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The expansion of a network to more nodes creates security problems. For the Science of Security community, expandability relates to resilience and compositionality. The research work cited here was presented in 2015.

Z. Li and Y. Yang, “ABCCC: An Advanced Cube Based Network for Data Centers,” Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), 2015 IEEE 35th International Conference on, Columbus, OH, 2015, pp. 547-556. doi: 10.1109/ICDCS.2015.62
Abstract: A new network structure called BCube Connected Crossbars (BCCC) was recently proposed. Its short diameter, good expandability and low cost make it a very promising topology for data center networks. However, it can utilize only two NIC ports of each server, which is suitable for nowadays technology, even when more ports are available. Due to technology advances, servers with more NIC ports are emerging and they will become low-cost commodities some time later. In this paper, we propose a more general server-centric data center network structure, called Advanced BCube Connected Crossbars (ABCCC), which can utilize inexpensive commodity off-the-shelf switches and servers with any fixed number of NIC ports and provide good network properties. Like BCCC, ABCCC has good expandability. When doing expansion, there is no need to alter the existing system but only to add new components into it. Thus the expansion cost that BCube suffers from can be significantly reduced in ABCCC. We also introduce an addressing scheme and an efficient routing algorithm for one-to-one communication in ABCCC. We make comprehensive comparisons between ABCCC and some popular existing structures in terms of several critical metrics, such as diameter, network size, bisection bandwidth and capital expenditure. We also conduct extensive simulations to evaluate ABCCC, which show that ABCCC achieves the best trade off among all these critical metrics and it suits for many different applications by fine tuning its parameters.
Keywords: computer centres; computer networks; topology; ABCCC; NIC port; advanced BCube connected crossbar; off-the-shelf switch; one-to-one communication; routing algorithm; server-centric data center network structure; Hardware; Hypercubes; Network topology; Ports (Computers); Routing; Servers; Topology; Data center networks; expandability; network diameter; server-centric (ID#: 16-9991)


Z. Li and Y. Yang, “GBC3: A Versatile Cube-Based Server-Centric Network for Data Centers,” in IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 2895-2910, 2016. doi: 10.1109/TPDS.2015.2511725
Abstract: A new network structure called BCube Connected Crossbars (BCCC) was recently proposed. Its short diameter, good expandability and low cost make it a very promising topology for data center networks. However, it can utilize only two NIC ports of each server, which is suitable for nowadays technology, even though more NIC ports are available. Due to technology advances, servers with more NIC ports are emerging and they will become low-cost commodities some time later. In this paper, we propose a more general server-centric data center network structure, called GBC3, which can utilize inexpensive commodity off-the-shelf switches and servers with any fixed number of NIC ports and provide good network properties. Like BCCC, GBC3 has good expandability. When doing expansion, there is no need to alter the existing system but only to add new components into it. Thus the expansion cost that BCube suffers from can be significantly reduced in GBC3. We also introduce an addressing scheme and several efficient routing algorithms for one-to-one, one-to-all and one-to-many communications in GBC3 respectively. We make comprehensive comparisons between GBC3 and some popular existing structures in terms of several critical metrics, such as diameter, network size, bisection bandwidth and capital expenditure. We also conduct extensive experiments to evaluate GBC3, which show that GBC3 achieves the best flexibility to make tradeoff among all these critical metrics and it can suit for many different applications by fine tuning its parameters.
Keywords: Hardware; Hypercubes; Network topology; Ports (Computers); Routing; Servers; Topology; Data center networks; expandability; network diameter; server-centric; topology (ID#: 16-9992)


Y. Cheng, D. Zhao, F. Tao, L. Zhang and Y. Liu, “Complex Networks Based Manufacturing Service and Task Management in Cloud Environment,” Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), 2015 IEEE 10th Conference on, Auckland, 2015, pp. 242-247. doi: 10.1109/ICIEA.2015.7334119
Abstract: In the process of development and application of service-oriented manufacturing (SOM) system, e.g., cloud manufacturing (CMfg), manufacturing resource allocation is always one of the most important issues need to be addressed. With the permeation of Internet of things (IoT), big data, and cloud technologies in manufacturing, manufacturing service and task management in SOM is facing some new challenges under the cloud environment. In consideration of the characteristics of cloud environment (i.e., complexity, sociality, dynamics, uncertainty, distribution, expandability, etc.), a manufacturing service and task management method based on complex networks is proposed in this paper. The models of manufacturing service network (S_Net) and manufacturing task network (T_Net) are built according to the digital description of manufacturing service and task. Then the manufacturing service management upon S_Net and manufacturing task management upon T_Net are discussed respectively. Finally, the conclusion and future works are pointed out.
Keywords: cloud computing; manufacturing data processing; service-oriented architecture; Big Data; CMfg; Internet of things; SOM system; S_Net; T_Net; cloud environment characteristics; cloud manufacturing; cloud technologies; complex network-based manufacturing service; complexity characteristic; distribution characteristic; dynamics characteristic; expandability characteristic; manufacturing resource allocation; manufacturing service network; manufacturing task network; service-oriented manufacturing system; sociality characteristic; task management; uncertainty characteristic; Cloud computing; Collaborative work; Complex networks; Computational modeling; Correlation; Manufacturing; Resource management; cloud environment; manufacturing service network (S_Net); manufacturing task network (T_Net); service management; service-oriented manufacturing (SOM) (ID#: 16-9993)


R. Zhao and J. Zhang, “High Efficiency Hybrid Current Balancing Method for Multi-Channel LED Drive,” 2015 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), Charlotte, NC, 2015, pp. 854-860. doi: 10.1109/APEC.2015.7104449
Abstract: In this paper, a novel hybrid current balancing method for multi-channel LED drive based on quasi-two-stage converter are proposed. In the proposed structure, each output module has two outputs and their output currents can be balanced by a capacitor based on charge balancing principle. A switching mode current regulator is adopted for each output module to balance the currents of the output modules. Since the current regulator only process part of the total output power, the cost is low and the efficiency is high. The proposed method combines the advantages of passive and active current balancing method, which is simple and flexible for load expandability. Performance of the proposed method is validated by the simulation and experimental results from a 120W prototype with four LED strings.
Keywords: capacitors; driver circuits; electric current control; light emitting diodes; switching convertors; active current balancing method; capacitor; hybrid current balancing method; load expandability; multichannel LED drive; passive current balancing method; power 120 W; quasitwo-stage converter; switching mode current regulator; Adaptive control; Capacitors; DC-DC power converters; Light emitting diodes; Regulators; Switches; Voltage control; Current balancing method; Hybrid; LLC; Multi-output LED driver; high efficiency (ID#: 16-9994)


