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Power Grid Vulnerability Analysis 2015


Cyber-Physical Systems such as the power grid are complex networks linked with cyber capabilities.  The complexity and potential consequences of cyber-attacks on the grid make them an important area for scientific research.  Work cited here was presented in 2015.

Xisong Dong; Nyberg, T.R.; Hamalainen, P.; Gang Xiong; Yuan Liu; Jiachen Hou, "Vulnerability Analysis of Smart Grid Based on Complex Network Theory," in Information Science and Technology (ICIST), 2015 5th International Conference on, pp. 525-529, 24-26 April 2015. doi: 10.1109/ICIST.2015.7289028

Abstract: Smart grid has been widely acknowledged around the world. The rapid development of complex network theory provides a new perception into the research of smart grid. Based on the latest progress in the field of complex network theory, smart grid can be treated as small world networks. This paper examines the tolerance of smart grid against attacks to analyze its vulnerability, and proposes a technique to study the relationship between the electric betweenness and the reliability of smart grid. Based on these researches, the specific concept of vulnerability investigation to indicate smart grid is clarified. Furthermore, the proposed method will be investigated by an IEEE test system in contrast with the result from actual concept in power grid to indicate its effectiveness.

Keywords: IEEE standards; complex networks; power system protection; power system reliability; smart power grids; IEEE test system; complex network theory; smart grid electric betweenness; smart grid reliability; smart grid tolerance; smart grid vulnerability analysis; Context; Smart grids (ID#: 15-8475)



Jun Yan; Yufei Tang; Haibo He; Yan Sun, "Cascading Failure Analysis With DC Power Flow Model and Transient Stability Analysis," in Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 285-297, Jan. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2014.2322082

Abstract: When the modern electrical infrastructure is undergoing a migration to the Smart Grid, vulnerability and security concerns have also been raised regarding the cascading failure threats in this interconnected transmission system with complex communication and control challenge. The DC power flow-based model has been a popular model to study the cascading failure problem due to its efficiency, simplicity and scalability in simulations of such failures. However, due to the complex nature of the power system and cascading failures, the underlying assumptions in DC power flow-based cascading failure simulators (CFS) may fail to hold during the development of cascading failures. This paper compares the validity of a typical DC power flow-based CFS in cascading failure analysis with a new numerical metric defined as the critical moment (CM). The adopted CFS is first implemented to simulate system behavior after initial contingencies and to evaluate the utility of DC-CFS in cascading failure analysis. Then the DC-CFS is compared against another classic, more precise power system stability methodology, i.e., the transient stability analysis (TSA). The CM is introduced with a case study to assess the utilization of these two models for cascading failure analysis. Comparative simulations on the IEEE 39-bus and 68-bus benchmark reveal important consistency and discrepancy between these two approaches. Some suggestions are provided for using these two models in the power grid cascading failure analysis.

Keywords: load flow; power system reliability; power system simulation; power system transient stability; DC power flow model; cascading failure analysis; critical moment; Interconnected transmission system; power system stability; smart grid; transient stability analysis; Analytical models; Failure analysis; Mathematical model; Power system faults; Power system protection; Power system stability; Stability analysis; Cascading failure; DC power flow; contingency analysis; transient stability; vulnerability assessment (ID#: 15-8476)


Deka, D.; Vishwanath, S., "Structural Vulnerability of Power Grids to Disasters: Bounds and Reinforcement Measures," in Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT), 2015 IEEE Power & Energy Society, pp. 1-5, 18-20 Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/ISGT.2015.7131820

Abstract: Failures of power grid components during natural disasters like hurricanes can fragment the network and lead to creation of islands and blackouts. The propagation of failures in actual power grids following a catastrophic event differs significantly and thus is harder to analyze than on random networks. This paper studies the structural vulnerability of real power grids to natural disasters and presents improved bounds to quantify the size of the expected damage induced. The performance of the derived bounds are demonstrated through simulations on an IEEE test case and a real grid network. Further a framework based on the eigen-decomposition of the power grid network is used to study adversarial attacks aimed to minimize network resilience. The insights gained are used to design reinforcement measures to improve network resilience against such adversaries.

