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Wireless Mesh Network Security 2015

With more than 70 protocols vying for preeminence over wireless mesh networks, the security problem is magnified. The work cited here relates to the Science of Security hard problems of resiliency, metrics, and composability. These citations were presented in 2015,

Raj, S.Pravin; Renold, A.Pravin, "An Enhanced Elliptic Curve Algorithm for Secured Data Transmission in Wireless Sensor Network," in Communication Technologies (GCCT), 2015 Global Conference on, pp.891-896, 23-24 April 2015. doi: 10.1109/GCCT.2015.7342790

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network is the remote accessible network or the implementation of the network in the unattainable area to gather data from sensor nodes. The data from the network in wireless mesh topology is less secured based on the security features implemented. Any communication between the nodes are through the other nodes in the network. These motes in the network are restricted to memory and energy issues. Algorithms like symmetric key methods Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman Algorithm (RSA) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) are used. It has less efficiency in terms of computation and memory size. It is also harder to implement in the Hop by hop protocol where the authenticity of the message need to pass from one node to the other with limited memory and energy where the need for security is high. So for better effective security and authentication we go for the Elliptic curve cryptography(ECC) algorithm. This method is more efficient with the key size and also more secure in terms. It is less vulnerable to security threat attacks. Modified effective implementing enhanced ECC with a features like Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) in to add more secure and effective data transfer along with the key cipher of the text information.

Keywords: Authentication; Elliptic curve cryptography; Elliptic curves; Protocols; Wireless sensor networks; ECC; ECDSA; ElGamal; Message forwarding; RSA; Sensor Networks (ID#: 15-8058)


Chugh, J., "Resilience, Survivability and Availability in WDM Optical Mesh Network," in Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), 2015 2nd International Conference on, pp. 222-227, 11-13 March 2015. Doi: (not provided)

Abstract: The network has become essential to all aspects of modern life and thus the consequences of network disruption have become increasingly severe. It is widely recognized that the generally network is not sufficiently resilient, survivable, highly available and dependable and that significant research, development and engineering is necessary to improve the situation. This paper describes the high level architecture of WDM optical mesh network for resilience, survivability and availability. This paper also describes about protection and restoration schemes available for optical network and further depicts how these protection and restoration schemes can be used to design highly resilient, highly survivable and highly available network (99.99999).

Keywords: optical communication; telecommunication network reliability; telecommunication security; wavelength division multiplexing; wireless mesh networks; WDM optical mesh network; network disruption; protection schemes; restoration schemes; Availability; Optical fiber networks; Optical fibers; Resilience; Routing; Wavelength division multiplexing; Optical Network; Survivability; WDM (ID#: 15-8059)


Subhash, P.; Ramachandram, S., "Secure Neighbour Discovery in Wireless Mesh Networks Using Connectivity Information," in Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI), 2015 International Conference on, pp. 2061-2066, 10-13 Aug. 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICACCI.2015.7275920

Abstract: Authenticated mesh peering exchange (AMPE) is one of the core functionalities of wireless mesh network (WMN) that facilitates mesh routers to discover their peers (neighbours), securely. Even though the AMPE protocol prevents unauthorized neighbours from becoming part of the network, it fails to prevent relay attacks, where an attacker can simply relay frames used to establish peer-links. The motivation of an attacker is to convince two far-away nodes as neighbours, and make them commit to a non-existent link that acts as a wormhole later. In this paper, we address this problem of relay attacks and propose a secure neighbour discovery mechanism that detects non-existent network links. It relies on a ranking mechanism to compute relative distance between neighbours, and employs connectivity information to validate those links.

Keywords: protocols; relay networks (telecommunication);telecommunication network reliability; telecommunication security; wireless mesh networks; AMPE protocol; WMN relay attack prevention failure; authenticated mesh peering exchange; connectivity information; ranking mechanism; secure neighbour discovery mechanism; wireless mesh network; Communication system security; Peer-to-peer computing; Receivers; Relays; Routing protocols; Wireless mesh networks; Ranking Mechanism; Relay Attacks; Secure Neighbour Discovery; Wireless Mesh Network; Wormhole; non-existent link (ID#: 15-8060)


Peng, Yuhuai; Deng, QingXu; Guo, Lei; Ning, Zhaolong; Zhang, Lingbing, "Design of Dynamic Traffic Grooming Algorithm in Software-Defined Wireless Mesh Networks," in High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC), 2015 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security (CSS), 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS), 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on, pp. 1812-1816, 24-26 Aug. 2015. doi: 10.1109/HPCC-CSS-ICESS.2015.274

Abstract: Software-Defined Networking (SDN) separates the network control plane from the packet forwarding plane, and provides the upper applications with an global view of the distributed networks state. By making the network device software programmable, this newly emerging networking paradigm can contribute to change the large and highly complex situation of current networks protocol architecture. SDN enabled Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) will apply SDN technology into WMNs. By separating network control logic from data forwarding, automatic control and update functions would be achieved by software-driven control logic, which improves network performance and shortens the cycle of network innovation. Traffic engineering problem involves in the task of mapping network traffic distribution to existing physical topology. It can control network resources utilization and fair traffic allocation, which will optimize the utilization of network resources, and solve the imbalance problem of network resources, so that the network will reach a high degree of reliability, robustness and operability. Therefore, the design of dynamic traffic grooming algorithm in SDN enabled Wireless Mesh Networks is of important theoretical significance and practical value. This article focuses on traffic engineering technology in software defined networking. Aiming at the dynamic routing problem, the SDN controller dynamic traffic grooming algorithm is designed, which takes into account both the path length and link utilization to determine routing establishment, so as to achieve the network load balance and reduce the network congestion. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed dynamic traffic grooming algorithm performs better in terms of average end-to-end throughput, average end-to-end delay and packet loss probability than traditional scheme.