S. C. Lin, C. Wang, C. Y. Lo, Y. W. Chang, H. Y. Lai and P. L. Hsu, “Using Constructivism as a Basic Idea to Design Multi-Situated Game-Based Learning Platform and ITS Application,” Advanced Applied Informatics (IIAI-AAI), 2015 IIAI 4th International Congress on, Okayama, 2015, pp. 711-712. doi: 10.1109/IIAI-AAI.2015.264
Abstract: Nowadays, e-learning becomes a popular learning strategies because of the advance in technology and the development of learning platforms. At present, most of platforms are designed for single topic rather than multiple topics and are difficultly extended to different topics, since learning mode, design, and limitations of applications for game-based learning. Therefore, in this study, we developed a tower defense game-based platform based on situated learning theory and constructivism of knowledge and this platform can be applied to diverse learning programs. In this platform, users can learn in a simulated scenario. Additionally, the flexible design of platforms will provide the usability and expandability of the system.
Keywords: computer aided instruction; computer games; diverse learning programs; e-learning; knowledge constructivism; learning mode; learning strategies; multisituated game-based learning platform design; situated learning theory; system expandability; system usability; tower defense game-based learning platform; Electronic learning; Games; Information management; Multimedia communication; Poles and towers; Usability; Constructivist Learning; Game-based learning; Situated learning (ID#: 16-9995)


L. Mossucca et al., “Polar Data Management Based on Cloud Technology,” Complex, Intelligent, and Software Intensive Systems (CISIS), 2015 Ninth International Conference on, Blumenau, 2015, pp. 459-463. doi: 10.1109/CISIS.2015.67
Abstract: IDIPOS, that stands for Italian Database Infrastructure for Polar Observation Sciences, has been conceived to realize a feasibility study on infrastructure devoted to management of data coming from Polar areas. This framework adopted a modular approach identifying two main parts: the first one defines main components of infrastructure, and, the latter selects possible cloud solutions to manage and organize these components. The main purpose is the creation of a scalable and flexible infrastructure for the exchange of scientific data from various application fields. The envisaged infrastructure is based on the cutting-edge technology of the Community Cloud Infrastructure for an aggregation and federation of resources, to optimize the use of hardware. The infrastructure is composed of: a central node, several nodes distributed in Italy, interconnection between other systems realized in Polar areas. This paper aims to investigate cloud solution, and explore the key factors which may influence cloud adoption in the project such as scalability, flexibility and expandability. In particular, main cloud aspects addressed are related to data storage, data management, data analysis, infrastructure federation following recommendations from the Cloud Expert Group to allow sharing information in scientific communities.
Keywords: cloud computing; data analysis; database management systems; open systems; scientific information systems; Cloud Expert Group; IDIPOS; Italian Database Infrastructure for Polar Observation Sciences; central node; cloud technology; community cloud infrastructure; cutting-edge technology; data management; data storage; expandability; flexibility; information sharing; infrastructure federation; modular approach; polar data management; resource aggregation; resource federation; scalability; scientific communities; scientific data exchange; Cloud computing; Clouds; Communities; Computer architecture; Interoperability; Organizations; Servers; Polar Observation Sciences; e-science; interoperability (ID#: 16-9996)


A. Musa, T. Minotani, K. Matsunaga, T. Kondo and H. Morimura, “An 8-Mode Reconfigurable Sensor-Independent Readout Circuit for Trillion Sensors Era,” Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP), 2015 IEEE Tenth International Conference on, Singapore, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.1109/ISSNIP.2015.7106913
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) is opening the doors to many new devices and applications. Such an increase in the variety of applications requires reconfigurable, flexible and expandable hardware for fabrication and development cost reduction. This has been achieved for the digital part with devices like Arduino. However, the sensor readout Analog-Front-End (AFE) circuits are mainly designed for a specific sensor type or application. Such an approach would be feasible for the current small number of applications and sensors used. However, it will increase cost drastically as the variety and number of applications and sensors are increased. Moreover, flexibility and expandability of the system will be limited. Therefore, a universal sensor platform that can be reconfigured to adapt to various sensors and applications is needed. Moreover, an array of such circuit can be made with the same sensor to increase measurement accuracy and reliability. It can also be used to integrate heterogeneous sensors for increasing the flexibility of the system, which will make the system adaptable to many applications through only activating the desired sensors. In this paper, an 8-mode reconfigurable sensor readout AFE with offset-cancellation-resolution enhancing scheme is proposed to serve as a step towards a universal sensor interface. The proposed AFE can be reconfigured to interface resistive, capacitive, current producing, and voltage producing sensors through direct or capacitive connection to its terminals. The proposed system is fabricated in 180nm CMOS process and has successfully measured the four types of sensor outputs. It has also been interfaced to Arduino board to allow easy interfacing of various sensors. Therefore, the proposed work can be used as general purpose AFE resulting in manufacturing and development cost reduction and increased flexibility and expandability.
Keywords: CMOS digital integrated circuits; Internet of Things; capacitive sensors; cloud computing; digital-analogue conversion; microprocessor chips; readout electronics; 8-mode reconfigurable sensor readout AFE; 8-mode reconfigurable sensor-independent readout circuit; Arduino board; CMOS process; IoT; current producing sensors; development cost reduction; digital part; expandable hardware; flexible hardware; heterogeneous sensors; interface resistive sensors; measurement accuracy; offset-cancellation-resolution enhancing scheme; reconfigurable hardware; reliability; sensor outputs; sensor readout AFE circuit; sensor readout analog-front-end circuits; system flexibility; trillion sensor era; universal sensor interface; universal sensor platform; voltage producing sensors; Arrays; Current measurement; Electrical resistance measurement; Integrated circuits; Signal resolution; Transducers; Voltage measurement (ID#: 16-9997)