Keywords: disasters; eigenvalues and eigenfunctions; power grids; IEEE test case; eigen-decomposition; natural disasters; network resilience; power grid network; real grid network; Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions; Hurricanes; Power grids; Power transmission lines; Resilience; Transmission line matrix methods; Upper bound (ID#: 15-8477)



Liu, R.; Srivastava, A., "Integrated Simulation to Analyze the Impact of Cyber-Attacks on the Power Grid," in Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES), 2015 Workshop on, pp. 1-6, 13-13 April 2015. doi: 10.1109/MSCPES.2015.7115395

Abstract: With the development of the smart grid technology, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays a significant role in the smart grid. ICT enables to realize the smart grid, but also brings cyber vulnerabilities. It is important to analyze the impact of possible cyber-attacks on the power grid. In this paper, a real-time, cyber-physical co-simulation testbed with hardware-in-the-loop capability is discussed. Real-time Digital Simulator (RTDS), Synchrophasor devices, DeterLab, and a wide- area monitoring application with closed-loop control are utilized in the developed testbed. Two different real life cyber-attacks, including TCP SYN flood attack, and man-in-the-middle attack, are simulated on an IEEE standard power system test case to analyze the the impact of these cyber-attacks on the power grid.

Keywords: closed loop systems; digital simulation; phasor measurement; power system simulation; smart power grids; DeterLab; ICT; IEEE standard power system test case; RTDS;TCP SYN flood attack; closed loop control; cyber vulnerability; cyber-attack impact analysis; hardware-in-the-loop capability; information and communication technology; integrated simulation; man-in-the-middle attack; real-time cyber-physical cosimulation testbed; real-time digital simulator; smart power grid technology; synchrophasor devices; wide-area monitoring application; Capacitors; Loading; Phasor measurement units; Power grids; Power system stability; Reactive power; Real-time systems; Cyber Security; Cyber-Physical; DeterLab; RTDS; Real-Time Co-Simulation; Synchrophasor Devices (ID#: 15-8478)



Xingsi Zhong; Ahmadi, A.; Brooks, R.; Venayagamoorthy, G.K.; Lu Yu; Yu Fu, "Side Channel Analysis of Multiple PMU Data in Electric Power Systems," in Power Systems Conference (PSC), 2015 Clemson University, pp. 1-6, 10-13 March 2015. doi: 10.1109/PSC.2015.7101704

Abstract: The deployment of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) in an electric power grid will enhance real-time monitoring and analysis of grid operations. The PMU collects bus voltage phasors, branch current phasors, and bus frequency measurements and uses a communication network to transmit the measurements to the respective substation(s)/control center(s). PMU information is sensitive, since missing or incorrect PMU data could lead to grid failure and/or damage. It is important to use encrypted communicate channels to avoid cyber attacks. In this study, a side-channel attack using inter-packet delays to isolate the stream of packets of one PMU from an encrypted tunnel is shown. Also, encryption in power system VPNs and vulnerabilities due to side channel analysis is discussed.

Keywords: phasor measurement; power grids; security of data; branch current phasors; bus frequency measurements; bus voltage phasors; electric power grid; electric power systems; encrypted tunnel; inter-packet delays; multiple PMU data; phasor measurement units; real-time monitoring; side channel analysis; Cryptography; Delays; Hidden Markov models; Logic gates; Phasor measurement units; Cybersecurity; grid operations; phasor measurement units; power system; side channel analysis (ID#: 15-8479)



Hahn, E.M.; Hermanns, H.; Wimmer, R.; Becker, B., "Transient Reward Approximation for Continuous-Time Markov Chains," in Reliability, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 1254-1275, Dec. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TR.2015.2449292

Abstract: We are interested in the analysis of very large continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs) with many distinct rates. Such models arise naturally in the context of reliability analysis, e.g., of computer network performability analysis, of power grids, of computer virus vulnerability, and in the study of crowd dynamics. We use abstraction techniques together with novel algorithms for the computation of bounds on the expected final and accumulated rewards in continuous-time Markov decision processes (CTMDPs). These ingredients are combined in a partly symbolic and partly explicit (symblicit) analysis approach. In particular, we circumvent the use of multi-terminal decision diagrams, because the latter do not work well if facing a large number of different rates. We demonstrate the practical applicability and efficiency of the approach on two case studies.

