To protect complex power-grid control networks, power operators need efficient security assessment techniques that take into account both cyber side and the power side of the cyber-physical critical infrastructures. In this paper, we present CPINDEX, a security-oriented stochastic risk management technique that calculates cyber-physical security indices to measure the security level of the underlying cyber-physical setting. CPINDEX installs appropriate cyber-side instrumentation probes on individual host systems to dynamically capture and profile low-level system activities such as interprocess communications among operating system assets. CPINDEX uses the generated logs along with the topological information about the power network configuration to build stochastic Bayesian network models of the whole cyber-physical infrastructure and update them dynamically based on the current state of the underlying power system. Finally, CPINDEX implements belief propagation algorithms on the created stochastic models combined with a novel graph-theoretic power system indexing algorithm to calculate the cyber-physical index, i.e., to measure the security-level of the system's current cyber-physical state. The results of our experiments with actual attacks against a real-world power control network shows that CPINDEX, within few seconds, can efficiently compute the numerical indices during the attack that indicate the progressing malicious attack correctly.

Keywords: Bayes methods; graph theory; power engineering computing; power grids; power system control; power system security; risk management; stochastic processes; CPIndex; cyber-physical critical infrastructures; cyber-physical security indices; cyber-physical vulnerability assessment; cyber-side instrumentation probes; graph-theoretic power system indexing algorithm; interprocess communications; numerical indices; operating system assets; power network configuration; power operators; power-grid Infrastructures; power-grid control networks; security assessment techniques; security-oriented stochastic risk management technique; stochastic Bayesian network models; Generators; Indexes; Power measurement; Security; Smart grids; Cyber-physical security metrics; cyber-physical systems; intrusion detection systems; situational awareness (ID#: 15-7997)


Yan Xu; Zhao Yang Dong; Chixin Xiao; Rui Zhang; Kit Po Wong, "Optimal Placement of Static Compensators for Multi-Objective Voltage Stability Enhancement of Power Systems," in Generation, Transmission & Distribution, IET , vol.9, no.15, pp.2144-2151, 11 19 2015. doi: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2015.0070

Abstract: Static compensators (STATCOMs) are able to provide rapid and dynamic reactive power support within a power system for voltage stability enhancement. While most of previous research focuses on only an either static or dynamic (short-term) voltage stability criterion, this study proposes a multi-objective programming (MOP) model to simultaneously minimise (i) investment cost, (ii) unacceptable transient voltage performance, and (iii) proximity to steady-state voltage collapse. The model aims to find Pareto optimal solutions for flexible and multi-objective decision-making. To account for multiple contingencies and their probabilities, corresponding risk-based metrics are proposed based on respective voltage stability measures. Given the two different voltage stability criteria, a strategy based on Pareto frontier is designed to identify critical contingencies and candidate buses for STATCOM connection. Finally, to solve the MOP model, an improved decomposition-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is developed. The proposed model and algorithm are demonstrated on the New England 39-bus test system, and compared with state-of-the-art solution algorithms.

Keywords: Pareto optimisation; cost reduction; evolutionary computation; power system dynamic stability; power system economics; power system reliability; power system security; power system transient stability; probability; risk management; stability criteria; static VAr compensators; voltage regulators; MOP model; New England 39-bus test system; Pareto optimal solutions; decomposition-based multiobjective evolutionary algorithm; dynamic reactive power support; investment cost minimisation; multiobjective decision-making; multiobjective programming model; multiobjective voltage stability enhancement; multiple contingencies; optimal static compensators placement; power system; proximity minimisation; risk-based metrics; steady-state voltage collapse; unacceptable transient voltage performance minimisation; voltage stability criteria; voltage stability measures (ID#: 15-7998)


Zhuo Lu; Wenye Wang; Wang, C., "Camouflage Traffic: Minimizing Message Delay for Smart Grid Applications under Jamming," in Dependable and Secure Computing, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 12, no. 1, pp.31-44, Jan.-Feb. 1 2015. doi: 10.1109/TDSC.2014.2316795