Z. Xu and C. Zhang, “Optimal Direct Voltage Control of MTDC Grids for Integration of Offshore Wind Power,” Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT ASIA), 2015 IEEE Innovative, Bangkok, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.1109/ISGT-Asia.2015.7387179
Abstract: This paper presents an optimal control of multiterminal high voltage DC (MTDC) networks. The conventional methods of controlling direct voltages of MTDC networks suffered from serials of issues, such as lack of ability to steer the power flow, less expandability to scale up and poor dynamic responses. In this paper, an innovative strategy of regulating DC voltages is derived through three main steps: calculation of DC loads flow, optimization of power flow and N-1 security for MTDC networks. Further, this strategy is numerically tested by incorporating the loss minimization in a MTDC network. The advantages of the control strategy are verified by simulations using MATLAB/Simulink package.
Keywords: dynamic response; load flow; offshore installations; optimal control; optimisation; power system security; voltage control; wind power plants; DC load flow; DC voltages; MATLAB-Simulink package; MTDC grids; MTDC networks; N-1 security; dynamic responses; loss minimization; multiterminal high voltage DC networks; offshore wind power; optimal direct voltage control; power flow; HVDC transmission; Load flow; Reactive power; Security; Voltage control; Wind power generation; Control; MTDC; Power flow (ID#: 16-9998)


A. Agarwal, V. Mukati and P. Kumar, “Performance Analysis of Variable Rate Multicarrier Transmission Schemes over LMS Channel,” Electronics, Computing and Communication Technologies (CONECCT), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, Bangalore, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.1109/CONECCT.2015.7383866
Abstract: With the increasing demand for increased coverage area, higher QoS, ubiquitous availability, flexibility and expandability, Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) multimedia communication is gaining popularity over existing Land Mobile Terrestrial (LMT) communication. This paper presents a comparative study of GO-OFDMA and VSL MC-CDMA variable rate transmission scheme over L and Ka-band LMS channel. For both the schemes, four variable rate classes employing 15 users are considered. It is shown that, for both the frequency bands, the BER performance of GO-OFDMA scheme is better than that of VSL MC-CDMA for all the different data rate class of users. Though, for Ka-band, the performance of both the schemes is relatively poor than L-band. Also, the performance of both the schemes for different elevation angles are illustrated and analyzed. Later, the composite signal PAPR performance of both the transmission schemes is shown and compared. It is observed that, the PAPR performance of GO-OFDMA scheme is better than VSL MC-CDMA. Hence GO-OFDMA scheme is a suitable candidate for variable rate communication over LMS channel.
Keywords: OFDM modulation; code division multiple access; error statistics; frequency division multiple access; land mobile radio; mobile satellite communication; multimedia communication; quality of service; GO-OFDMA scheme BER performance; Ka-band LMS channel; L-band LMS channel; LMS multimedia communication channel; QoS; VSL MC-CDMA scheme; composite signal PAPR performance; land mobile satellite multimedia communication; multicarrier code division multiple access; orthogonal frequency division multiple access; variable rate multicarrier transmission scheme performance analysis; variable spreading length; Channel models; Mobile communication; Multicarrier code division multiple access; OFDM; Satellite broadcasting; Satellites; Shadow mapping; GO-OFDMA; L and Ka-Band; LMS channel; PAPR; VSL MC-CDMA (ID#: 16-9999)


Q. Qiu, Xiao Yao, Cuiting Chen, Yu Liu and Jinyun Fang, “A Spatial Data Partitioning and Merging Method for Parallel Vector Spatial Analysis,” Geoinformatics, 2015 23rd International Conference on, Wuhan, 2015, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.1109/GEOINFORMATICS.2015.7378651
Abstract: Based on the principle of the proximity of spatial elements and the equilibrium of spatial data's size, this paper presents a data partitioning and merging method based on spatial filling curve and collection of spatial features. In the data reducing section, this method takes the principle of dynamic tree merging and reduces the times of data serialization and deserialization. The experiment shows that such methods can cut down the time of every process' computing and merging, improve the load balancing degree, and make a great improvement to the efficiency of parallel algorithm and expandability.
Keywords: data reduction; geographic information systems; merging; parallel algorithms; vectors; data deserialization; data reducing section; data serialization; dynamic tree merging; load balancing degree; parallel algorithm; parallel vector spatial analysis; spatial data merging method; spatial data partitioning method; spatial data size equilibrium; spatial element proximity; spatial feature collection; spatial filling curve; Algorithm design and analysis; Hardware; Linux cluster; MPI; SLFB; serialize; spatial filling curve  (ID#: 16-10000)


K. Liu, R. Fu, Y. Gao, Y. Sun and P. Yan, “High Voltage Regulating Frequency AC Power Supply Based on CAN Bus Communication Control,” 2015 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference (PPC), Austin, TX, 2015, pp. 1-4. doi: 10.1109/PPC.2015.7297000
Abstract: High voltage high frequency AC power supply (HVHFACPS) is widely used in military, industry, scientific research and so on. Different applications ask for different functions, such as the control modes selectable, work modes selectable, output voltage adjustable, frequency adjustable, and even the integratability and expandability. In this paper, a kind of HVHFACPS is introduced, which output voltage can be regulated from 0 to 30 kV and output frequency can be regulated from 1kHz to 50kHz. There are continuous and discontinuous work modes to be chosen for a continuous AC voltage output or a discontinuous output and the work time and frequency can be regulate in the discontinuous work mode. There are remote and local control modes to be chosen for a remote control by computer or a local control by the keyboard on the cabinet panel. The control system of this power supply has the CAN bus communication function so that it can be connected to the CAN bus network and work cooperate to other equipments. Some experiments such as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and plasma generation are carried on use the power supply and the results proved that the functions are realized and the performance is good.
Keywords: controller area networks; field buses; frequency control; power supply circuits; telecontrol; voltage control; CAN bus communication control; HVHFACPS; cabinet panel; high voltage high frequency AC power supply; remote control; Control systems; Digital signal processing; Frequency control; Inductance; Power supplies; Resonant frequency; Voltage control (ID#: 16-10001)