Keywords: Markov processes; approximation theory; binary decision diagrams; computational complexity; CTMC; CTMDP; abstraction techniques; accumulated rewards; bound computation; computational complexity; continuous-time Markov chains; continuous-time Markov decision processes; expected final rewards; multiterminal decision diagrams; partly-explicit analysis approach; partly-symbolic analysis approach; reliability analysis; symblicit analysis; transient reward approximation; Analytical models; Boolean functions; Computational modeling; Concrete; Data structures; Markov processes; Continuous-time Markov chains; abstraction; continuous-time Markov decision processes; ordered binary decision diagrams; symbolic methods (ID#: 15-8480)



Mohagheghi, S.; Javanbakht, P., "Power Grid and Natural Disasters: A Framework for Vulnerability Assessment," in Green Technologies Conference (GreenTech), 2015 Seventh Annual IEEE, pp. 199-205, 15-17 April 2015. doi: 10.1109/GREENTECH.2015.27

Abstract: As unexpected, large-scale and uncontrollable events, natural disasters can cause devastating damages to a society's infrastructure. The possible interruption in electric service is not simply a matter of inconvenience, since in our modern societies this could disrupt many services our everyday lives depend on. Any disturbance in critical municipal infrastructure such as water sanitation and sewage plants, hospitals and emergency services, telecommunication networks, and police stations will add to the devastation and distress during the event, and may severely hinder any post-disaster recovery efforts. The first step to reinforce the power grid against such hazards is to assess the vulnerability of different system components against disaster events scenarios. By identifying the weak links in the system, remedial actions can be undertaken in an attempt to strengthen the energy delivery network. The purpose of this paper is to provide a mathematical framework for analysis of the interaction between natural hazards and the power grid. The outcome of this study can be used in any mitigation technique during the design or operation stages.

Keywords: critical infrastructures; disasters; emergency services; power grids; safety; critical municipal infrastructure; disaster events; emergency services; energy delivery network; hospitals; mitigation technique; natural disasters; natural hazards; police stations; post-disaster recovery; power grid; sewage plants; society infrastructure; telecommunication networks; vulnerability assessment; water sanitation; Fires; Hurricanes; Poles and towers; Power grids; Substations; Wind speed; natural disasters; power grid resilience; power system security; vulnerability assessment (ID#: 15-8481)



Davis, K.R.; Davis, C.M.; Zonouz, S.A.; Bobba, R.B.; Berthier, R.; Garcia, L.; Sauer, P.W., "A Cyber-Physical Modeling and Assessment Framework for Power Grid Infrastructures," in Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 2464-2475, Sept. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TSG.2015.2424155

Abstract: The integration of cyber communications and control systems into the power grid infrastructure is widespread and has a profound impact on the operation, reliability, and efficiency of the grid. Cyber technologies allow for efficient management of the power system, but they may contain vulnerabilities that need to be managed. One important possible consequence is the introduction of cyber-induced or cyber-enabled disruptions of physical components. In this paper, we propose an online framework for assessing the operational reliability impacts due to threats to the cyber infrastructure. This framework is an important step toward addressing the critical challenge of understanding and analyzing complex cyber-physical systems at scale.

Keywords: power engineering computing; power grids; security of data; assessment framework; attack trees; control system; cyber communications; cyber security; cyber-physical modeling; operational reliability impacts; power grid infrastructures; Analytical models; Object oriented modeling; Power system reliability; Reliability; Security; Topology; Attack trees; contingency analysis; cyber security; cyber-physical systems; cyber-physical topology; cyberphysical systems; operational reliability (ID#: 15-8482)



Rawat, D.B.; Bajracharya, C., "Detection of False Data Injection Attacks in Smart Grid Communication Systems," in Signal Processing Letters, IEEE, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 1652-1656, Oct. 2015. doi: 10.1109/LSP.2015.2421935