Abstract: Smart grid is a cyber-physical system that integrates power infrastructures with information technologies. To facilitate efficient information exchange, wireless networks have been proposed to be widely used in the smart grid. However, the jamming attack that constantly broadcasts radio interference is a primary security threat to prevent the deployment of wireless networks in the smart grid. Hence, spread spectrum systems, which provide jamming resilience via multiple frequency and code channels, must be adapted to the smart grid for secure wireless communications, while at the same time providing latency guarantee for control messages. An open question is how to minimize message delay for timely smart grid communication under any potential jamming attack. To address this issue, we provide a paradigm shift from the case-by-case methodology, which is widely used in existing works to investigate well-adopted attack models, to the worst-case methodology, which offers delay performance guarantee for smart grid applications under any attack. We first define a generic jamming process that characterizes a wide range of existing attack models. Then, we show that in all strategies under the generic process, the worst-case message delay is a U-shaped function of network traffic load. This indicates that, interestingly, increasing a fair amount of traffic can in fact improve the worst-case delay performance. As a result, we demonstrate a lightweight yet promising system, transmitting adaptive camouflage traffic (TACT), to combat jamming attacks. TACT minimizes the message delay by generating extra traffic called camouflage to balance the network load at the optimum. Experiments show that TACT can decrease the probability that a message is not delivered on time in order of magnitude.

Keywords: jamming; power system security; probability; radio networks; radiofrequency interference; smart power grids; telecommunication security; telecommunication traffic; TACT; U-shaped function; camouflage traffic; code channel; control messages; cyber-physical system; delay performance guarantee; existing attack model; generic jamming process; information exchange; information technologies; jamming attack; jamming resilience; latency guarantee; message delay minimization; multiple-frequency channel; network load balance; network traffic load; power infrastructures; primary security threat; probability; radio interference broadcast; smart grid application; smart grid communication; spread spectrum systems; transmitting adaptive camouflage traffic; well-adopted attack model; wireless communication security; wireless network deployment; worst-case message delay; Communication system security; Delays; Power distibution; Receivers; Smart grids; Wireless networks; Smart grid; jamming attacks; message delay; performance modeling; wireless applications; worst-case analysis (ID#: 15-7999)


Ying Bi; Jamalipour, A., "A Time Correlated Attacker-Defender Model for Smart Grid Communication Networks," in Communications (ICC), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 815-819, 8-12 June 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICC.2015.7248422

Abstract: The research on smart grid security has led to several important results. Nevertheless, previous works neglect to consider the time-varying properties of smart grid, which in many attack strategies play a pivotal role. Mainly because of the time-varying collaboration among communication agents and the time-varying confrontation between defenders and attackers, smart grid communication network should not be considered as a static entity. Understanding the smart grid resilience through time-varying analysis is thus crucial to both the grid protection and to the design of new countermeasures against cyber threats. In this work we attempt to bring time dimension into smart grid security analysis. In each time step, attackers determine the attack targets based on a 2-state Markov process. Defenders (smart meters) are empowered with two defense actions: either to monitor their neighbors which requires more resources but yields timely discovery of attacks, or not to monitor their neighbors which saves resources but leads to slow response to attacks. Defenders choose between the two by estimating the attack probability based on previous time slots. The objective of defenders is to minimize their defense cost. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed scheme over the conventional methods.

Keywords: power system security; smart power grids; telecommunication security; 2-state Markov process; smart grid communication networks; smart grid security analysis; time correlated attacker-defender model; Communication networks; Markov processes; Monitoring; Nickel; Security; Smart grids; Smart meters (ID#: 15-8000)


Hoefling, M.; Heimgaertner, F.; Menth, M.; Katsaros, K.V.; Romano, P.; Zanni, L.; Kamel, G., "Enabling Resilient Smart Grid Communication over the Information-Centric C-DAX Middleware," in Networked Systems (NetSys), 2015 International Conference and Workshops on, pp. 1-8, 9-12 March 2015. doi: 10.1109/NetSys.2015.7089080

Abstract: Limited scalability, reliability, and security of today's utility communication infrastructures are main obstacles to the deployment of smart grid applications. The C-DAX project aims at providing and investigating a communication middleware for smart grids to address these problems, applying the information-centric networking and publish/subscribe paradigm. We briefly describe the C-DAX architecture, and extend it with a flexible resilience concept, based on resilient data forwarding and data redundancy. Different levels of resilience support are defined, and their underlying mechanisms are described. Experiments show fast and reliable performance of the resilience mechanism.