Z. Li and Y. Yang, “Permutation Generation for Routing in BCube Connected Crossbars,” 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), London, 2015, pp. 5460-5465. doi: 10.1109/ICC.2015.7249192
Abstract: BCube Connected Crossbars (BCCC) is a recently proposed network structure with short diameter and good expandability for cloud-based networks. Its diameter increases linearly to its order (dimension) and it has multiple near-equal parallel paths between any pair of servers. These advantages make BCCC a very promising network structure for next generation cloud-based networks. An efficient routing algorithm for BCCC has also been proposed, in which a permutation is used to determine which order (or dimension) will be routed first. However, there is no discussion yet about how to choose the permutation. In this paper, we mainly focus on permutation generations for routing in BCCC. We analyze the impact of choosing different permutations in both theory and simulation and propose two efficient permutation generation algorithms which take advantage of BCCC structure and give good performance.
Keywords: cloud computing; multicast communication; telecommunication network routing; BCube connected crossbars; multiple near-equal parallel paths; next generation cloud-based networks; permutation generation; Aggregates; Arrays; Cloud computing; Next generation networking; Routing; Servers; Throughput; BCube Connected Crossbars (BCCC); Cloud-based networks; dual-port server; load balance (ID#: 16-10002)


A. S. Bouhouras, K. I. Sgouras and D. P. Labridis, “Multi-Objective Planning Tool for the Installation of Renewable Energy Resources,” in IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, vol. 9, no. 13, pp. 1782-1789, Oct. 01 2015.
doi: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2014.1054
Abstract: This study examines how environmental and socioeconomic criteria affect renewable energy resources (RES) distribution strategic plans regarding national energy policies. Four criteria are introduced with respective coefficients properly formulated to quantify their capacity. Moreover, these coefficients are properly normalised to combine the effect of each criterion under a uniform formulation. The base case scenario in this work considers an initially available capacity of RESs to be equally distributed among the candidate regions. Six scenarios about different prioritisation are examined. The results prove that different prioritisation criteria yield significant variations regarding the assigned regional RES capacity. The proposed algorithm defines optimisation only by terms of predefined prioritisation criteria; each solution could be considered optimal given that the respective installation strategic plan is subject to specific weighted criteria. The advantages of the proposed algorithm rely on its simplicity and expandability, since both coefficients formulation and resizing procedure are easily performed, as well as additional criteria could be easily incorporated in the resizing procedure. Thus, this algorithm could be considered as a multi-objective planning tool regarding long-term strategic plans for nationwide RES distribution.
Keywords: environmental economics; optimisation; power distribution economics; power distribution planning; renewable energy sources; coefficients formulation; environmental criteria; multiobjective planning tool; national energy policies; optimisation; predefined prioritisation criteria; regional RES capacity; renewable energy resource distribution strategic plans; renewable energy resource installation; resizing procedure; socioeconomic criteria (ID#: 16-10003)


G. Parise, L. Parise, L. Martirano and A. Germolé, “The Relevance of the Architecture of Electrical Power Systems in Hospitals: The Service Continuity Safety by Design,” 2015 IEEE/IAS 51st Industrial & Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference (I&CPS), Calgary, AB, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.1109/ICPS.2015.7266433
Abstract: The power system architecture of hospitals supports by design an enhanced electrical behavior also adequate to the better withstand to external forces, if actual, as earthquake, fire, flood, applying a “Darwinian” approach. The architecture of the power system, supported by supervision control systems and a business continuity management (BCM), must guarantee operational performances that preserve the global service continuity such as: selectivity of faults and immunity to interferences among the system areas; easy maintainability of the system and its parts; flexibility and expandability. The paper deals with sample cases of systems in complexes of buildings applying the micro approach to satisfy hospital requirements and medical quality performances.
Keywords: SCADA systems; business continuity; hospitals; power system security; BCM; Darwinian approach; business continuity management; external forces; global service continuity; hospital requirements; medical quality performances; operational performances; power system architecture; service continuity safety; supervision control systems; Artificial neural networks; Heating; Load modeling; Reliability engineering; Substations; Switches; Critical loads; architecture efficiency; business and service continuity; complex systems; operation efficiency (ID#: 16-10004)


W. Wang, Q. Cao, X. Zhu and S. Liang, “A Framework for Intelligent Service Environments Based on Middleware and General Purpose Task Planner,” Intelligent Environments (IE), 2015 International Conference on, Prague, 2015, pp. 184-187. doi: 10.1109/IE.2015.40
Abstract: Aiming at providing various services for daily living, a framework of Intelligent Service Environment of Ubiquitous Robotics (ISEUR) is presented. This framework mainly addresses two important issues. First, it builds standardized component models for heterogeneous sensing and acting devices based on the middleware technology. Second, it implements a general purpose task planner, which coordinates associated components to achieve various tasks. The video demonstrates how these two functionalities are combined together in order to provide services in intelligent environments. Two different tasks, a localization task and a robopub task, are implemented to show the feasibility, efficiency and expandability of the system.
Keywords: intelligent robots; middleware; mobile robots; robot programming; ISEUR; daily living; general-purpose task planner; heterogeneous acting devices; heterogeneous sensing devices; intelligent environments; intelligent service environment-of-ubiquitous robotics; localization task; middleware technology; robopub task; standardized component models; Cameras; Middleware; Planning; Ports (Computers); Robot kinematics; Robot vision systems; intelligent service environment; middleware; task planning (ID#: 16-10005)