Keywords: Algorithm design and analysis; Delays; Heuristic algorithms; Network topology; Routing; Topology; Wireless mesh networks; Software-Defined Networking (SDN);Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs);traffic engineering; traffic grooming algorithm (ID#: 15-8061)


Yi-jia Zhang; Jun Sun, "Topology Analysis of Wireless Mesh Network Based on 802.11a," in Control and Decision Conference (CCDC), 2015 27th Chinese, pp. 5978-5980, 23-25 May 2015. doi: 10.1109/CCDC.2015.7161881

Abstract: The system architecture, analysis process and the key technology and test results of the topology analysis system, which based on wireless Mesh network are introduced in this paper. This paper is achieved the 802.11a protocol analysis and positioning method based on signal strength, and the method of links analysis based on the business statistics is proposed. The practical wireless mesh network based on 802.11a is set as test environments, then the network topological analysis and the drawing of topological graph are finished after the design and achievement of wireless Mesh network's topology analysis system.

Keywords: graph theory; protocols; signal processing; telecommunication network topology; wireless mesh networks;802.11a protocol analysis; architecture system; business statistics; links analysis; network topological analysis; positioning method; signal strength; topological graph; topology analysis system; wireless mesh network topology analysis system; Electronic mail; Information security; Network topology; Radar tracking; Sun; Topology; Wireless mesh networks;802.11a; Mesh Network; Topology Analysis (ID#: 15-8062)


Gassara, M.; Zarai, F.; Daly, I.; Obaidat, M.S.; Kuei-Fang Hsiao, "A New Scheme for Proactive Out of Band Signaling Solution for IP Traceback in Wireless Mesh Network," in Computer, Information and Telecommunication Systems (CITS), 2015 International Conference on, pp. 1-6, 15-17 July 2015. doi: 10.1109/CITS.2015.7297758

Abstract: Since Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have received great attention and momentum, security has become a crucial issue for them. Denial of Service attack (DoS) represents a serious threat on WMNs due to their plug-and-play architecture. Unfortunately, a DoS attack still very hard to stop due to the uncontrolled spoofing of source IP addresses. The best solution to this is to fix the problem at its root by guessing the source of attack. As a solution to this dilemma, numerous approaches have been suggested to support IP traceability. In this work, we focus on Wireless Mesh Network WMN (IEEE 802.11s standard). We design a signaling architecture, based on previous works, in order to trace anonymous IP packets back towards their source(s), where a simple security-oriented signaling protocol permits specialized signaling entities to exchange reliable signaling information that allows performing a simple and efficient traceback. This solution represents a novel and efficient approach to deal with the traceback problem in WMN environments.

Keywords: IP networks; computer network security; signalling protocols; wireless mesh networks; DoS attack; IEEE 802.11s standard; IP traceback; WMN; band signaling solution; denial of service attack; plug-and-play architecture; wireless mesh network; Computer architecture; Computer crime; IEEE 802.11 Standard; IP networks; Protocols; Wireless mesh networks; IEEE 802.11s;IP traceback; WMN; security; signaling information (ID#: 15-8063)


Peng, Yuhuai; Guo, Lei; Deng, QingXu; Ning, Zhaolong; Zhang, Lingbing, "A Novel Hybrid Routing Forwarding Algorithm in SDN Enabled Wireless Mesh Networks," in High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC), 2015 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security (CSS), 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS), 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on, pp. 1806-1811, 24-26 Aug. 2015. doi: 10.1109/HPCC-CSS-ICESS.2015.271

Abstract: As an essential part of next generation Internet, Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have attracted much research attention due to its potential advantages including low up-front cost, ease of deployment, enhanced capacity and service coverage. However, the inherit features of wireless multi-hop networks have put forward a severe challenge for traffic engineering problem. Conventional traffic engineering techniques either locally manipulate network traffic or adopt unreliable best-effort delivery mechanism. Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a new networking paradigm that separates the network control plane from the packet forwarding plane and provides applications with an abstracted centralized view of the distributed network state. A logically centralized controller that has a global network view is responsible for all the control decisions and it communicates with the network-wide distributed forwarding elements via standardized interfaces. Considering the current price of SDN equipments and deployment cost, this paper proposes an idea that gradually increases the number of SDN forwarding element in the networks. In other words, partly deployment of the SDN forwarding element in the networks can achieve fast forwarding traffic. On this basis, a new traffic engineering algorithms named Hybrid Routing Forwarding Algorithm (HRFA) which is based on SDN forwarding and OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) protocol is designed. This hybrid routing scheme divides the network nodes into conventional nodes and SDN forwarding elements (SDN-FE), and chooses effective forwarding strategies for different network elements, which will improve the overall performance of the networks. In order to verify the performance of the proposed algorithms, a number of simulation experiments are carried out in the NS-2 simulation platform. The results show that compared with the traditional routing forwarding method, HRFA can well increase the normalized throughput, and reduce the delay and packet loss.