Abstract: The transformation of traditional energy networks to smart grids can assist in revolutionizing the energy industry in terms of reliability, performance and manageability. However, increased connectivity of power grid assets for bidirectional communications presents severe security vulnerabilities. In this letter, we investigate Chi-square detector and cosine similarity matching approaches for attack detection in smart grids where Kalman filter estimation is used to measure any deviation from actual measurements. The cosine similarity matching approach is found to be robust for detecting false data injection attacks as well as other attacks in the smart grids. Once the attack is detected, system can take preventive action and alarm the manager to take preventative action to limit the risk. Numerical results obtained from simulations corroborate our theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Kalman filters; power system reliability; smart power grids; Chi-square detector; Kalman filter estimation; bidirectional communications; cosine similarity matching approaches; energy industry; energy networks; false data injection attack detection; manageability; performance; power grid assets; preventive action; reliability; smart grid communication systems; Detectors; Estimation; Kalman filters; Security; Smart grids; Transmission line measurements; Attack detection; cyber-security; machine learning; power systems security; smart grid security (ID#: 15-8483)




Wang, Y.; Gamage, T.T.; Hauser, C.H., "Security Implications of Transport Layer Protocols in Power Grid Synchrophasor Data Communication," in Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on , vol. PP, no.99, pp.1-10, 03 December 2015. doi: 10.1109/TSG.2015.2499766

Abstract: Wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems based on synchrophasor data streams are becoming more and more significant to the operation of the smart power grid. Reliable and secure communication, and higher quality of service (very low latency, high availability, etc.) of data are crucial to the success of WAMC systems. However, the IEEE standard for synchrophasor data communication (IEEE Standard C37.118.2-2011) does not place any restrictions on the choice of transport layer protocols. In light of this, we examine the communication between synchrophasors [phasor measurement units (PMUs)] and phasor data concentrators to analyze potential security vulnerabilities present at the transport layer, and investigate the advantages and disadvantages of both the TCP and UDP protocols, respectively, with an emphasis on security issues. Demonstrations of attacks related to these security vulnerabilities are shown in lab environment and underlying mechanisms are analyzed to determine the capabilities attackers to succeed with them.

Keywords: Data transfer; IP networks; Phasor measurement units; Protocols; Reliability; Security; Transport layer protocol; security; wide-area monitoring and control (ID#: 15-8484)



Nourian, A.; Madnick, S., "A Systems Theoretic Approach to the Security Threats in Cyber Physical Systems Applied to Stuxnet," in Dependable and Secure Computing, IEEE Transactions on, vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1-1, 17 December, 2015. doi: 10.1109/TDSC.2015.2509994

Abstract: Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) are increasingly being adopted in a wide range of industries such as smart power grids. Even though the rapid proliferation of CPSs brings huge benefits to our society, it also provides potential attackers with many new opportunities to affect the physical world such as disrupting the services controlled by CPSs. Stuxnet is an example of such an attack that was designed to interrupt the Iranian nuclear program. In this paper, we show how the vulnerabilities exploited by Stuxnet could have been addressed at the design level. We utilize a system theoretic approach, based on prior research on system safety, that takes both physical and cyber components into account to analyze the threats exploited by Stuxnet. We conclude that such an approach is capable of identifying cyber threats towards CPSs at the design level and provide practical recommendations that CPS designers can utilize to design a more secure CPS.

Keywords: Hazards; Process control; Reliability; Security; Sensors; Software; CPS; CPS security design; STAMP; Security and safety analysis; Stuxnet analysis (ID#: 15-8485)



Darwish, I.; Igbe, O.; Saadawi, T., "Experimental and Theoretical Modeling of DNP3 Attacks in Smart Grids," in Sarnoff Symposium, 2015 36th IEEE, pp. 155-160, 20-22 Sept. 2015. doi: 10.1109/SARNOF.2015.7324661

Abstract: Security challenges have emerged in recent years facing smart-grids in the energy sector. Threats are arising every day that could cause great scale of damages in critical infrastructure. Our paper will address internal security threats associated with smart grid in a simulated virtual environment involving DNP3 protocol. We will analyze vulnerabilities and perform penetration testing involving Man-in-the-middle (MITM) type of attacks. Ultimately, by utilizing theoretical modeling of smart-grid attacks using game theory, we will optimize our detection and mitigation procedures to reduce cyber threats in DNP3 environment. The use of intrusion detection system will be necessary to identify attackers targeting different part of the smart grid infrastructure. Mitigation techniques will ensure a healthy check of the network. Performing DNP3 security attacks, detections, preventions and counter measures will be our goals to achieve in this research paper.

