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Self-healing Networks



Self-healing networks are an important goal for cyber physical systems.  Resiliency and composability are essential elements. The research cited here was presented in 2015.

F. Chernogorov, I. Repo, V. Räisänen, T. Nihtilä, and J. Kurjenniemi, “Cognitive Self-Healing System For Future Mobile Networks,” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), 2015 International, Dubrovnik, 2015, pp. 628-633. doi:10.1109/IWCMC.2015.7289156
Abstract: This paper introduces a framework and implementation of a cognitive self-healing system for fault detection and compensation in future mobile networks. Performance monitoring for failure identification is based on anomaly analysis, which is a combination of the nearest neighbor anomaly scoring and statistical profiling. Case-based reasoning algorithm is used for cognitive self-healing of the detected faulty cells. Validation environment is Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobile system simulated with Network Simulator 3 (ns-3) [1, 2]. Results demonstrate that cognitive approach is efficient for compensation of cell outages and is capable to improve network coverage. Anomaly analysis can be used for identification of network failures, and automation of performance management. Introduction of data mining and cognition to the future mobile networks, e.g. 5th Generation (5G), is especially important as it allows to meet the strict requirements for robustness and enhanced performance.
Keywords: Long Term Evolution; fault tolerant computing; statistical analysis; Long Term Evolution mobile system; case-based reasoning algorithm; cognitive self-healing system; data mining; failure identification; fault detection; future mobile networks; nearest neighbor anomaly scoring; performance management; statistical profiling; Cognition; Gain; Mobile communication; Mobile computing; Monitoring; Testing; 5G networks; Self-healing; anomaly detection; cell outage; cognition; compensation (ID#: 16-10675)


Y. Jie, A. Alsharoa, A. Kamal, and M. Alnuem, “Self-Healing Solution to Heterogeneous Networks Using CoMP,” 2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), San Diego, CA, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi:10.1109/GLOCOM.2015.7417265
Abstract: Self-healing mechanism is one of the three functionalities for self-organizing networks, and it has three major components to be studied by the academic society: fault detection, fault diagnosis and cell outage compensation. In this paper, we study the cell outage compensation function of the self-healing mechanism. In a heterogeneous network environment with densely deployed Femto Base Stations (FBSs), we form a resource allocation problem for FBSs and Femto User Equipments (FUEs) operations using Coordinated Multi-Point (CoMP) transmission and reception with joint processing technique. Since the formulated problem is considered as NP hard problem, we propose a heuristic operation scheme to solve the problem. Simulation results show that our proposed operation scheme can improve FUE throughput by up to 30% compared to other solutions, and it can also prevent the system total rate loss from having the same speed of radio resource loss when failures happen.
Keywords: compensation; computational complexity; fault diagnosis; femtocellular radio; resource allocation; telecommunication network reliability; CoMP; FBSs; FUEs; NP hard problem; cell outage compensation function; coordinated multipoint reception; coordinated multipoint transmission; fault detection; femto base stations; femto user equipment operation; heterogeneous networks; heuristic operation scheme; joint processing technique; radio resource loss; resource allocation problem; self-healing solution; self-organizing networks; system total rate loss; Heterogeneous networks; Interference; Mobile communication; Resource management; Strips; Throughput (ID#: 16-10676)


S. El-Hennawey, “C23. Self-Healing Autonomic Networking for Voice Quality in VoIP and Wireless Networks,” Radio Science Conference (NRSC), 2015 32nd National, 6th of October City, Egypt,  2015, pp. 297-304. doi:10.1109/NRSC.2015.7117842
Abstract: This paper provides a novel approach for automatically enhancing voice quality with reference to user's Quality of Experience (QoE). It is based on in-service quality assessment in Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP). The proposed scheme includes three phases: (1) automatic user quality assessment with diagnostic features, (2) fault localization in case of user quality experience degradation, and (3) dispatch control for quality recovery. In the first phase, QoS is measured using the Speech Quality Monitor (SQM) that provides the estimated overall quality mean opinion score (MOS) as well as identifying the main impairment that causes the degradation leading MOS to be below certain level. Based on the root cause of the degradation, the network fault is located in the second phase through the global network Quality of Service (QoS) monitoring. Finally in the third phase, control is dispatched through the QoS control, maintaining quality. Wireless networks are also considered. This way, the voice is kept at high quality.
Keywords: Internet telephony; quality of experience; quality of service; speech processing; MOS; QoE; QoS control; SQM; VoIP; automatic user quality assessment; diagnostic features; dispatch control; fault localization; in-service quality assessment; mean opinion score; network fault; quality recovery; self-healing autonomic networking; speech quality monitor; user quality experience degradation; voice over the Internet protocol; voice quality; wireless networks; Lead; Monitoring; Noise; Quality of service; Autonomic Networking; QoS; Voice Quality (ID#: 16-10677)