Keywords: Algorithm design and analysis; Network topology; Routing; Routing protocols; Throughput; Topology; Software Defined Networking (SDN); Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs);control plane; hybrid protocol; traffic engineering (ID#: 15-8064)


Cong Sun; Yi-hua Zhu; Liyong Yuan; Kaikai Chi, "Borrowing Address from Two-Hop Neighbor to Improve Successful Probability of Joining IEEE 802.15.5-Based Mesh Wireless Sensor Networks," in New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS), 2015 7th International Conference on, pp. 1-7, 27-29 July 2015. doi: 10.1109/NTMS.2015.7266474

Abstract: IEEE 802.15.5 standard supports mesh networking for IEEE 802.15.4 based low-rate wireless sensor network (WSN). Through assigning a consecutive address block (CAB) to a node, IEEE 802.15.5 enables routing without table, which eliminates route discovery latency and reduces communication overhead and energy consumption in addition to saving storage space for routing table. With CAB, however, a node may fail in joining the mesh network due to insufficient address. To overcome the address-lacking problem, the scheme called Borrowing Address from Two-hop Neighbor (BATN) is proposed in this paper, which provides with two procedures for the nodes to join or leave the mesh, respectively. In addition, the routing scheme under BATN is presented. Both theoretical and simulation results show that the proposed BATN is better than the basic address assignment scheme introduced in IEEE 802.15.5 standard and the existing address borrowing schemes in terms of the probability of the node's successful joining the mesh network and the number of bytes used in reporting the number of children in address assigning stage.

Keywords: Zigbee; energy consumption; wireless mesh networks; wireless sensor networks; CAB; IEEE 802.15.4;IEEE 802.15.5 standard; WSN; consecutive address block; energy consumption; mesh networking; route discovery; wireless sensor network; Energy consumption ;IEEE 802.15 Standard; Mesh networks; Routing; Wireless sensor networks; Zigbee; IEEE 802.15.5 standard; Internet of Things; Wireless sensor network; address assignment; wireless mesh network}, (ID#: 15-8065)


Gassara, M.; El Bouabidi, I.; Zarai, F.; Obaidat, M.S., "All-in-One Binary Word Solution for IP Traceback in Wireless Mesh Network," in Communications (ICC), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 6284-6288, 8-12 June 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICC.2015.7249325

Abstract: Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are continuously overwhelmed with various kinds of security threats. Amongst these threats is Denial of Service (DoS) which represents a huge umbrella of powerful attacks. It is very essential to understand the complexities of these attacks and counter-mechanisms existed in the literature. The best antidote to defend against these attacks would be to resolve the problem at its root by identifying the source of the attacks. The traceback technique realizes such a forensic analysis of the internet traffic. In this paper, we explain our novel approach of IP traceback based on marking approach and that used the Chinese remainder theorem to conceive the communication protocol in WMN IEEE 802.11s environments. We evaluated the performance and the efficiency of our proposed scheme based on some collected evaluation metrics.

Keywords: IP networks; computer network security; protocols; wireless LAN; wireless mesh networks; Chinese remainder theorem; Denial of Service attack; DoS attack; IP traceback; WMN IEEE 802.11s environment; binary word solution; communication protocol; marking approach; wireless mesh network; Ad hoc networks; IEEE 802.11 Standard; IP networks; Routing protocols; Security; Wireless mesh networks; Chinese remainder theorem; IP traceback; WMN IEEE 802.11s; attacks; marking approach; security (ID#: 15-8066)


Yu, Yao; Ning, Zhaolong; Song, Qingyang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Hongyan, "A Dynamic Cooperative Monitor Node Selection Algorithm in Wireless Mesh Networks," in High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC), 2015 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security (CSS), 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS), 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on, pp. 1800-1805, 24-26 Aug. 2015. doi: 10.1109/HPCC-CSS-ICESS.2015.118

Abstract: Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is developed as an emerging key solution for wireless broadband connectivity through a flexible and cost-effective way. However, due to the lack of a physical line of defense, the security in such a network is a big concern. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is considered as one of the most effective security mechanisms in WMN. Traditionally, IDS is operated on the monitor nodes that cooperatively identify and assess intrusions by analyzing their collected network data. Therefore, most IDS mechanisms need to choose a large number of monitor nodes for good rapidity and accuracy, which increases overhead and degrades network performance. In this paper, we propose a dynamic cooperative monitor node selection scheme based on social network analysis to solve the above issue. In the scheme, we choose the monitor nodes according to their influence in the network, which is evaluated by the relationship among the nodes and the analysis of mutual information. Then, the nodes with similar information are divided into the same monitor area. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can effectively reduce network cost compared with the traditional node section schemes.