Keywords: game theory; power system security; safety systems; smart power grids; DNP3 attacks; game theory; internal security threats; intrusion detection system; man-in-the-middle; mitigation techniques; simulated virtual environment; smart grids; Delay effects; Game theory; Games; Payloads; Protocols; Security; Smart grids; DNP3; Game Theory;  IED; MITM; Malicious Attacks; SCADA; Smart-Grid (ID#: 15-8486)



Dayal, A.; Yi Deng; Tbaileh, A.; Shukla, S., "VSCADA: A Reconfigurable Virtual SCADA Test-Bed for Simulating Power Utility Control Center Operations," in Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 2015 IEEE, pp. 1-5, 26-30 July 2015. doi: 10.1109/PESGM.2015.7285822

Abstract: Complex large-scale cyber-physical systems, such as electric power grids, oil & gas pipeline systems, transportation systems, etc. are critical infrastructures that provide essential services for the entire nation. In order to improve systems' security and resilience, researchers have developed many Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) test beds for testing the compatibility of devices, analyzed the potential cyber threats/vulnerabilities, and trained practitioners to operate and protect these critical systems. In this paper, we describe a new test bed architecture for modeling and simulating power system related research. Since the proposed test bed is purely software defined and the communication is emulated, its functionality is versatile. It is able to reconfigure virtual systems for different real control/monitoring scenarios. The unified architecture can seamlessly integrate various kinds of system-level power system simulators (real-time/non real-time) with the infrastructure being controlled or monitored with multiple communication protocols. We depict the design methodology in detail. To validate the usability of the test bed, we implement an IEEE 39-bus power system case study with a power flow analysis and dynamics simulation mimicking a real power utility infrastructure. We also include a cascading failure example to show how system simulators such as Power System Simulator for Engineering (PSS/E), etc. can seamlessly interact with the proposed virtual test bed.

Keywords: SCADA systems; critical infrastructures; electricity supply industry; power system control; power system security; power system simulation; protocols; reconfigurable architectures; IEEE 39-bus power system; SCADA; communication protocol; complex large scale cyber-physical system; critical infrastructure; potential cyber threat; power system modelling; power utility control center operation simulation; reconfigurable virtual SCADA test bed architecture; reconfigure virtual system; supervisory control and data acquisition; system level power system simulation; system resilience; system security improvement; vulnerabilities; Computer architecture; Power system dynamics; Protocols; SCADA systems; Servers; Software; Cyber Physical Systems; Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems; System Integration; Virtual Test bed (ID#: 15-8487)



Yin Xu; Chen-Ching Liu; Schneider, K.P.; Ton, D.T., "Toward a Resilient Distribution System," in Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 2015 IEEE, pp. 1-5, 26-30 July 2015. doi: 10.1109/PESGM.2015.7286551

Abstract: Resiliency with respect to extreme events, such as a major hurricane, is considered one of the key features of smart distribution systems by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In this paper, approaches to resilient distribution systems are reviewed and analyzed. Three important measures to enhance resiliency, i.e., utilization of microgrids, distribution automation (DA), and vulnerability analysis, are discussed. A 4-feeder 1069-node test system with microgrids is simulated to demonstrate the feasibility of these measures.

Keywords: distributed power generation; power distribution reliability; DOE; U.S. Department of Energy; distribution automation; microgrids; resilient distribution systems; smart distribution systems; vulnerability analysis; Automation; Hurricanes; Maintenance engineering; Microgrids; Power system reliability; Reliability; Smart grids; Distribution system; distribution automation; extreme event; microgrid; resiliency; service restoration (ID#: 15-8488)



Yamaguchi, Y.; Ogawa, A.; Takeda, A.; Iwata, S., "Cyber Security Analysis of Power Networks by Hypergraph Cut Algorithms," in Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 6, no. 5, pp.2189-2199, Sept. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TSG.2015.2394791

Abstract: This paper presents exact solution methods for analyzing vulnerability of electric power networks to a certain kind of undetectable attacks known as false data injection attacks. We show that the problems of finding the minimum number of measurement points to be attacked undetectably reduce to minimum cut problems on hypergraphs, which admit efficient combinatorial algorithms. Experimental results indicate that our exact solution methods run as fast as the previous methods, most of which provide only approximate solutions. We also present an algorithm for enumerating all small cuts in a hypergraph, which can be used for finding vulnerable sets of measurement points.