C. Zhang, L. Qu, X. Wang, and J. Xiong, “An Efficient Self-Healing Group Key Management with Lower Storage for Wireless Sensor Network,” Computer Science and Mechanical Automation (CSMA), 2015 International Conference on, Hangzhou, 2015, pp. 124-128. doi:10.1109/CSMA.2015.31
Abstract: For the problems of energy constrained and the channel insecurity in group communication of WSN, we propose a self-healing group key management protocol based on polynomial and some algorithm. This protocol can recover the lost group key without transmitting message once more. The method can improve the security of the channel, while consuming less energy. The performance analysis of this protocol shows that we can achieve forward secrecy and backward secrecy and communication security with lower energy consumption, which can expand the range of applications of wireless sensor networks while improving life.
Keywords: public key cryptography; wireless sensor networks; WSN; backward secrecy; channel insecurity; channel security; communication security; forward secrecy; group communication; self-healing group key management protocol; Automation; Cryptography; Energy consumption; Protocols; Wireless sensor networks; Yttrium; lower storage; security; self-healing; wireless sensor network (ID#: 16-10678)


C. Thompson, “Self Healing Network (Centralized Restoration Gateway),” Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 2015 IEEE, Denver, CO, 2015, pp. 1-22. doi:10.1109/PESGM.2015.7286650
Abstract: A collection of slides from the author's conference presentation was given. The topics discussed were manual fault isolation and restoration and automatic fault location isolation and service restoration.
Keywords: fault location; automatic fault location isolation; centralized restoration gateway; manual fault isolation; manual fault restoration; self healing network; service restoration; Fault location; Gas insulation; Load flow; Logic gates; Manuals; Switches; Telemetry (ID#: 16-10679)


L. Deng, J. Fei, C. Ban, C. Cai, and X. Zhang, “The Simulation of Self-Healing Restoration Control for Smart Distribution Network,” Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS), 2015 6th IEEE International Conference on, Beijing, 2015, pp. 482-485. doi:10.1109/ICSESS.2015.7339102
Abstract: In this paper, a novel self-healing restoration control method after distribution network faulting is applied to minimize the active power loss. Back-Forward sweep method based on layered node is selected to calculate power flow according to the radial distribution network model. Moreover, in order to avoid closed-loop structure scheme, a new solution which can reduce the dimension of mathematical optimization calculation is offered during network reconstruction process. If the total number of open switches in the system is equal to the number of tie-switches, and at the same time the system has no island, then the network must be the structure without closed-loop. Furthermore, the island judgement is made conveniently by flow calculation program with no need for a special program. The design is implemented to an IEEE16 nodes system by matlab. Simulation result shows that the solutions of reconstruction decrease from 65536 groups to 13 groups. Accordingly, the correctness and validity of the proposed method can be verified, which is simple and easy to be programmed. It is suited to the real-time control for smart distribution network.
Keywords: minimisation; power distribution control; power system restoration; IEEE 16 nodes system; active power loss minimization; back-forward sweep method; closed-loop structure scheme; distribution network faulting; mathematical optimization calculation; network reconstruction process; power flow; radial distribution network model; self-healing restoration control; smart distribution network; Flow calculation; Optimal power loss; Reconstruction; Restoration; Self-healing control; Smart distribution network (ID#: 16-10680)