Keywords: Accuracy; Bridges; Monitoring; Mutual information; Security; Social network services; Topology; Monitor node selection; cooperative; mutual information; social network analysis (ID#: 15-8067)


Yue Shi; Abhilash, S.; Kai Hwang, "Cloudlet Mesh for Securing Mobile Clouds from Intrusions and Network Attacks," in Mobile Cloud Computing, Services, and Engineering (MobileCloud), 2015 3rd IEEE International Conference on, pp. 109-118, March 30 2015-April 3 2015. doi: 10.1109/MobileCloud.2015.15

Abstract: This paper presents a new cloudlet mesh architecture for security enforcement to establish trusted mobile cloud computing. The cloudlet mesh is WiFi-or mobile-connected to the Internet. This security framework establishes a cyber trust shield to fight against intrusions to distance clouds, prevent spam/virus/worm attacks on mobile cloud resources, and stop unauthorized access of shared datasets in offloading the cloud. We have specified a sequence of authentication, authorization, and encryption protocols for securing communications among mobile devices, cloudlet servers, and distance clouds. Some analytical and experimental results prove the effectiveness of this new security infrastructure to safeguard mobile cloud services.

Keywords: authorisation; cloud computing; computer network security ;computer viruses; cryptographic protocols; mobile computing; trusted computing; wireless LAN; Internet; WiFi-connected cloudlet mesh; authentication; authorization; cloudlet mesh architecture; cloudlet servers; cybertrust shield; distance clouds; encryption protocols; intrusion attack; mobile cloud resources; mobile cloud services; mobile devices; mobile-connected cloudlet mesh; security enforcement; security framework ;security infrastructure; shared datasets; spam attacks; trusted mobile cloud computing; unauthorized access; virus attacks; worm attacks; Cloud computing; Filtering; Grippers; Mobile communication; Mobile handsets; Protocols; Security; MapReduce spam filtering; Mobile cloud; cloud mashup; cloudlet mesh; collaborative intrusion detection; inter-cloud protocol (ID#: 15-8068)


Chaki, P.; Yasuda, M.; Fujita, N., "Seamless Group Reformation in WiFi Peer to Peer Network using Dormant Backend Links," in Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC), 2015 12th Annual IEEE, pp. 773-778, 9-12 Jan. 2015. doi: 10.1109/CCNC.2015.7158075

Abstract: WiFi Peer to Peer (P2P) aka WiFi Direct enables devices to communicate with each other in a peer to peer manner without requiring any Access Point at typical WiFi speed with WPA2 security. With its huge prospect in revolutionizing device to device communication, WiFi P2P can potentially play a much larger role amid the growing interest in M2M communication and Internet of Things. However, unlike a conventional P2P network which operates on mesh topology, WiFi P2P requires one of its group members to act as Group Owner, with whom all the other devices in the group stay associated. The group suffers from a temporary network disruption when the Group Owner suddenly leaves the group without any prior notice. In addition, restoration of the group connectivity consumes much time which is intolerable for most delay sensitive applications. In this paper, we address this issue using our proposed concept of Seamless Group Reformation which helps in maintaining near continuous connectivity and alleviates over dependence of the group on the Group Owner. The concept is seconded by the proposed mechanism of Dormant Backend Links to cut down the total group-disruption time. We implement the mechanism of Dormant Backend Links on a practical WiFi P2P testbed and present an experimental evaluation.

Keywords: Internet of Things; computer network security; peer-to-peer computing; telecommunication network topology; wireless LAN; Internet of Things;M2M communication;P2P; WPA2 security; WiFi P2P;WiFi peer to peer network; WiFi speed; access point; delay sensitive applications; device to device communication; dormant backend links; group connectivity; group owner; mesh topology; peer to peer manner; seamless group reformation; IEEE 802.11 Standards; Internet; Interrupters; Lead; Security; Topology; Group Owner; Group Reformation; Peer to peer(P2P); WiFi Direct (ID#: 15-8069)


Islam, Taoufikul; Rahman, Hafiz Abdur; Syrus, Minhaz Ahmed, "Fire Detection System with Indoor Localization using Zigbee Based Wireless Sensor Network," in Informatics, Electronics & Vision (ICIEV), 2015 International Conference on, pp. 1-6, 15-18 June 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICIEV.2015.7334000

Abstract: Fire detection and protection are major problems in factories. A closely related problem is to localize fire sources to effectively extinguish those. In this paper we presented development of a moderate cost wireless sensor network based fire detection system with indoor localization capability. In Bangladesh, where large numbers of garment factories are located suffers fire incidents every year. The aim of our work was to develop fire detection system that could help the garment owners to install reliable fire detection systems with localizing capability within a relatively lower cost. As such, we have used open source hardware and software tools to develop our system and documented our approach well, so that it can be replicated anywhere.

Keywords: Communication system security; Fires; Mathematical model; Sensors; Wireless communication; Wireless sensor networks; Zigbee; Arduino; Fire Detection; Indoor Localization; Mesh Network; Open Source Hardware Software; Wireless Sensor Network; ZigBee (ID#: 15-8070)


Lin, Chun-Cheng; Tung-Huei Chen; Shun-Yu Jhong, "Wireless Mesh Router Placement with Constraints of Gateway Positions and QoS," in Heterogeneous Networking for Quality, Reliability, Security and Robustness (QSHINE), 2015 11th International Conference on, pp. 72-74, 19-20 Aug. 2015. Doi: (not provided)

Abstract: The past studies on router node placement for wireless mesh networks (WMNs) did not consider placement of Internet gateways. Therefore, mesh routers and mesh clients can only communicate locally. The problem in this paper is to maximize both network connectivity and client coverage for the router node placement in WMNs consisting of mesh routers, mesh clients, and Internet gateways, subject to three QoS constraints: delay, relay load, and Internet gateway capacity. By visualizing the placements in previous works, we discover two main drawbacks: overlapping and coverless. To solve them, this paper presents a novel particle swarm optimization approach. Performance of the proposed approach is verified by simulation.