G. Papadopoulos, “Challenges in the Design and Implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks: A Holistic Approach-Development and Planning Tools, Middleware, Power Efficiency, Interoperability,” 2015 4th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO), Budva, 2015, pp. 1-3. doi: 10.1109/MECO.2015.7181857
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) constitute a networking area with promising impact in the environment, health, security, industrial applications and more. Each of these presents different requirements, regarding system performance and QoS, and involves a variety of mechanisms such as routing and MAC protocols, algorithms, scheduling policies, security, OS, all of which are residing over the HW, the sensors, actuators and the Radio Tx/Rx. Furthermore, they encompass special characteristics, such as constrained energy, CPU and memory resources, multi-hop communication, leading to a few steps higher the required special knowledge. Although the status of WSNs is nearing the stage of maturity and wide-spread use, the issue of their sustainability hinges upon the implementation of some features of paramount importance: Low power consumption to achieve long operational life-time for battery-powered unattended WSN nodes, joint optimization of connectivity and energy efficiency leading to best-effort utilization of constrained radios and minimum energy cost, self-calibration and self-healing to recover from failures and errors to which WSNs are prone, efficient data aggregation lessening the traffic load in constrained WSNs, programmable and reconfigurable stations allowing for long life-cycle development, system security enabling protection of data and system operation, short development time making more efficient the time-to-market process and simple installation and maintenance procedures for wider acceptance. Despite the considerable research and important advances in WSNs, large scale application of the technology is still hindered by technical, complexity and cost impediments. Ongoing R&D is addressing these shortcomings by focusing on energy harvesting, middleware, network intelligence, standardization, network reliability, adaptability and scalability. However, for efficient WSN development, deployment, testing, and maintenance, a holistic unified approach is necessary which will address the above WSN challenges by developing an integrated platform for smart environments with built-in user friendliness, practicality and efficiency. This platform will enable the user to evaluate his design by identifying critical features and application requirements, to verify by adopting design indicators and to ensure ease of development and long life cycle by incorporating flexibility, expandability and reusability. These design requirements can be accomplished to a significant extent via an integration tool that provides a multiple level framework of functionality composition and adaptation for a complex WSN environment consisting of heterogeneous platform technologies, establishing a software infrastructure which couples the different views and engineering disciplines involved in the development of such a complex system, by means of the accurate definition of all necessary rules and the design of the 'glue-logic' which will guarantee the correctness of composition of the various building blocks. Furthermore, to attain an enhanced efficiency, the design/development tool must facilitate consistency control as well as evaluate the selections made by the user and, based on specific criteria, provide feedback on errors concerning consistency and compatibility as well as warnings on potentially less optimal user selections. Finally, the WSN planning tool will provide answers to fundamental issues such as the number of nodes needed to meet overall system objectives, the deployment of these nodes to optimize network performance and the adjustment of network topology and sensor node placement in case of changes in data sources and network malfunctioning.
Keywords: computer network reliability; computer network security; data protection; energy conservation; energy harvesting; middleware; open systems; optimisation; quality of service; sensor placement; telecommunication network planning; telecommunication network topology; telecommunication power management; telecommunication traffic; time to market; wireless sensor networks; QoS; WSN reliability; constrained radio best-effort utilization; data aggregation; data security enabling protection; design-development tool; energy efficiency; failure recovery; heterogeneous platform technology; holistic unified approach; interoperability; network intelligence; network topology adjustment; power consumption; power efficiency; sensor node placement; time-to-market process; traffic load; wireless sensor network planning tools; Electrical engineering; Embedded computing; Europe; Security; Wireless sensor networks (ID#: 16-10006)


M. Jaekel, P. Schaefer, D. Schacht, S. Patzack and A. Moser, “Modular Probabilistic Approach for Modelling Distribution Grids and Its Application,” International ETG Congress 2015; Die Energiewende — Blueprints for the new energy age; Proceedings of, Bonn, Germany, 2015, pp. 1-7. doi:  (not provided)
Abstract: Due to the high increase in installed distributed renewable energy sources (DRES) new challenges in the planning and operation of distribution grids (DG) exist. This paper proposes an approach to generate models of present and future synthetic DG based on statistical data of existing networks and operational planning. Compared to the utilization of grid samples a probabilistic network generator offers significant advantages, which are demonstrated in this paper. A modular design and a simple expandability is one of the most important requirements for its application in different issues. In this context four exemplary use cases are described - reactive power analysis, the identification of planning principles, analysing benefits of innovative network equipment and short circuit protection analysis.
Keywords:  (not provided) (ID#: 16-10007)


S. R. Bandela, S. K and R. K. P, “Implementation of NTCIP in Road Traffic Controllers for Traffic Signal Coordination,” 2015 Fifth International Conference on Advances in Computing and Communications (ICACC), Kochi, 2015, pp. 20-23. doi: 10.1109/ICACC.2015.58
Abstract: National Transportation Communication for Intelligent Transportation System Protocol (NTCIP) is a family of open standards, defining common communications protocols and data definitions for transmitting data and messages between computer systems used in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The Intelligent Transportation Systems make use of Information Technology, Computers, Telecommunication and Electronics (ICTE) in the effort of improving safety and mobility of automobiles and road users. In this effort it is likely that the various devices and gadgets used in ITS communicate each other. As of now many ITS solutions use proprietary protocol for communication that restricts interoperability and interchangeability while sharing a common platform. NTCIP provides the benefits of device interoperability and interchangeability, bridging the gap. In ITS, the Adaptive Traffic Control System (ATCS) is widely accepted in the present day for road traffic control and realtime signal coordination. The ATCS receives traffic information from all traffic junctions in a road traffic network in a timely manner. This information is processed centrally by the ATCS and signal timings at the traffic junctions are updated in realtime for minimum stops and delays to improve the travel time. There are many vendors manufacturing ATCS and traffic controllers with their proprietary protocol. This leads to the lack of interoperability between the ATCS and the traffic controllers restricting the expandability and customer choice. This problem can be overcome by adopting the concept of NTCIP in the communication process. This paper discusses how the traffic controller is made NTCIP compliant by adding the SNMP Agent functionality into it and how the communication is carried out in the form of NTCIP standards in spite of its proprietary terminology.
Keywords: automobiles; intelligent transportation systems; protocols; road safety; road traffic control; ATCS; ICTE; ITS; NTCIP; SNMP agent functionality; adaptive traffic control system; automobile mobility; automobile safety; communication process; communications protocols; computer systems; computers; data definitions; device interchangeability; device interoperability; electronics; information technology; national transportation communication for intelligent transportation system protocol; open standards; proprietary protocol; realtime signal coordination; road traffic controllers; road traffic network; telecommunication; traffic signal coordination; Interoperability; Junctions; Protocols; Servers; Standards; Traffic control; Vehicles; ATCS; NTCIP; SNMP TRAP; Traffic Controller (ID#: 16-10008)