R. R. Paul, P. V. Roy, and V. Vlassov, “Interaction between Network Partitioning and Churn in a Self-Healing Structured Overlay Network,” Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS), 2015 IEEE 21st International Conference on, Melbourne, VIC, 2015, pp. 232-241. doi:10.1109/ICPADS.2015.37
Abstract: We investigate the interaction between Network Partitioning and Churn (node turnover) in Structured Overlay Networks. This work is relevant both to systems with peaks of high stress (e.g., partitions, churn) or continuous high stress. It prepares the way for new application venues in mobile and ad hoc networks, which have high node mobility and intermittent connectivity, and undergo frequent changes in network topology. We evaluate existing overlay maintenance strategies, namely Correction-on-Change, Correction-on-Use, Periodic Stabilization, and Ring Merge. We define the reversibility property of a system as its ability to repair itself to provide its original functionality when the external stress is withdrawn. We propose a new strategy, Knowledge Base, to improve conditions for reversibility in the case of combined network partitioning and churn. By means of simulations, we demonstrate reversibility for overlay networks with high levels of partition and churn and we make general conclusions about the ability of the maintenance strategies to achieve reversibility. We propose a model, namely Stranger Model, to generalize the impact of simultaneous network partitioning and churn. We show that this interaction causes partitions to eventually become strangers to each other, which makes full reversibility impossible when this happens. Using this model, we can predict when irreversibility arrives, which we verify via simulation. However, high levels of one only, network partitioning or churn, do not hinder reversibility. In future work we will extend these results to real systems and experiment with applications that take advantage of reversibility.
Keywords: knowledge based systems; overlay networks; ad hoc networks; churn; correction-on-change overlay maintenance strategy; correction-on-use overlay maintenance strategy; knowledge base strategy; mobile networks; network partitioning; node turnover; periodic stabilization overlay maintenance strategy; ring merge overlay maintenance strategy; self-healing structured overlay network; stranger model; Complex systems; Maintenance engineering; Overlay networks; Peer-to-peer computing; Predictive models; Routing; Stress; Network Partition and Churn; Partition Tolerance; Ring Overlay Merge; Structured Overlay Networks (ID#: 16-10681)


W. Liu, T. Kang, W. Cheng, and F. Zhao, “The Modeling of Self-Healing Control System for Distribution Network Based on UML,” 2015 5th International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT), Changsha, China, 2015, pp. 1435-1439. doi:10.1109/DRPT.2015.7432458
Abstract: Self-healing for smart distribution network which is based on Distribution Automation(DA) and Advanced Distribution Automation (ADA), is one of the key characters and core functions for smart distribution network to deal with the inside and outside threatens of the network as well as to increase system operation security and efficiency. In this paper, we focus on the modeling of self-healing control system for distribution network based on UML. Firstly, the background, application scenarios and requirements for self-healing control system of smart distribution network were analyzed. Then, the static and dynamic models of the control system were built based on UML. Three types of self-healing control are realized through four self-healing stages in three scenarios. Finally, based on the modeling results, the system architecture and key applications for the self-healing control system were implemented. The results in this paper are useful for investigation on the conceptions and key technologies, increasing the normalization and reusability of self-healing control system as well as guidance for real self-healing applications.
Keywords: Control systems; Decision support systems; Power industry; Security; Systems architecture; Systems operation; Unified modeling language; UML; advanced distribution automation; fault self-healing; self-healing control system; smart distribution network (ID#: 16-10682)