Keywords: Delays; Internet; Logic gates; Particle swarm optimization; Quality of service; Relays; Wireless mesh networks; QoS; Wireless mesh network; particle swarm optimization (ID#: 15-8071)


Wenxiang Li; Chunchun Pi; Mei Han; Chong Ran; Wei Chen; Peng Ke, "A Scheduling Method For IOT-Aided Packaging and Printing Manufacturing System," in Heterogeneous Networking for Quality, Reliability, Security and Robustness (QSHINE), 2015 11th International Conference on, pp. 335-340, 19-20 Aug. 2015. Doi: (not provided)

Abstract: To meet the demand of effective control of production in packaging and printing industry, this paper proposes a manufacturing-assist system based on Internet of Things (IOT) techniques. The system is composed of reliable network connection with wireless mesh networks and widely deployed sensor nodes. With smart sensing, transmission and processing for the states of manufacturing facilities, products and production procedures, the system can exert efficient surveillance and control over the manufacturing procedure. Based on this system, this paper further designs a method for scheduling subtasks both among facilities and inside each facility. The method is implemented by Genetic Algorithm for optimization objectives such as minimizing overall production delay and minimizing overall production cost. Simulation and on-spot experiment in enterprise showed the superiority of the method for the optimization objectives.

Keywords: Delays; Genetics; Process control; Reliability; Scheduling; Wireless mesh networks; Genetic Algorithm; Internet of things; Package manufacturing; Scheduling (ID#: 15-8072)


Tata, C.; Kadoch, M., "Secure Multipath Routing Algorithm for Device-to-Device Communications for Public Safety over LTE Heterogeneous Networks," in Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud), 2015 3rd International Conference on, pp. 212-217, 24-26 Aug. 2015. doi: 10.1109/FiCloud.2015.51

Abstract: This article proposes a new approach for secure communications Device-to-Device (D2D) if unable to apply network coding transmissions within LTE small cells. Our new algorithm called Secure Load Balancing Selective Ad hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (LBS-AOMDV) is based on a multipath coded information transmissions, Data Splitting and Data Shuffling schemes. The objective of this study is to reduce the impact of confidentiality attack within Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) by preventing eavesdroppers to obtain significant information from those transmitted by legal users, while ensuring a high level of quality of Service (QoS) for transmitted traffic. The simulation results show that Secure LBS-AOMDV increases the level of security in the wireless network compared to the LBS-AOMDV approach without adding traffic control.

Keywords: Long Term Evolution; multipath channels; network coding; quality of service; resource allocation; telecommunication network routing; telecommunication security; wireless mesh networks; LBS-AOMDV; LTE heterogeneous networks; QoS; data shuffling; data splitting; device-to-device communications; multipath coded information transmissions; network coding transmissions; public safety; quality of service; secure communications; secure load balancing selective ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector; secure multipath routing algorithm; wireless mesh networks; Computer hacking; Load management; Quality of service; Safety; Wireless LAN; Wireless networks;D2D;LTE;Load Balancing; Multipath; Public Safety; Quality of Service; Security (ID#: 15-8073)


Shahzad, G.; Ahmad, A.W.; Heekwon Yang; Chankil Lee, "Sensor Fusion Based Energy Efficient and Sustainable Smart Parking System," in Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), 2015 17th International Conference on, pp. 100-104, 1-3 July 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICACT.2015.7224766

Abstract: With the rapid increase in urban population and hence the automobiles, parking has emerged as a resource with fair amount of energy consumption, air pollution and traffic congestion in almost every major city around the globe. Therefore, its efficient management in terms of both energy and space is not only necessitated to save a lot of energy, but also plays a pivotal role to obtain environment friendly green cities. In this article, we proposed a smart energy efficient parking system, which integrates the image recognition techniques for license plate recognition, infrared sensor for group control and wireless sensor network (WSN) for intelligent light emitting diode (LED) lighting. The system offers better guidance to parking position, controls LED lights based on traffic distribution for maximum energy efficiency, and offers enhanced security as compared to its counterpart conventional system. The system is built on ZigBee based Wireless Mesh network (WMN) nodes equipped with image sensor and RF module. The vehicles in the parking lot are detected and recognized using the grid based algorithm and license plate image recognition. The concept of zoning or lighting group control algorithm is integrated with moving object tracking algorithm to control the array of lights to attain the maximum energy efficiency and reduced Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In comparison to conventional parking and normal lighting, the proposed system presents the substantial amount of energy savings, less environmental pollution and enhanced surveillance. Moreover, the embedded advantage of improved reliability, reduced maintenance and low cost due to smart control suggests very satisfactory and optimistic results for future implementation of the system as an integrated part of smart cities.