Keywords: middleware; power engineering computing; smart power grids; communication middleware; data redundancy; flexible resilience concept; information-centric C-DAX middleware; information-centric networking; publish/subscribe paradigm; resilient data forwarding; resilient smart grid communication; smart grids; utility communication infrastructures; Delays; Monitoring; Reliability; Resilience; Security; Subscriptions; Synchronization (ID#: 15-8001)


Gamage, T.; Zweigle, G.; Venkathasubramanian, M.; Hauser, C.; Bakken, D., "Towards Grid Resilience: A Proposal for a Progressive Control Strategy," in Green Technologies Conference (GreenTech), 2015 Seventh Annual IEEE, pp. 58-65, 15-17 April 2015. doi: 10.1109/GREENTECH.2015.25

Abstract: This white paper describes preliminary research on the use of progressive control strategies to improve the advanced electric power grid's resilience to major grid disturbances. The proposed approach calls to leverage real-time wide-area monitoring and control capabilities to provide globally coordinated distributed control actions under stressed conditions. To that end, the paper illustrates the proposed concept using case studies drawn from major North American blackouts, discusses design challenges, and proposes the design of a Grid Integrity Management System (GIMS) to manage the required communication and computation to meet these challenges.

Keywords: power grids; power system control; power system faults; power system measurement; power system reliability; GIMS; North American blackouts; electric power grid resilience; grid disturbance; grid integrity management system; progressive control strategy; wide area monitoring; Generators; Load modeling; Monitoring; Power system stability; Real-time systems; Stability analysis; QoS; RAS; cyber-physical systems; distributed control; model predictive control; security; smart grid (ID#: 15-8002)


Wente Zeng; Yuan Zhang; Mo-yuen Chow, "A Resilient Distributed Energy Management Algorithm for Economic Dispatch in the Presence of Misbehaving Generation Units," in Resilience Week (RWS), 2015, pp. 1-5, 18-20 Aug. 2015. doi: 10.1109/RWEEK.2015.7287411

Abstract: The legacy power system is gradually evolving into the smart grid. A variety of distributed control algorithms are being applied for smart grid energy management applications because of their flexibility, robustness, and local communication and computation features. These algorithms, however, increase the vulnerability of smart grid to adversaries. Thus, there is an urgent need to protect the distributed energy management algorithms from malicious cyber-attacks. A reputation-based distributed energy management algorithm is proposed to guarantee an accurate control computation in distributed energy management algorithms to solve the economic dispatch problem in the presence of misbehaving generation units. The proposed method is capable of performing a resilient distributed control without a central coordinator and allows all the well behaving generation units to reach the correct state asymptotically. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated through simulation case studies.

Keywords: distributed control; energy management systems; power generation control; power generation dispatch; power generation economics; power generation protection; smart power grids; distributed control algorithm; economic dispatch problem; legacy power system; malicious cyber-attack; misbehaving generation unit; reputation-based distributed energy management algorithm; smart grid energy management applications; Convergence; Economics; Energy management; Integrated circuits; Security; Smart grids; Economic dispatch; reputation system; resilient distributed energy management (ID#: 15-8003)


Verissimo, P.E., "MB4CP 2015 Keynote II: Resilience of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems," in Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 3-3, 22-25 June 2015. doi: 10.1109/DSN-W.2015.42

Abstract: Electrical utility infrastructures have become largely computerized, remotely/automatically controlled, and interconnected, amongst each other and with other types of critical infrastructures, and we are witnessing the explosion of new paradigms: distributed generation, smart grids. In this accelerated mutation of power grids to cyber-physical systems, may it be that some things are "lost in translation"? Are we using the right models to represent, design, build and analyze cyber physical energy systems? Especially when what used to be an electrical infrastructure became quite susceptible to computer-borne problems such as digital accidental faults and malicious cyber-attacks? This talk will challenge the audience with some reflections and points for discussion along these topics.