A. Sanatinia and G. Noubir, “OnionBots: Subverting Privacy Infrastructure for Cyber Attacks,” Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), 2015 45th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on, Rio de Janeiro, 2015, pp. 69-80. doi:10.1109/DSN.2015.40
Abstract: Over the last decade botnets survived by adopting a sequence of increasingly sophisticated strategies to evade detection and take overs, and to monetize their infrastructure. At the same time, the success of privacy infrastructures such as Tor opened the door to illegal activities, including botnets, ransomware, and a marketplace for drugs and contraband. We contend that the next waves of botnets will extensively attempt to subvert privacy infrastructure and cryptographic mechanisms. In this work we propose to preemptively investigate the design and mitigation of such botnets. We first, introduce OnionBots, what we believe will be the next generation of resilient, stealthy botnets. OnionBots use privacy infrastructures for cyber attacks by completely decoupling their operation from the infected host IP address and by carrying traffic that does not leak information about its source, destination, and nature. Such bots live symbiotically within the privacy infrastructures to evade detection, measurement, scale estimation, observation, and in general all IP-based current mitigation techniques. Furthermore, we show that with an adequate self-healing network maintenance scheme, that is simple to implement, OnionBots can achieve a low diameter and a low degree and be robust to partitioning under node deletions. We develop a mitigation technique, called SOAP, that neutralizes the nodes of the basic OnionBots. In light of the potential of such botnets, we believe that the research community should proactively develop detection and mitigation methods to thwart OnionBots, potentially making adjustments to privacy infrastructure.
Keywords: IP networks; computer network management; computer network security; data privacy; fault tolerant computing; telecommunication traffic; Cyber Attacks; IP-based mitigation techniques; OnionBots; SOAP; Tor; botnets; cryptographic mechanisms; destination information; host IP address; illegal activities; information nature; node deletions; privacy infrastructure subversion; resilient-stealthy botnets; self-healing network maintenance scheme; source information; Cryptography; Maintenance engineering; Peer-to-peer computing; Privacy; Relays; Servers; botnet; cyber security; privacy infrastructure; self-healing network (ID#: 16-10683)


V. Kini, C. Patil, S. Bahadkar, S. Panandikar, A. Sreedharan, and A. Kshirsagar, “Low Power Wireless Health Monitoring System,” Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI), 2015 International Conference on, Kochi, 2015, pp. 980-986. doi:10.1109/ICACCI.2015.7275738
Abstract: Low Power Wireless Health Monitoring System (LoWHMS) is a sensor network which aims to monitor vital signs of a patient remotely. It provides real time feedback to medical personnel in order to alert them when life-threatening changes occur. The network is a self-healing network so that it can get reconfigured when the network links are broken. Ultra-Low power microcontrollers are used to reduce the power consumption drastically. The LoWHMS is a low cost solution which focuses on keeping doctors frequently updated about the health status of a patient and his vital signs. It also aims at eliminating physical delays arising due to lack of facilities in a particular hospital.
Keywords: biomedical telemetry; microcontrollers; patient monitoring; power consumption; wireless sensor networks; LoWHMS; health status; life-threatening changes; low-power wireless health monitoring system; medical personnel; power consumption; real-time feedback; self-healing network; sensor network; ultralow power microcontrollers; vital sign monitoring; Active filters; Heart rate; Monitoring; Passive filters; Servers; Wireless communication; Wireless sensor networks; network; real time feedback; self-healing; ultra-low power; wireless (ID#: 16-10684)


L. Flores-Martos, A. Gomez-Andrades, R. Barco, and I. Serrano, “Unsupervised System for Diagnosis in LTE Networks Using Bayesian Networks,” Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2015 IEEE 81st, Glasgow, 2015, pp. 1-5. doi:10.1109/VTCSpring.2015.7146146
Abstract: Nowadays, the size and complexity of mobile networks are growing ceaselessly. Therefore, the management of mobile networks is a significant, expensive and demanding task to perform. In order to simplify this task, Self-Organizing Networks (SON) appear as a unified solution to autonomously manage a mobile network. One of the fundamental functions of SON is self-healing. Within self- healing, the objective of fault diagnosis or root cause analysis is the identification of problem causes in faulty cells. With that aim, in this paper, an unsupervised diagnosis system for LTE (Long Term Evolution) based on Bayesian networks is presented. In particular, the system is divided in two separate steps. First of all, the discretization of the input data is done. Then, the system provides an identification of the cell status. Depending on the discretization method, the performance of the system is different, so, in this paper, different methods have been evaluated. Results have proven the high success rate achieved with the proposed system, particularly when the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used for the discretization.
Keywords: Long Term Evolution; belief networks; expectation-maximisation algorithm; fault diagnosis; unsupervised learning; Bayesian networks; LTE networks; discretization method; expectation-maximization algorithm; long term evolution; unsupervised diagnosis system; Bayes methods; Clustering algorithms; Interference; Mobile communication; Probability density function (ID#: 16-10685)