Ritu, N. Verma, S. Mishra and S. Shukla, “Implementation of Solar Based PWM Fed Two Phase Interleaved Boost Converter,” 2015 Communication, Control and Intelligent Systems (CCIS), Mathura, 2015, pp. 470-476. doi: 10.1109/CCIntelS.2015.7437962
Abstract: Renewable energy plays a dominant role in electricity production with the increase in global warning. Advantages like ENVIRONMENTAL friendliness, expandability and flexibility have made its wider application. Nowadays, step up power conversion is widely used in many applications and power capability demands. The applications of step up power conversion may be seen in electric vehicles, photovoltaic (PV) system, uninterruptable power supplies (UPS), and fuel cell power system. Boost converter is one type of DC-DC step up power converter. Step up power converters is quite popular because it can produce higher DC voltage output from low voltage input. In this paper, the analysis of interleaved boost converter is done by controlling with interleaved switching signals, which are having same switching frequency but shifted in phase. By utilizing the parallel operation of converters, the input current can be shared among the inductors so that high reliability and efficiency in power electronic systems can be obtained. Simulation study for PWM fed two phases IBC for solar cell has been implemented using MATLAB/ SIMULINK. The simulation results show the reduction in ripple quantity up to zero, which makes the operation of IBC to be more reliable and stable when it is utilized with solar cell.
Keywords: DC-DC power convertors; PWM power convertors; power electronics; renewable energy sources; solar cells; solar power stations; DC-DC step up power converter; electricity production; global warning; interleaved switching signals; power electronic systems; renewable energy; solar based PWM fed two phase interleaved boost converter; solar cell; Capacitors; Inductors; Insulated gate bipolar transistors; MATLAB; Mathematical model; Pulse width modulation; Switches; IBC; MATLAB; PWM; Ripple; Solar PV Cell  (ID#: 16-10009)


L. Kohútka, M. Vojtko and T. Krajcovic, “Hardware Accelerated Scheduling in Real-Time Systems,” Engineering of Computer Based Systems (ECBS-EERC), 2015 4th Eastern European Regional Conference on the, Brno, 2015, pp. 142-143. doi: 10.1109/ECBS-EERC.2015.32
Abstract: There are two groups of task scheduling algorithms in real-time systems. The first group contains algorithms that have constant asymptotic time complexity and thus these algorithms lead to deterministic task switch duration but smaller theoretical CPU utilisation. The second group contains complex algorithms that plan more efficient task sequences and thus the better CPU utilisation. The problem is that each task scheduling algorithm belongs to one of these two groups only. This is a motivation to design a real-time task scheduler that has all the benefits mentioned above. In order to reach this goal, we decided to reduce the time complexity of an algorithm from the second group by using hardware acceleration. We propose a scalable hardware representation of task scheduler in a form of coprocessor based on EDF algorithm. Thanks to the achieved constant time complexity, the hardware scheduler can help real-time systems to have more tasks that meet their deadlines while keeping high CPU utilisation and system determinism. Another advantage of our task scheduler is that any task can be removed from the scheduler according to the ID of the task, which increases expandability of the task scheduler.
Keywords: computational complexity; coprocessors; real-time systems; scheduling; CPU utilisation; EDF algorithm; asymptotic time complexity; coprocessor; hardware accelerated scheduling; task scheduling algorithms; Computer architecture; Coprocessors; Hardware; Real-time systems; Scheduling algorithms; Software; FPGA; hardware acceleration; performance; task queue; task scheduling (ID#: 16-10010)


J. J. Lin, “Integration of Multiple Automotive Radar Modules Based on Fiber-Wireless Network,” Wireless and Optical Communication Conference (WOCC), 2015 24th, Taipei, 2015, pp. 36-39. doi: 10.1109/WOCC.2015.7346112
Abstract: An integrated millimeter-wave (77/79 GHz) automotive radar system based on fiber-wireless network is proposed. The purpose of this integrated system is to realize a 360° radar protection and to make the overall automotive radar system more affordable. The central module (CM) generates the desired radar signals and processes the received data. The individual radar modules (RMs) only amplify and mix down the signals. No PLL and ADCs are in RMs. Fiber network is applied for distributing the millimeter-wave radar signals from CM to RMs. An example of integration of four automotive radar modules based on fiber-wireless (Fi-Wi) network is also discussed. A frequency quadrupler is utilized in RM. Therefore, CM needs to generate only 19~20.25-GHz signals. This could lower the operation frequencies as well as the cost of optical-to-electrical (O/E) and electrical-to-optical (E/O) converters. The smaller individual RM will provide more installation flexibility. Furthermore, the fiber network can also be the backbone of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) to connect more sensors, and accommodate the future big data flow. Fi-Wi network could provide the overall integrated automotive radar system with more expandability. This proposed system could be a great candidate to provide sensing functions of future fully autonomous cars.
Keywords: free-space optical communication; millimetre wave radar; radar signal processing; road vehicle radar; Big Data flow; Fi-Wi network; advanced driver assistance system; central module; electrical-to-optical converter; fiber-wireless network; frequency 77 GHz; frequency 79 GHz; frequency quadrupler; fully autonomous cars; millimeter-wave automotive radar system integration; millimeter-wave radar signal; multiple automotive radar module integration; optical-to-electrical converter; radar module; radar protection; Advanced driver assistance systems; Automotive engineering; Optical fiber amplifiers; Optical fiber networks; Optical fiber sensors; Radar; advanced driver assistance systems; automotive radar; fiber-wireless; optical-wireless; radio-over-fiber; sensor (ID#: 16-10011)