Keywords: directed graphs; power system security; combinatorial algorithms; cyber security analysis; electric power networks; false data injection attacks; hypergraph cut algorithms; Algorithm design and analysis; Computer security; Indexes; Power measurement; Power systems; Vectors; False data injection; hypergraph; minimum cut; power network; security index; state estimation (ID#: 15-8489)



Procopiou, A.; Komninos, N., "Current and Future Threats Framework in Smart Grid Domain," in Cyber Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 1852-1857, 8-12 June 2015. doi: 10.1109/CYBER.2015.7288228

Abstract: Due to smart grid's complex nature and criticality as an infrastructure, it is important to understand the key actors on each domain in depth so the potential vulnerabilities that can rise are identified. Furthermore, the correct identification of threats affecting the smart grid's normal functionality must be realised, as well as what impact these threats can have so appropriate countermeasures are implemented. In this paper a list of vulnerabilities that weaken the smart grid is outlined. Also structured analysis of attacks regarding the three key security objectives across the different layers is presented along with appropriate examples applicable to the smart grid infrastructure and what impact each of them has to the smart grid on each case. Finally, a set of new attack scenarios that focus on attacks being initiated from the smart home part of the smart grid is described targeting these security objectives with the potential consequences they can cause to the smart grid.

Keywords: power system security; smart power grids; attack scenarios; correct threat identification; future threats framework; key security objectives; normal functionality; potential vulnerability identification; smart grid domain; Density estimation robust algorithm; Floods; Least squares approximations; Protocols; Security; Smart grids; Smart meters; Attacks; Availability; Confidentiality; Information Security; Integrity; Smart Grid; Threats; Vulnerabilities (ID#: 15-8490)



Shipman, C.; Hopkinson, K.; Lopez, J., "Con-Resistant Trust for Improved Reliability in a  Smart Grid Special Protection System," in Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 2015 IEEE, pp. 1-1, 26-30 July 2015. doi: 10.1109/PESGM.2015.7286475

Abstract: This article applies a con-resistant trust mechanism to improve the performance of a communications-based special protection system to enhance its effectiveness and resiliency. Smart grids incorporate modern information technologies to increase reliability and efficiency through better situational awareness. However, with the benefits of this new technology comes added risks associated with threats and vulnerabilities to the technology and to the critical infrastructure it supports. The research in this article uses con-resistant trust to quickly identify malicious or malfunctioning (untrustworthy) protection system nodes to mitigate instabilities. The con-resistant trust mechanism allows protection system nodes to make trust assessments based on the node's cooperative and defective behaviors. These behaviors are observed via frequency readings which are prediodically reported. The trust architecture is tested in experiments comparing a simulated special protection system with a con-resistant trust mechanism to one without the mechanism via an analysis of variance statistical model. Simulations result show promise for the proposed con-resistant trust mechanism.

Keywords: power system protection; power system reliability; smart power grids; conresistant trust; smart grid special protection system; variance statistical model; Computer architecture; Computers; Crystals; Information technology; Reliability engineering; Smart grids (ID#: 15-8491)



Basu, C.; Padmanaban, M.; Guillon, S.; de Montigny, M.; Kamwa, I., "Combining Multiple Sources Of Data For Situational Awareness Of Geomagnetic Disturbances," in Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 2015 IEEE, pp. 1-5, 26-30 July 2015. doi: 10.1109/PESGM.2015.7286179

Abstract: With the increasing complexity of the grid and increasing vulnerability to large-scale, natural events, control room operators need tools to enable them to react to events faster. This is especially true in the case of high impact events such as geomagnetic disturbances (GMDs). In this paper, we present a data-driven approach to building a predictive model of GMDs that combines information from multiple sources such as synchrophasors, magnetometers, etc. We evaluate the utility of our model on real GMD events and discuss some interesting results.