S. M. Sheikh, R. Wolhuter, and G. J. van Rooyen, “A Comparative Analysis of MANET Routing Protocols for Low Cost Rural Telemetry Wireless Mesh Networks,” Emerging Trends in Networks and Computer Communications (ETNCC), 2015 International Conference on, Windhoek, 2015, pp. 32-37. doi:10.1109/ETNCC.2015.7184804
Abstract: In rural areas in Africa, the topographical conditions vary, including hilly areas or flat open areas with bushes, trees and vegetation. In some cases, road and infrastructure conditions are exceedingly poor, making it challenging and costly to provide necessary maintenance and support to communication networks. When a node goes offline the remaining nodes must be able to re-establish links with each other and maintain connectivity. The routing protocol must discover an alternative shortest path route and use this path to deliver the data. The maintenance time can be slow and it might take days to attend to the faulty node in a rural area. Due to this, the network must be able to operate for long periods with the faulty node(s) and provide the best possible Quality of Service (QoS). In the past few years, Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have attracted an increase in research and use due to their attractive characteristics, which include low deployment cost, a low cost option to extend network coverage and ease of maintenance due to their self healing properties. In WMNs, with an increase in scalability, the throughput of the network tends to decrease. In this paper, we carried out a performance analysis for failing node scenarios for rural telemetry networks using three protocols, namely OLSR (a proactive protocol), DSR (a reactive protocol) and HWMP (a hybrid protocol). The performance analysis of these protocols was carried out using three backhaul network topology scenarios. The simulation results were obtained using OMNET++ and the INETMANET framework. Performance metrics used for the analysis and study were packet loss and end-to-end latency as these are major factors considered for providing guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS).
Keywords: mobile ad hoc networks; quality of service; routing protocols; telecommunication network topology; telemetry; wireless mesh networks; Africa; DSR; HWMP; INETMANET framework; OLSR; OMNET++; QoS; communication networks; hybrid protocol; network topology; proactive protocol; reactive protocol;  rural telemetry; Packet loss; Peer-to-peer computing; Routing; Routing protocols; MANET; Wireless Mesh Networks
(ID#: 16-10686)


M. Selim, A. Kamal, K. Elsayed, H. Abd-El-Atty and M. Alnuem, “A Novel Approach for Back-Haul Self Healing in 4G/5G HetNets,” Communications (ICC), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, London, 2015, pp. 3927-3932. doi:10.1109/ICC.2015.7248937
Abstract: 4G/5G Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets), which are expected to have a very dense multi-layer network structure, have emerged as a solution to satisfy the increasing demand for high data rates. These networks, similar to other networks, are subject to failures of communication components, which may occur due to many reasons. Self-Healing (SH) is the ability of the network to continue its normal operation in the presence of failures. The contribution of this paper is to introduce a novel SH approach for all network base-stations (BSs) back-hauling in a HetNet. New SH radios are proposed with enabled Cognitive Radio (CR) capabilities for utilizing the spectrum. A Software Defined Wireless Network Controller (SDWNC) is used to handle all control information between all network elements (except user equipment). This novel pre-planned reactive SH approach ensures network reliability under multiple failures. A simulation study is conducted to assess the performance of our approach through the evaluation of the Degree of Recovery (DoR) under single and multiple failures. Our approach can achieve a DoR of at least 10% using only 1 SHR and an enhanced DoR can be achieved using a greater number of SHRs.
Keywords: 4G mobile communication; 5G mobile communication; cognitive radio; software radio; telecommunication network reliability; 4G HetNets; 4G heterogeneous network reliability; 5G HetNet; 5G heterogeneous network reliability; BS back-hauling; CR; DoR; SDWNC; back-haul self healing; base station back-hauling; cognitive radio; degree of recovery; dense multilayer network structure; multiple failure; reactive SH approach; software defined wireless network controller; spectrum utilization; Computer architecture; Femtocells; Macrocell networks; Microprocessors; Radio frequency; Wireless communication; 4G; 5G; Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets); Self Organizing Network (SON); Self-Healing (SH) (ID#: 16-10687)