Keywords: distributed power generation; electricity supply industry; smart power grids; cyber-physical energy systems; distributed generation; electrical utility infrastructures; power grids; smart grids; Computational modeling; Conferences; Distributed power generation; Explosions; Resilience; Security; Smart grids (ID#: 15-8004)


Yingyun Sun; Zuyi Li; Shahidehpour, M.; Bo Ai, "Battery-Based Energy Storage Transportation for Enhancing Power System Economics and Security," in Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 6, no. 5, pp.2395-2402, Sept. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TSG.2015.2390211

Abstract: This paper evaluates the effect of integrating battery-based energy storage transportation (BEST) by railway transportation network on power grid operation and control. A time-space network model is adopted to represent transportation constraints. The proposed model integrates the hourly security-constrained unit commitment with vehicle routing problem. The BEST solution provides the locational and hourly charging/discharging schedule of the battery storage system. The mobility of BEST will be of particular interest for enhancing the power system resilience in disaster areas where the transmission grid is congested or on outrage. Two cases are used to simulate the BEST including a six-bus power system linking with a three-station railway system, as well as the IEEE 118-bus systems linking with an eight-station railway system. The results show that under certain conditions, the mobility of battery storage system can economically relieve the transmission congestion and lower the operation costs.

Keywords: battery storage plants; power generation scheduling; power system economics; power system security; railway engineering; vehicle routing; BEST; battery storage system; battery-based energy storage transportation; hourly charging-discharging schedule; hourly security-constrained unit commitment; power grid control; power grid operation; power system economics; power system security; railway transportation network; time-space network model; transmission grid; vehicle routing problem; Batteries; Mathematical model; Power grids; Rail transportation; Renewable energy sources; Battery-based energy storage transportation (BEST); mixed-integer programming (MIP); security-constraint unit commitment (SCUC); time-space network (TSN) (ID#: 15-8005)


Yingmeng Xiang; Lingfeng Wang; Yichi Zhang, "Power Grid Adequacy Evaluation Involving Substation Cybersecurity Issues," in Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT), 2015 IEEE Power & Energy Society, pp. 1-5, 18-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/ISGT.2015.7131815

Abstract: Modern power systems heavily rely on the associated cyber network, so it is crucial to develop novel methods to evaluate the overall power system adequacy considering the substation cybersecurity issues. In this study, human dynamic is applied to simulate the temporal behavior pattern of cyber attackers. The Markov game and static game are utilized to model the intelligent attack/defense behaviors in different attack scenarios. A novel framework for power system adequacy assessment incorporating the cyber and physical failures is proposed. Simulations are conducted based on a representative reliability test system, and the influences of critical parameters on system adequacy are carefully examined. It is concluded that effective measures should be implemented to ensure the overall system adequacy, and informed decisions should be made to allocate the limited resources for enhancing the cybersecurity of cyber-physical power grids.

Keywords: Markov processes; failure analysis; game theory; power grids; power system faults; power system reliability; power system security; security of data; substation protection; Markov game; cyber failure; cyber network; cyber-physical power grid adequacy evaluation; intelligent attack behavior; intelligent defense behavior; overall power system adequacy evaluation; physical failure; power system adequacy assessment; representative reliability test system; static game; substation cybersecurity issues; temporal behavior pattern simulation; Computer security; Game theory; Games; Markov processes; Power system dynamics; Substations; Adequacy assessment; cyber security; cyber-physical systems; game theory; human dynamics (ID#: 15-8006)


Procopiou, A.; Komninos, N., "Current and Future Threats Framework in Smart Grid Domain," in Cyber Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 1852-1857, 8-12 June 2015. doi: 10.1109/CYBER.2015.7288228

Abstract: Due to smart grid's complex nature and criticality as an infrastructure, it is important to understand the key actors on each domain in depth so the potential vulnerabilities that can rise are identified. Furthermore, the correct identification of threats affecting the smart grid's normal functionality must be realised, as well as what impact these threats can have so appropriate countermeasures are implemented. In this paper a list of vulnerabilities that weaken the smart grid is outlined. Also structured analysis of attacks regarding the three key security objectives across the different layers is presented along with appropriate examples applicable to the smart grid infrastructure and what impact each of them has to the smart grid on each case. Finally, a set of new attack scenarios that focus on attacks being initiated from the smart home part of the smart grid is described targeting these security objectives with the potential consequences they can cause to the smart grid.