B. Wu, S. Li, K. Ma Smedley and S. Singer, “A Family of Two-Switch Boosting Switched-Capacitor Converters,” in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 5413-5424, Oct. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2014.2375311
Abstract: A family of “Two-Switch Boosting Switched-Capacitor Converters (TBSC)” is introduced, which distinguishes itself from the prior arts by symmetrically interleaved operation, reduced output ripple, low yet even voltage stress on components, and systematic expandability. Along with the topologies, a modeling method is formulated, which provokes the converter regulation method through duty cycle and frequency adjustment. In addition, the paper also provides guidance for circuit components and parameter selection. A 1-kW 3X TBSC was built to demonstrate the converter feasibility, regulation capability via duty cycle and frequency, which achieved a peak efficiency of 97.5% at the rated power.
Keywords: power convertors; converter regulation method; duty cycle; efficiency 97.5 percent; frequency adjustment; power 1 kW; two-switch boosting switched-capacitor converters; Capacitors; Integrated circuit modeling; Pulse width modulation; Stress; Switches; Topology; Voltage control; Frequency modulation; TBSC; frequency modulation; interleaved; modeling; switched-capacitor; two-switch boosting switched-capacitor converters (TBSC) (ID#: 16-10012)


S. Khan, W. Dang, L. Lorenzelli and R. Dahiya, “Flexible Pressure Sensors Based on Screen-Printed P(VDF-TrFE) and P(VDF-TrFE)/MWCNTs,” in IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 486-493, Nov. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TSM.2015.2468053
Abstract: This paper presents large-area-printed flexible pressure sensors developed with an all screen-printing technique. The 4 × 4 sensing arrays are obtained by printing polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene P(VDF-TrFE) and their nanocomposite with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and are sandwiched between printed metal electrodes in a parallel plate structure. The bottom electrodes and sensing materials are printed sequentially on polyimide and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The top electrodes with force concentrator posts on backside are printed on a separate PET substrate and adhered with good alignment to the bottom electrodes. The interconnects, linking the sensors in series, are printed together with metal electrodes and they provide the expandability of the cells. Different weight ratios of MWCNTs are mixed in P(VDF-TrFE) to optimize the percolation threshold for a better sensitivity. The nanocomposite of MWCNTs in piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) is also explored for application in stretchable interconnects, where the higher conductivity at lower percolation ratios are of significant importance compared to the nanocomposite of MWCNTs in an insulator material. To examine the functionality and sensitivity of sensor module, the capacitance-voltage analysis at different frequencies, and the piezoelectric and piezoresistive response of the sensor are presented. The whole package of foldable pressure sensor is completely developed by screen-printing and is targeted toward realization of low-cost electronic skin.
Keywords: electrodes; insulating materials; multi-wall carbon nanotubes; nanocomposites; polymers; pressure sensors; C; P(VDF-TrFE)-MWCNT; bottom electrodes; capacitance-voltage analysis; force concentrator; insulator material; large-area-printed flexible pressure sensors; low-cost electronic skin; multiwalled carbon nanotubes; nanocomposite; parallel plate structure; percolation threshold; piezoelectric response; piezoresistive response; polyethylene terephthalate substrates; polyimide substrates; polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene; printed metal electrodes; screen-printed P(VDF-TrFE); sensing arrays; sensing materials; stretchable interconnects; top electrodes; Flexible electronics; Nanocomposites; Piezoelectric devices; Pressure sensors; Printing; Flexible Sensors; P(VDF-TrFE); Piezoelectric; Screen Printing; Screen printing; Spin Coating; flexible sensors; piezoelectric; spin coating
(ID#: 16-10013)


Yang Liu and J. Ai, “A Software Evolution Complex Network for Object Oriented Software,” Prognostics and System Health Management Conference (PHM), 2015, Beijing, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.1109/PHM.2015.7380050
Abstract: With rapid growth of software Complexity, software reliability is an important issue in recent years. Thus, software complex networks are raised to give an expression of software complexity. Recent software complex networks are insufficient in expressing software feature with software reliability. In this paper, a software evolution complex network for object-oriented software (OOSEN) is built based on object-oriented code. With detailed structural feature and software version updating information, OOSEN makes improvement in expressing software features. By analysis software version updating dates, OOSEN builds a more effectively relationship with software reliability. The expandability makes OOSEN more suitable to express software system.
Keywords: object-oriented methods; software metrics; software reliability; OOSEN; object oriented software; software complexity; software evolution complex network; software version updating information; Software reliability; Software systems; software code; software complex network; software evolution complex network;  software version (ID#: 16-10014)


Z. Xiao-yan and K. Dan, “Research of Coal Quality Detection Management Information System in Coal Enterprise,” Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, Ningbo, 2015, pp. 1-4. doi: 10.1109/ICSPCC.2015.7338855
Abstract: On the basis of deeply studying coal quality inspection management business process, and combine with open source framework technology, we have designed a coal quality detection management information system based on J2EE. The system uses jxl report processing technology and vector graphics library Raphael, and makes it easy for users to analyze the coal seam and coal quality visually. The trial results show that the coal quality detection management information system could have excellent stability and expandability and would have wide application prospects in the information management of coal enterprise.
Keywords: coal; computer graphic equipment; inspection; public domain software; quality management; J2EE; coal enterprise; coal quality detection management information system; coal quality inspection management business process; coal seam; information management; jxl report processing technology; open source framework technology; vector graphics library Raphael; Coal; Face; Inspection; Management information systems; Personnel; Tunneling; Open source framework; Raphael; coal quality detection
(ID#: 16-10015)