Keywords: Zigbee; air pollution control; energy conservation; image fusion; image recognition; image sensors; infrared detectors; light emitting diodes; lighting; object tracking; traffic control; wireless mesh networks; wireless sensor networks; LED lighting; ZigBee; energy efficiency; energy savings; enhanced surveillance; environmental pollution; group control; image sensor; infrared sensor; intelligent light emitting diode lighting; license plate image recognition; moving object tracking; reduced greenhouse gas emissions; sensor fusion; smart control; smart energy efficient parking system; sustainable smart parking system; wireless mesh network; wireless sensor network; Energy efficiency; Licenses; Light emitting diodes; Lighting; Vehicles; Wireless sensor networks; Zigbee; Energy Efficiency ;Group control; Image recognition; LED Intelligent lighting; Smart parking; Wireless sensor; ZigBee (ID#: 15-8074)


Guo, Qi; Li, Xiaohong; Feng, Zhiyong; Xu, Guangquan, "MPOID: Multi-protocol Oriented Intrusion Detection Method for Wireless Sensor Networks," in High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC), 2015 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security (CSS), 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS), 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on, pp. 1512-1517, 24-26 Aug. 2015. doi: 10.1109/HPCC-CSS-ICESS.2015.283

Abstract: It is very difficult to detect intrusions in wireless sensor networks (WSN), because of the dynamic network topology and diverse routing protocols. Traditional Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) for WSN only focus attention on a specified routing protocol, which lacks universality and flexibility. To solve the problem of multi-protocol intrusion detection, this paper proposes a universal method: MPOID (Multi-Protocol Oriented Intrusion Detection). Our work can generate all the attack types for any routing protocol of WSN, furthermore, part of which can be detected with the automatically generated rules accurately. In this work, we formalize the routing protocol with the Process Algebra for Wireless Mesh Networks (AWN) language, and then classify all the potential attacks into four categories according to four original purposes. Beginning from the original purpose, we can generate all the attack targets, attack traces and attack types. What's more, if the protocol process do not use local variables in the key variable assignment, we can also generate the detection rules for this attack type. Our case study of ADOV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector) protocol shows that our method generated all types of attacks, which outperforms other work. Our further theoretical analysis verifies that our detection rules could detect the corresponding attack types as we claimed. In conclusion, the MPOID method could be used as a flexible and universal tool to analyze and detect attack types for multi-protocol in WSN effectively.

Keywords: Algebra; Intrusion detection; Routing protocols; Skeleton; Wireless sensor networks; AWN; attack analysis; intrusion detection; multi-protocol; wireless sensor networks (ID#: 15-8075)


Steger, M.; Karner, M.; Hillebrand, J.; Rom, W.; Armengaud, E.; Hansson, M.; Boano, C.A.; Romer, K., "Applicability of IEEE 802.11s for Automotive Wireless Software Updates," in Telecommunications (ConTEL), 2015 13th International Conference on, pp. 1-8, 13-15 July 2015. doi: 10.1109/ConTEL.2015.7231190

Abstract: Due to the rising number of electronic control units (ECU) in a vehicle and the growing complexity of the related software installed, a fast and efficient system for updating software is needed. Wireless software updates similar to firmware over the air updates for smartphones can be a suitable solution to solve this issue. In this paper we propose a wireless update system based on an IEEE 802.11s mesh network and describe related high-level requirements for such a system. Additionally the prototype of a wireless vehicle interface (WVI) is described. This interface is needed to maintain the wireless link as well as to forward the received data to the in-vehicle communication system and finally to the ECU. Existing diagnostic standards are applied to transfer and install the new software on the ECU. Furthermore, IEEE 802.11s-based network nodes and the WVI prototype are used to evaluate the applicability of IEEE 802.11s for a wireless update system used in the vehicle development phase. We performed indoor measurements as well as measurements inside two different vehicles to evaluate the influence of the shielding properties of a vehicle. The results of these measurements show that the used setup consisting of the WVI prototype and other IEEE 802.11s based nodes can be used to realize a wireless update system and is able to fulfil the defined system requirements.

Keywords: automotive engineering; mechanical engineering computing; wireless LAN; IEEE 802.11s-based network nodes; WVI; automotive wireless software updates; electronic control units; smartphones; wireless vehicle interface; Automotive engineering; Communication system security; IEEE 802.11 Standard; Safety; Vehicles; Wireless communication; Wireless sensor networks (ID#: 15-8076)


Beyranvand, H.; Levesque, M.; Maier, M.; Salehi, J.A., "FiWi Enhanced LTE-A HetNets with Unreliable Fiber Backhaul Sharing and WiFi Offloading," in Computer Communications (INFOCOM), 2015 IEEE Conference on, pp. 1275-1283, April 26 2015-May 1 2015. doi: 10.1109/INFOCOM.2015.7218503

Abstract: To cope with the unprecedented growth of mobile data traffic, we investigate the performance gains obtained from unifying coverage-centric 4G mobile networks and capacity-centric fiber-wireless (FiWi) broadband access networks based on data-centric Ethernet technologies with resulting fiber backhaul sharing and WiFi offloading capabilities. Despite recent progress on backhaul-aware 4G studies with capacity-limited backhaul links, the performance-limiting impact of backhaul latency and reliability has not been examined in sufficient detail previously. In this paper, we evaluate the maximum aggregate throughput, offloading efficiency, and in particular the delay performance of FiWi enhanced LTE-A heterogeneous networks (HetNets), including the beneficial impact of various localized fiber-lean backhaul redundancy and wireless protection techniques, by means of probabilistic analysis and verifying simulation, paying close attention to fiber backhaul reliability issues and WiFi offloading limitations due to WiFi mesh node failures as well as temporal and spatial WiFi coverage constraints.