A. Zoha, A. Saeed, A. Imran, M. A. Imran, and A. Abu-Dayya, “Data-Driven Analytics for Automated Cell Outage Detection in Self-Organizing Networks,” Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), 2015 11th International Conference on the, Kansas City, MO, 2015, pp. 203-210. doi:10.1109/DRCN.2015.7149014
Abstract: In this paper, we address the challenge of autonomous cell outage detection (COD) in Self-Organizing Networks (SON). COD is a pre-requisite to trigger fully automated self-healing recovery actions following cell outages or network failures. A special case of cell outage, referred to as Sleeping Cell (SC) remains particularly challenging to detect in state-of-the-art SON, since it triggers no alarms for Operation and Maintenance (O&M) entity. Consequently, no SON compensation function can be launched unless site visits or drive tests are performed, or complaints are received by affected customers. To address this issue, we present and evaluates a COD framework, which is based on minimization of drive test (MDT) reports, a functionality recently specified in third generation partnership project (3GPP) Release 10, for LTE Networks. Our proposed framework aims to detect cell outages in an autonomous fashion by first pre-processing the MDT measurements using multidimensional scaling method and further employing it together with machine learning algorithms to detect and localize anomalous network behaviour. We validate and demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed solution using the data obtained from simulating the network under various operational settings.
Keywords: Long Term Evolution; learning (artificial intelligence); self-organising feature maps; telecommunication computing; 3GPP; COD; LTE networks; SON; automated cell outage detection; data-driven analytics; machine learning algorithm; minimization of drive test; operation and maintenance entity; self-organizing networks; third generation partnership project; Computer architecture; Data models; Databases; Mathematical model; Microprocessors; Phase measurement; Support vector machines; Anomaly Detection; Cell Outages; LTE; Low-Dimensional Embedding; MDT; Self-Organizing Networks; Sleeping Cell (ID#: 16-10688)


T. A. Nguyen, M. Aiello, T. Yonezawa, and K. Tei, “A Self-Healing Framework for Online Sensor Data,” Autonomic Computing (ICAC), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, Grenoble, 2015, pp. 295-300. doi:10.1109/ICAC.2015.61
Abstract: In pervasive computing environments, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) play an important role, collecting reliable and accurate context information so that applications are able to provide services to users on demand. In such environments, sensors should be self-adaptive by taking correct decisions based on sensed data in real-time. However, sensor data is often faulty. Faults are not so exceptional and in most deployments tend to occur frequently. Therefore, the capability of self-healing is important to ensure higher levels of reliability and availability. We design a framework which provides self-healing capabilities, enabling a flexible choice of components for detection, classification, and correction of faults at runtime. Within our framework, a variety of fault detection and classification algorithms can be applied, depending on the characteristics of the sensor data types as well as the topology of the sensor networks. A set of mechanisms for each and every step of the self-healing framework, covering detection, classification, and correction of faults are proposed. To validate the applicability, we illustrate a case study where our solution is implemented as an adaptation engine and integrated seamlessly into the ClouT system. The engine processes data coming from physical sensors deployed in Santander, Spain, providing corrected sensor data to other smart city applications developed in the ClouT project.
Keywords: computer network reliability; fault diagnosis; ubiquitous computing; wireless sensor networks; ClouT system; Santander; Spain; WSNs; fault classification algorithm; fault correction; fault detection; online sensor data; pervasive computing environments; self-healing framework; Cities and towns; Data models; Data processing; Fault detection; Knowledge based systems; Monitoring; Wireless sensor networks; Fault tolerance for WSNs; Online sensor data; Seal-healing framework; Smart environments; Wireless sensor network (ID#: 16-10689)