B. H. Song, J. Shin, S. Kim and J. Jeong, “On PMIPv6-Based Mobility Support for Hierarchical P2P-SIP Architecture in Intelligent Transportation System,” System Sciences (HICSS), 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on, Kauai, HI, 2015, pp. 5446-5452. doi: 10.1109/HICSS.2015.637
Abstract: Network Service providers have many worries about providing network services with an expandable, reliable, flexible and low-cost structure according to the expanding market environment. The current client-server system has various problems such as complexity and high costs in providing network services. On the contrary to this, this problem can be simply solved, if the Peer-to-Peer (P2P) communication terminal supporting access of distributed resources provides functions which the current Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) -based network devices have. Because diverse terminals in a network access through networks, also, partitioning network domains with gateways to manage, and applying the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) technology considering mobility of terminals would help to have a more efficient network structure. Especially, the proposed P2P-SIP structure proves itself as a very efficient structure to have an outstanding expandability among different networks in a region, and to reduce maintenance costs.
Keywords: IP networks; client-server systems; cost reduction; intelligent transportation systems; internetworking; mobile computing; network servers; peer-to-peer computing; signalling protocols; P2P communication terminal; P2P-SIP structure; PMIPv6 technology; PMIPv6-based mobility support; SIP-based network devices; client-server system; distributed resources; gateways; hierarchical P2P-SIP architecture; intelligent transportation system; maintenance cost reduction; network domain partitioning; peer-to-peer communication terminal; proxy mobile IPv6 technology; session initiation protocol-based network devices; Logic gates; Maintenance engineering; Manganese; Mobile radio mobility management; Overlay networks; Registers; Servers; Intelligent Transportation System; P2P-SIP Architecture; PMIPv6-Based Mobility Management; Proxy Mobile IPv6 (ID#: 16-10016)


A. V. Ho, T. W. Chun and H. G. Kim, “Extended Boost Active-Switched-Capacitor/Switched-Inductor Quasi-Z-Source Inverters,” in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 5681-5690, Oct. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2014.2379651
Abstract: This paper proposes a new topology named the active-switched-capacitor/switched-inductor quasi-Z -source inverter (ASC/SL-qZSI), which is based on a traditional qZSI topology. Compared to other qZSI-based topologies under the same operating conditions, the proposed ASC/SL-qZSI provides higher boost ability, requires fewer passive components such as inductors and capacitors, and achieves lower voltage stress across the switching devices of the main inverter. Another advantage of the topology is its expandability. If a higher boosting rate is required, additional cells can easily be cascaded at the impedance network by adding one inductor and three diodes. Both the simulation studies and the experimental results obtained from a prototype built in the laboratory validate proper operation and performance of the proposed ASC/SL-qZSI.
Keywords: invertors; power capacitors; power inductors; extended boost active-switched-capacitor quasi-Z-source inverters; extended boost active-switched-inductor quasi-Z-source inverters; impedance network; Capacitors; Inductors; Inverters; Modulation; Network topology; Switches; Topology; Active switched capacitor; Active switched capacitor (ASC); boost ability; quasi-Z-source inverter (qZSI); switched inductor (ID#: 16-10017)


V. S. Latha and D. S. B. Rao, “The Evolution of the Ethernet: Various Fields of Applications,” 2015 Online International Conference on Green Engineering and Technologies (IC-GET), Coimbatore, India, 2015, pp. 1-7. doi: 10.1109/GET.2015.7453807
Abstract: Ethernet technology became predominant due to optimistic nature with proven simplicity, cost, reliability, ease of installation and expandability. This Attractive nature of Ethernet made its existence in any fields of applications such as Industry to Avionics, Video and Voice applications which are intended for higher network speeds. To handle such faster data rates Ethernet has been adopted as alternative technology. The main objective of this paper is to describe Evolution of Ethernet towards the 400GBPS technology and various fields of applications.
Keywords: Bandwidth; EPON; IEEE 802.3 Standard; Local area networks; Physical layer; Wavelength division multiplexing; CSMA/CD Standard; IEEE 802.3; Media Independent Interface (MII); Physical Coding Sublayer (PCS); Physical Layer (PHY); Physical Medium Attachment (PMA); Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) (ID#: 16-10018)


A. M. Lalge, A. Shrivastav and S. U. Bhandari, “Implementing PSK MODEMs on FPGA Using Partial Reconfiguration,” Computing Communication Control and Automation (ICCUBEA), 2015 International Conference on, Pune, 2015, pp. 917-921. doi: 10.1109/ICCUBEA.2015.182
Abstract: The radio, which has as many as components with programmable devices, was envisioned as future of telecommunication industry by Joseph Mitola in 1991. The traditional, bulky and costly radios are expected to be replaced by a radio in which properties of carrier frequency, signal bandwidth, modulation and network access are defined in software. The key requirements for SDR platforms are flexibility, expandability, scalability, re-configurability and re-programmability. In SDR, the power consumption, configuration time, hardware usage plays significant role. FPGA has both high speed processing capability and good reconfigurable performance hence FPGA architecture is a viable solution for SDR technology.  The objective of this paper is to demonstrate simulation and implementation of the PSK modems on FPGA using Partial Reconfiguration. By using Partial Reconfiguration (PR) technique the hardware usage, configuration time and power consumption can be reduced. The PSK modulator and demodulator algorithms are simulated using MATLAB R2013a and implemented on FPGA using Xilinx ISE 14.2 System Generator, PlanAhead, Partial Reconfiguration Tool. The results indicate Partial Reconfiguration design leads to negligible reconfiguration time saving in resource utilization by 55%, in power consumption by 75%. The output waveforms are displayed and analyzed using Xilinx ChipScope Pro. The output waveforms are displayed and analyzed using Xilinx ChipScope Pro.
Keywords: demodulators; field programmable gate arrays; modems; phase shift keying; reconfigurable architectures; software radio; FPGA architecture; MATLAB R2013a; PSK demodulator algorithm; PSK modem; PSK modulator; PlanAhead; SDR; Xilinx ChipScope Pro; Xilinx ISE 14.2 system generator; configuration time; hardware usage; partial reconfiguration design; partial reconfiguration tool; power consumption; reconfigurable performance; Binary phase shift keying; Field programmable gate arrays; Generators; Hardware; Modems; BPSK; LFSR; PR; QPSK (ID#: 16-10019)


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