Keywords: 4G mobile communication; Long Term Evolution; broadband networks; local area networks; optical fibre communication; probability; statistical analysis; telecommunication network reliability; telecommunication security; telecommunication traffic; FiWi broadband access networks; LTE-A HetNets; Long Term Evolution; WiFi coverage constraints; WiFi mesh node failures; WiFi offloading capabilities; backhaul latency; backhaul-aware 4G studies; capacity-centric fiber-wireless broadband access networks; capacity-limited backhaul links; coverage-centric 4G mobile networks; data-centric Ethernet technologies; fiber backhaul reliability; fiber backhaul sharing; localized fiber-lean backhaul redundancy; mobile data traffic; probabilistic analysis; wireless protection techniques; Delays; IEEE 802.11 Standard; Mobile communication; Optical network units; Passive optical networks; Wireless communication (ID#: 15-8077)


Li, Feng; Zhang, Zhaopeng; Jia, Zhiping; Ju, Lei, "Superframe Scheduling for Data Aggregation in WirelessHART Networks," in High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC), 2015 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security (CSS), 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS), 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on, pp. 1540-1545, 24-26 Aug. 2015.doi: 10.1109/HPCC-CSS-ICESS.2015.220

Abstract: WirelessHART has become an industrial standard for robust and real-time wireless monitoring and control. While energy-efficiency is one of the key design considerations for networks with battery-operated devices, data aggregation has been widely studied in the wireless sensor network (WSN) environments to reduce the traffic and prolong the lifetime of the network. However, existing data aggregation techniques cannot be applied directly to WirelessHART networks due to the multi-channel Time Synchronized Mesh Protocol (TSMP) and the superframe-based communication slot scheduling in WirelessHART. In this work, we propose a data aggregation mechanism for energy-efficient and real-time WirelessHART communication. In particular, a greedy-based heuristic is applied during the superframe construction phase to assign package transmissions whose data can be aggregated at intermediate routing nodes into nearby time slots. Experimental results show that compared with existing WirelessHART routing algorithms, our proposed framework has significantly improvement on the energy saving and prolongs the overall lifetime of the network.

Keywords: Energy efficiency; Real-time systems; Reliability; Routing; Standards; Time division multiple access; Wireless sensor networks; Data aggregation; Scheduling; WirelessHART (ID#: 15-8078)


Babbitt, T.A.; Szymanski, B.K., "Trust Metric Integration in Resource Constrained Networks Via Data Fusion," in Information Fusion (Fusion), 2015 18th International Conference on, pp. 582-589, 6-9 July 2015. Doi: (not provided)

Abstract: There are numerous environments and situations where network infrastructure is sparse, latent, or partially out of service. There is a growing body of research on protocols, security, information assurance and trust for use in such Resource Constrained Networks. A few examples of a Resource Constrained Network include Delay Tolerant, Wireless Sensor, and many mobile ad-hoc and ad-hoc mesh networks. Data fusion of direct observations and recommendations from other nodes into an aggregate trust value on a given node allows for more efficient routing and enables information assurance security services that support data availability, confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation. Selecting proper data metrics and fusion scheme allows nodes in a network to quickly converge on an accurate trust value for a given node. This minimizes security risks and provides better quality of service to properly functioning nodes as well as quickly isolates malicious ones. This paper discusses our current work on distributed trust management schemes for use in Resource Constrained Networks. Specifically, it introduces fusion methods to integrate diverse clues into a composite trust value.

Keywords: data integrity; security of data; sensor fusion; trusted computing; ad-hoc mesh networks; data authentication; data availability; data confidentiality; data fusion; data integrity; data nonrepudiation; delay tolerance; distributed trust management schemes; information assurance security services; mobile ad-hoc networks; resource constrained networks; trust metric integration; wireless sensor; Ad hoc networks; Aggregates; Mathematical model; Measurement; Protocols; Routing; Security (ID#: 15-8079)


Tunaru, I.; Denis, B.; Perrier, R.; Uguen, B., "Cooperative Group Key Generation Using IR-UWB Multipath Channels," in Ubiquitous Wireless Broadband (ICUWB), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 1-5, 4-7 Oct. 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICUWB.2015.7324430

Abstract: In wireless decentralized networks, nodes physically close to each other can take advantage of the shared wireless medium to generate common secrets or keys and enhance the security of communications. Previous studies already provided models, algorithms, and proofs of concept to exploit the radio physical layer and generate symmetric keys over single links. Some of these models have been adapted to cooperative scenarios involving several nodes, either to reinforce the generated pair-wise keys or to issue a common group key (i.e., shared by more than two nodes). In this study, we focus on key agreement from Impulse Radio - Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) multipath channels according to the source model. We propose a new method to generate group keys within cooperative scenarios, while exploiting all the available physical links in a full mesh topology and reducing over-the-air traffic. The main idea consists in adjusting the IR-UWB signals usually transmitted for channel probing so that receiving nodes have access to non-observable channels corresponding to their non-adjacent links. We describe an example where the transmitted signal is optimized using a least squares minimization routine with prior information.