D. Tchuani Tchakonte, E. Simeu, and M. Tchuente, “Adaptive Healing Procedure for Lifetime Improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks,” On-Line Testing Symposium (IOLTS), 2015 IEEE 21st International, Halkidiki, 2015, pp. 59-64. doi:10.1109/IOLTS.2015.7229833
Abstract: Most of Wireless Sensor Networks are deployed to monitor a set of targets over a specified area. The lifetime of such a network is defined as the time duration from the network deployment till the time when one target is no longer covered. Thus, this lifetime is limited by the energy resource of sensor nodes. In order to maximize the lifetime of the network, only a subset of nodes capable of covering all targets are activated at a time while the others are put in sleep mode to save their energy. When an active sensor fails, a recovery procedure should be executed to keep all targets covered. In this paper we propose a new self-healing method for network reconfiguration in case of failure of an active node. Simulation results show that this method increases the network dependability by reducing the network unavailability time up to 90 % compared to the dynamic maintenance for networks with more than 200 sensor nodes of sensing range equals to 10, uniformly deployed over a 50 × 50 square to cover 50 targets also uniformly deployed over the same area.
Keywords: telecommunication network reliability; wireless sensor networks; active node failure; adaptive healing procedure; energy resource; lifetime improvement; network dependability; network deployment; network lifetime maximization; network reconfiguration; network unavailability time reduction; self-healing method; sensing range; sensor nodes; time duration; Adaptive systems; Decision support systems; Testing; Wireless Sensor Networks; adaptive healing; complexity; lifetime; target coverage (ID#: 16-10690)


S. Dey, S. Sampalli, and Q. Ye, “A Context-Adaptive Security Framework for Mobile Cloud Computing,” 2015 11th International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks (MSN), Shenzhen, 2015, pp. 89-95. doi:10.1109/MSN.2015.28
Abstract: Mobile cloud computing is an emerging area in the cloud computing paradigm, comprising several modes of communication that are governed by varying security standards. WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks), RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) and VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks) are three example applications that could be based on mobile cloud computing. Considering the fact that the security mechanisms in different applications are highly heterogeneous while the cloud server is common to these applications, we devised a context-adaptive security framework that could be deployed at the cloud premises to provide an additional security layer to mobile cloud computing systems. Furthermore, the framework provides varied techniques to improve the quality of service and reliability of mobile cloud computing. Technically, this multicomponent context-adaptive framework accepts the traffic in different communication modes, prevents attacks by randomly choosing pre-defined algorithms, learns from previous attacks using cognitive model, and rearranges the cloud service model as a self-healing system.
Keywords: cloud computing; cognitive radio; computer network reliability; computer network security; mobile computing; network servers; quality of service; RFID; VANET; WBAN; cloud server; cognitive model; context-adaptive security framework; mobile cloud computing reliability improvement; quality of service improvement; radio frequency identification; self-healing system; vehicular ad-hoc network; wireless body area network; Body area networks; Cloud computing; Computer architecture; Mobile communication; Security; Servers; Wireless communication; Mobile Cloud Computing; attacks; framework; security standards; self-healing
(ID#: 16-10691)


N. F. Avila, V. W. Soo, W. Y. Yu, and C. C. Chu, “Capacity-Based Service Restoration using Multi-Agent Technology and Ensemble Learning,” Intelligent System Application to Power Systems (ISAP), 2015 18th International Conference on, Porto, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi:10.1109/ISAP.2015.7325546
Abstract: Reliable and efficient distributed algorithms for power restoration are essential for self-healing electrical smart grids. Therefore, this paper presents a Multi-Agent System (MAS) for automatic restoration in power distribution networks. Moreover, as electrical demand fluctuates on the hourly and daily basis, an ensemble learning algorithm has been adopted for short-term forecasting of electrical energy demand. The prediction methodology is incorporated into the restoration algorithm in order to obtain a capacity-based restoration solution. Experiments carried out in two electrical networks demonstrate the importance and accuracy of the demand prediction algorithm and the feasibility of the MAS for system reconfiguration in decentralized power utilities.
Keywords: distribution networks; learning (artificial intelligence); load forecasting; multi-agent systems; power engineering computing; power system restoration; smart power grids; MAS; capacity-based service restoration; decentralized power utility; electrical energy demand short-term forecasting; ensemble learning algorithm; multiagent technology; power distribution network; power restoration; prediction methodology; self-healing electrical smart grid; Forecasting; Generators; Mathematical model; Monitoring; Prediction algorithms; Reactive power; Regression tree analysis; Automatic Power Restoration; Distributed Artificial Intelligence; Ensemble Learning; Short-Term Demand Forecasting (ID#: 16-10692)