Keywords: power system security; smart power grids; attack scenarios; correct threat identification; future threats framework; key security objectives; normal functionality; potential vulnerability identification; smart grid domain; Density estimation robust algorithm; Floods; Least squares approximations; Protocols; Security; Smart grids; Smart meters; Attacks; Availability; Confidentiality; Information Security; Integrity; Smart Grid; Threats; Vulnerabilities (ID#: 15-8007)


Delgado-Gomes, V.; Martins, J.F.; Lima, C.; Nicolae Borza, P., "Smart Grid Security Issues," in Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), 2015 9th International Conference on, pp. 534-538, 24-26 June 2015. doi: 10.1109/CPE.2015.7231132

Abstract: The smart grid concept is being fostered due to required evolution of the power network to incorporate distributed energy sources (DES), renewable energy sources (RES), and electric vehicles (EVs). The inclusion of these components on the smart grid requires an information and communication technology (ICT) layer in order to exchange information, control, and monitor the electrical components of the smart grid. The two-way communication flows brings cyber security issues to the smart grid. Different cyber security countermeasures need to be applied to the heterogeneous smart grid according to the computational resources availability, time communication constraints, and sensitive information data. This paper presents the main security issues and challenges of a cyber secure smart grid, whose main objectives are confidentiality, integrity, authorization, and authentication of the exchanged data.

Keywords: authorisation; data integrity; distributed power generation; power engineering computing; power system security; renewable energy sources; smart power grids; DES; ICT; RES; computational resources availability; cyber secure smart grid; cyber security; data authentication; data authorization; data confidentiality; data integrity; distributed energy sources; electric vehicles; information and communication technology; power network evolution; renewable energy sources; smart grid security; time communication constraints; two-way communication flow; Computer security; Monitoring; NIST; Privacy; Smart grids; Smart grid; challenges; cyber security; information and communication technology (ICT) (ID#: 15-8008)


Cheung, H.; Cungang Yang; Cheung, H., "New Smart-Grid Operation-Based Network Access Control," in Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2015 IEEE, pp. 1203-1207, 20-24 Sept. 2015. doi: 10.1109/ECCE.2015.7309828

Abstract: Changes due to increasing use of equipment with communication capability in electricity distribution systems, development of microgrids, government-imposed electricity-market open access competitions, etc., have let electricity utilities in a greater reliance on communication networks for smart-grid operations that include monitoring, protection, control, and time-of-use metering. This paper presents a new smart-grid network access control strategy and a new operation-based access model in order to increase the grid-access security and grid-operation efficiency. The new access model extends the network access control from a traditional single security domain to multiple domains specifically designed for interconnected microgrids. A security policy to simplify power-grid network security administrations is proposed, the authorization is independently defined and separated from policy representations as well as implementation mechanisms, and digital credential is introduced to establish trust and role assignments for users in different microgrid domains. The proposed smart-grid operation-based network access control has significant advantages over the standard role-based access control for application on smart-grid operations. This paper presents case studies for illustrating this new smart-grid operation-based network access controls.

Keywords: authorisation; computer network security; power engineering computing; smart power grids; trusted computing; electricity distribution system; grid access security; interconnected microgrids; network access control; operation based access model; power grid network administration; power grid network security; role assignment; smart grid operation; trust assignment; Access control; Authentication; Computer architecture; Microgrids; Monitoring; Smart grids; network access; network security; operation access control; smart grids (ID#: 15-8009)


Rietveld, G.; Braun, J.-P.; Martin, R.; Wright, P.; Heins, W.; Ell, N.; Clarkson, P.; Zisky, N., "Measurement Infrastructure to Support the Reliable Operation of Smart Electrical Grids," in Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 1355-1363, June 2015. doi: 10.1109/TIM.2015.2406056