Keywords: geomagnetism; geophysical techniques; magnetometers; phasor measurement; power grids; power system control; GMD events; control room operators; geomagnetic disturbances; magnetometers; predictive model; situational awareness; synchrophasors; Delay effects; Earth; Harmonic analysis; Magnetometers; Monitoring; Power system harmonics; geomagnetic disturbances; synchrophasors; wide-area situational awareness (ID#: 15-8492)



Yihai Zhu; Jun Yan; Yufei Tang; Yan Sun; Haibo He, "Joint Substation-Transmission Line Vulnerability Assessment Against the Smart Grid," in Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1010-1024, May 2015. doi: 10.1109/TIFS.2015.2394240

Abstract: Power grids are often run near the operational limits because of increasing electricity demand, where even small disturbances could possibly trigger major blackouts. The attacks are the potential threats to trigger large-scale cascading failures in the power grid. In particular, the attacks mean to make substations/transmission lines lose functionality by either physical sabotages or cyber attacks. Previously, the attacks were investigated from substation-only/transmission-line-only perspectives, assuming attacks can occur only on substations/transmission lines. In this paper, we introduce the joint substation-transmission line perspective, which assumes attacks can happen on substations, transmission lines, or both. The introduced perspective is a nature extension to substation-only and transmission-line-only perspectives. Such extension leads to discovering many joint substation-transmission line vulnerabilities. Furthermore, we investigate the joint substation-transmission line attack strategies. In particular, we design a new metric, the component interdependency graph (CIG), and propose the CIG-based attack strategy. In simulations, we adopt IEEE 30 bus system, IEEE 118 bus system, and Bay Area power grid as test benchmarks, and use the extended degree-based and load attack strategies as comparison schemes. Simulation results show the CIG-based attack strategy has stronger attack performance.

Keywords: IEEE standards; demand side management; failure analysis; graph theory; power engineering computing; power transmission lines; power transmission reliability; security of data; smart power grids; substation protection; CIG-based attack strategy; IEEE 118 bus system; component interdependency graph; cyber attacks; electricity demand; joint substation-transmission line vulnerability assessment; large-scale cascading failure; load attack strategy; physical sabotages; smart power grid blackouts; Load modeling; Measurement; Power system faults; Power system protection; Power transmission lines; Smart grids; Attack; Cascading Failures; Security; The Smart Grid; The smart grid; Vulnerability Analysis; attack; cascading failures; security; vulnerability analysis (ID#: 15-8493)



Zeng, W.; Zhang, Y.; Chow, Mo-Yuen, "Resilient Distributed Energy Management Subject to Unexpected Misbehaving Generation Units," in Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1-1, 30 October 2015. doi: 10.1109/TII.2015.2496228

Abstract: Distributed energy management algorithms are being developed for the smart grid to efficiently and economically allocate electric power among connected distributed generation units and loads. The use of such algorithms provides flexibility, robustness, and scalability, while it also increases the vulnerability of smart grid to unexpected faults and adversaries. The potential consequences of compromising the power system can be devastating to public safety and economy. Thus, it is important to maintain the acceptable performance of distributed energy management algorithms in a smart grid environment under malicious cyberattacks. In this paper, a neighborhood-watch based distributed energy management algorithm is proposed to guarantee the accurate control computation in solving the economic dispatch problem in the presence of compromised generation units. The proposed method achieves the system resilience by performing a reliable distributed control without a central coordinator and allowing all the well-behaving generation units to reach the optimal operating point asymptotically. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through case studies under several different adversary scenarios.