Keywords: cooperative communication; least squares approximations; private key cryptography; radio links; telecommunication network topology; telecommunication security; telecommunication traffic; ultra wideband communication; wireless channels; IR-UWB multipath channels; channel probing; communication security; impulse radio-ultra wideband multipath channels; least squares minimization routine; mesh topology; over-the-air traffic; pair-wise keys; radio physical layer; symmetric keys; wireless decentralized networks; wireless medium; Channel estimation; Communication system security; Generators; Physical layer; Protocols; Quantization (signal); Wireless communication (ID#: 15-8080)


Bi, Zhuo; Chen, Deji; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Changjun; Chen, Ming, "Adopting WirelessHART for In-vehicle-Networking," in High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC), 2015 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security (CSS), 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS), 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on, pp.1027-1030, 24-26 Aug. 2015. Doi: 10.1109/HPCC-CSS-ICESS.2015.244

Abstract: It is estimated that the breakthrough in the broad deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) could come from smart cars. Indeed, we have seen multi-facet advances around cars: new material, in vehicle infotainment, driverless cars, smart transportation, electrical vehicles, etc. However, in-vehicle-networking has been mainly by wire, the wiring for a car is largely pre-built during the design phase. With more and more things networked within a car, wiring has taken up 1-2 percent of the total weight. This translates into burning up to 0.1 kilogram fuel over 100 kilometers. On the other hand, the advances in wireless technology, especially the broad acceptance of WirelssHART in the industrial settings, has proved its capability in harsh environments. This paper studies what could happen if we use WirelessHART mesh network for in-vehicle communication. While new wireless network protocols are needed to perform the task of CAN, the dominant in-vehicle fieldbus, WirelessHART could take on the work performed by LIN, the fieldbus for peripheral devices. A detailed study is provided to compare these buses. Road tests were performed, in which a WirelessHART network keeps running for the whole 20 minute period.

Keywords: Communication system security; Protocols; Standards; Vehicles; Wireless communication; Wireless sensor networks; Wires; CAN; LIN; Reliable Wireless Sensor Network; Smart Car; WirelessHART (ID#: 15-8081)


Thakur, P.; Patel, R.; Patel, N., "A Proposed Framework for Protection of Identity Based Attack in Zigbee," in Communication Systems and Network Technologies (CSNT), 2015 Fifth International Conference on, pp. 628-632, 4-6 April 2015. doi: 10.1109/CSNT.2015.243

Abstract: ZigBee is used for emerging standard of lowpower, low-rate wireless communication which aims at interoperability and covers a full range of devices even including low- end battery-powered nodes. Zigbee is a specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area network built from small network. Zigbee network are vulnerable to Sybil attack in which a Sybil node send forges multiple identities to trick the system and conduct harmful attack. We propose a Sybil attack detection and prevention method using distance and address of node in Zigbee. In this technique, trusted node verifies other nodes and identifies the malicious node. We will implement this technique using NS2 with AODV protocol for mesh topology.

Keywords: Zigbee; protocols; radiocommunication; telecommunication network topology; telecommunication security; AODV protocol;NS2;Sybil attack detection; Sybil node; Zigbee; high-level communication protocols; identity protection; low-end battery-powered nodes; mesh topology; personal area network; wireless communication; Ad hoc networks; IP networks; Protocols; Security; Wireless communication; Wireless sensor networks; Zigbee; Zigbee network; Trust center; Sybil attack (ID#: 15-8082)


Ishida, Shigemi; Tagashira, Shigeaki; Arakawa, Yutaka; Fukuda, Akira, "On-demand Indoor Location-Based Service Using Ad-hoc Wireless Positioning Network," in High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC), 2015 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security (CSS), 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS), 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on, pp. 1005-1013, 24-26 Aug. 2015. Doi: (not provided)

doi: 10.1109/HPCC-CSS-ICESS.2015.111

Abstract: WiFi-based localization is a promising candidate for indoor localization because the localization systems can be implemented on WiFi devices widely used today. In this paper, we present a distributed localization system to realize on-demand location-based services. We define characteristics of on-demand from both the service providers' and users' perspectives. From the service providers' perspective, we utilize our previous work, a WiFi ad-hoc wireless positioning network (AWPN). From the users' perspective, we address two challenges: the elimination of a user-application installation process and a reduction in network traffic. We design a localization system using the AWPN and provide a location-based service as a Web service, which allows the use of Web browsers. The proposed localization system is built on WiFi access points and distributes network traffic over the network. We describe the design and implementation and include a design analysis of the proposed localization system. Experimental evaluations confirm that the proposed localization system can localize a user device within 220 milliseconds. We also perform simulations and demonstrate that the proposed localization system reduces network traffic by approximately 24% compared to a centralized localization system.

Keywords: Accuracy; Ad hoc networks; IEEE 802.11 Standard; Mobile radio mobility management; Web servers; Wireless communication; WiFi mesh network; ad-hoc wireless positioning network; indoor localization; location-based Web service; on-demand (ID#: 15-8083)



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