Abstract: Grid operators are facing a significant challenge in ensuring continuity and quality of electricity supply, while more and more renewable energy sources are connected to the grid. The resulting evolvement of so-called smart grids strongly relies on the availability of reliable measurement data for monitoring and control of these grids. This paper presents an overview of the results achieved in recent smart grid metrology research in Europe, aiming to realize the required metrology infrastructure for ensuring security and quality of supply in future smart electrical grids. A consortium of 22 metrology and research institutes has made significant steps in modeling of smart grids, enhancement of the revenue metering infrastructure, performance and evaluation of onsite power quality campaigns, and the development of a metrological framework for traceability of smart grid phasor measurements.

Keywords: phasor measurement; power supply quality; power system control; power system reliability; power system security; renewable energy sources; smart power grids; Europe; electricity supply; grid operators; measurement data; measurement infrastructure; metrology infrastructure; onsite power quality campaigns; renewable energy sources; revenue metering infrastructure; smart electrical grids; smart grid metrology research; smart grid phasor measurements; Calibration; Current measurement; Harmonic analysis; Metrology; Phasor measurement units; Smart grids; Uncertainty; Electrical grids; grid modeling; metrology; phasor measurement unit; power quality (PQ); revenue metering; smart grid; synchrophasor; synchrophasor (ID#: 15-8010)


Inshil Doh; Jiyoung Lim; Kijoon Chae, "Secure Authentication for Structured Smart Grid System," in Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing (IMIS), 2015 9th International Conference on, pp. 200-204, 8-10 July 2015. doi: 10.1109/IMIS.2015.32

Abstract: An important application area for M2M (Machine to Machine) or IoT (Internet of Things) technology is smart grid system which plays an important role in electric power transmission, electricity distribution, and demand-driven control for the energy. To make the smart grid system more reliable and stable, security is the major issue to be provided with the main technologies. In this work, we propose an authentication mechanism between the utility system and the smart meters which gather the energy consumption data from electrical devices in layered smart grid system. Our proposal enhances the smart grid system integrity, availability and robustness by providing security with low overhead.

Keywords: Internet of Things; message authentication; smart power grids; telecommunication security; Internet of things technology; IoT; M2M;demand-driven control; electric power transmission; electrical devices; electricity distribution; energy consumption data; layered smart grid system; machine to machine; secure authentication; smart meters; structured smart grid system; utility system; Authentication; Proposals; Protocols; Servers; Smart grids; Smart meters; IoT; M2M; authentication; security; structured smart grid (ID#: 15-8011)


Zhiwei Wang; Feng Chen; Aidong Xia; "Attribute-Based Online/Offline Encryption in Smart Grid;" in Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN), 2015 24th International Conference on, pp. 1-5, 3-6 Aug. 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICCCN.2015.7288380

Abstract: A smart grid is a modernized electrical grid that uses distribution networks to deliver electricity. It aims to gather and act on information, such as information about the behaviors of grid entities, in an automated fashion to improve the efficiency, security and reliability. It is important that the sensitive information should be shared securely among the grid entities. In smart grid, smart devices (e.g., smart meters) usually have limited computational capability. In this paper, we propose an online/offline attribute based encryption (ABE) scheme based J.Hur's ABE scheme with hidden policy. In our scheme, the advantages of J.Hur's scheme are kept. Thus, the data privacy and policy privacy are all preserved well. The computational overhead of encryptors are reduced by splitting the computation for encryption algorithm into two phases: online/offline. Most of the laborious decryption operations are delegated to the offline phase. The online phase can then rapidly assemble an ABE ciphertext when the message and the attribute control policy become known.

Keywords: cryptography; data privacy; distribution networks; power system reliability; power system security; smart meters; smart power grids; ABE ciphertext; J.Hur ABE scheme; attribute based encryption scheme; data privacy; distribution networks; encryption algorithm; online/offline encryption; policy privacy; reliability; security; smart devices; smart grid; smart meters; Encryption; Public key; Receivers; Smart grids; Smart meters}, (ID#: 15-8012)



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