Keywords: Algorithm design and analysis; Energy management; Integrated circuits; Resilience; Security; Smart grids; Economic dispatch; neighborhood-watch; resilient distributed energy management (ID#: 15-8494)



Shipman, C.M.; Hopkinson, K.M.; Lopez, J., "Con-Resistant Trust for Improved Reliability in a Smart-Grid Special Protection System," in Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 455-462, Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TPWRD.2014.2358074

Abstract: This paper applies a con-resistant trust mechanism to improve the performance of a communications-based special protection system to enhance its effectiveness and resiliency. Smart grids incorporate modern information technologies to increase reliability and efficiency through better situational awareness. However, with the benefits of this new technology come the added risks associated with threats and vulnerabilities to the technology and to the critical infrastructure it supports. The research in this paper uses con-resistant trust to quickly identify malicious or malfunctioning (untrustworthy) protection system nodes to mitigate instabilities. The con-resistant trust mechanism allows protection system nodes to make trust assessments based on the node's cooperative and defective behaviors. These behaviors are observed via frequency readings which are prediodically reported. The trust architecture is tested in experiments by comparing a simulated special protection system with a con-resistant trust mechanism to one without the mechanism via an analysis of the variance statistical model. Simulation results show promise for the proposed con-resistant trust mechanism.

Keywords: power system protection; power system reliability; smart power grids; statistical analysis; con-resistant trust mechanism; critical infrastructure; frequency readings; improved reliability; malfunctioning protection system; malicious protection system; modern information technology; situational awareness; smart grid; special protection system; trust assessments; untrustworthy protection system; variance statistical model; Generators; Government; Load modeling; Peer-to-peer computing; Resistance; Smart grids; Time-frequency analysis; Con-resistant trust; critical infrastructure; reputation-based trust; smart grid; special protection systems (ID#: 15-8495)



Seokcheol Lee; Hyunwoo Lim; Woong Go; Haeryong Park; Taeshik Shon, "Logical Architecture of HAN-Centric Smartgrid Model," in Platform Technology and Service (PlatCon), 2015 International Conference on, pp. 41-42, 26-28 Jan. 2015. doi: 10.1109/PlatCon.2015.18

Abstract: Home area network, which is located at the closest position to customer, handles private information of customer in smart grid. Thus, it is considered as security sensitive area in smart grid. And there could be undiscovered cyber security threat and vulnerability of systems. Therefore, it is required to develop the reference model in order to analyze security requirements and enhance the security of home area network. In this paper, home area network centric smart grid logical architecture is proposed to research for security enhancement through analyzing previous reference models. The proposed logical architecture focuses on communication routes and customer affinity.

Keywords: computer network security; data privacy; home networks; power engineering computing; smart power grids; HAN-centric smartgrid model; communication routes; customer affinity; customer private information; cyber security threat; home area network centric smartgrid logical architecture; home area network security enhancement; security requirements; security sensitive area; system vulnerability; Analytical models; Computer architecture; Electricity; Energy management; NIST; Security; Smart meters; Home area network; Smartgird; communication; customer domain}, (ID#: 15-8496)



Qiu, J.; Yang, H.; Dong, Z.Y.; Zhao, J.; Luo, F.; Lai, M.; Wong, K.P., "A Probabilistic Transmission Planning Framework for Reducing Network Vulnerability to Extreme Events," in Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on , vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1-11, 03 December 2015. doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2015.2498611

Abstract: The restructuring of electric power industry has brought in plenty of challenges for transmission expansion planning (TEP), mainly due to uncertainties. The commonly used probabilistic TEP approach requires the network to meet an acceptable risk criterion. However, a series of blackouts in recent years caused by extreme weather-related events have raised the concerns about network vulnerability through calculating the expected risk value. In this paper, we have proposed the concept that TEP should be economically adjusted in order to make network less vulnerable to extreme events (EEs) caused by climate change, e.g., floods or ice storms. We firstly give the explicit definitions of economic adjustment (EA) index and adjusted risk value. Then we formulate our model as a risk-based decision making process while satisfying the deterministic ${rm N}-1$ criterion. The proposed approach is tested on the IEEE 118-bus system. Results based on various risk aversion levels are given and comparison studies with other risk-based TEP approaches have been done. Also, sensitivity analysis of parameter setting has been conducted. According to the numerical results, the proposed risk-based TEP model is a flexible decision-making tool, which can help decision makers make a tradeoff between economy and security.

Keywords: Economics; Indexes; Load modeling; Planning; Probability density function; Uncertainty; Wind power generation; Power system planning; extreme events; risk management; wind power (ID#: 15-8497)



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