G. Papadopoulos, “Challenges in the Design and Implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks: A Holistic Approach-Development and Planning Tools, Middleware, Power Efficiency, Interoperability,” Embedded Computing (MECO), 2015 4th Mediterranean Conference on, Budva, 2015, pp. 1-3. doi:10.1109/MECO.2015.7181857
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) constitute a networking area with promising impact in the environment, health, security, industrial applications and more. Each of these presents different requirements, regarding system performance and QoS, and involves a variety of mechanisms such as routing and MAC protocols, algorithms, scheduling policies, security, OS, all of which are residing over the HW, the sensors, actuators and the Radio Tx/Rx. Furthermore, they encompass special characteristics, such as constrained energy, CPU and memory resources, multi-hop communication, leading to a few steps higher the required special knowledge. Although the status of WSNs is nearing the stage of maturity and wide-spread use, the issue of their sustainability hinges upon the implementation of some features of paramount importance: Low power consumption to achieve long operational life-time for battery-powered unattended WSN nodes, joint optimization of connectivity and energy efficiency leading to best-effort utilization of constrained radios and minimum energy cost, self-calibration and self-healing to recover from failures and errors to which WSNs are prone, efficient data aggregation lessening the traffic load in constrained WSNs, programmable and reconfigurable stations allowing for long life-cycle development, system security enabling protection of data and system operation, short development time making more efficient the time-to-market process and simple installation and maintenance procedures for wider acceptance. Despite the considerable research and important advances in WSNs, large scale application of the technology is still hindered by technical, complexity and cost impediments. Ongoing R&D is addressing these shortcomings by focusing on energy harvesting, middleware, network intelligence, standardization, network reliability, adaptability and scalability. However, for efficient WSN development, deployment, testing, and maintenance, a holistic unified approach is n- cessary which will address the above WSN challenges by developing an integrated platform for smart environments with built-in user friendliness, practicality and efficiency. This platform will enable the user to evaluate his design by identifying critical features and application requirements, to verify by adopting design indicators and to ensure ease of development and long life cycle by incorporating flexibility, expandability and reusability. These design requirements can be accomplished to a significant extent via an integration tool that provides a multiple level framework of functionality composition and adaptation for a complex WSN environment consisting of heterogeneous platform technologies, establishing a software infrastructure which couples the different views and engineering disciplines involved in the development of such a complex system, by means of the accurate definition of all necessary rules and the design of the `glue-logic' which will guarantee the correctness of composition of the various building blocks. Furthermore, to attain an enhanced efficiency, the design/development tool must facilitate consistency control as well as evaluate the selections made by the user and, based on specific criteria, provide feedback on errors concerning consistency and compatibility as well as warnings on potentially less optimal user selections. Finally, the WSN planning tool will provide answers to fundamental issues such as the number of nodes needed to meet overall system objectives, the deployment of these nodes to optimize network performance and the adjustment of network topology and sensor node placement in case of changes in data sources and network malfunctioning.
Keywords: computer network reliability; computer network security; data protection; energy conservation; energy harvesting; middleware; open systems; optimisation; quality of service; sensor placement; telecommunication network planning; telecommunication network topology; telecommunication power management; telecommunication traffic; time to market; wireless sensor networks; QoS; WSN reliability; constrained radio best-effort utilization; data aggregation; data security enabling protection; design-development tool; energy efficiency;  failure recovery; heterogeneous platform technology; holistic unified approach; interoperability; network intelligence; network topology adjustment; power consumption; power efficiency; sensor node placement; time-to-market process; traffic load; wireless sensor network planning tools; Electrical engineering; Embedded computing; Europe; Security; Wireless sensor networks (ID#: 16-10693)


G. Tuna, E. Kaya, K. Gülez, G. Kiokes, and V. Ç Güngör, “Performance Evaluations of Next Generation Networks for Smart Grid Applications,” Smart Grid Congress and Fair (ICSG), 2015 3rd International Istanbul, Istanbul, 2015, pp. 1-5. doi:10.1109/SGCF.2015.7354926
Abstract: Smart Grid (SG) can be described as the concept of modernizing the traditional electrical grid. Through the addition of SG technologies traditional electrical grids become more flexible, robust and interactive, and are able to provide real time feedback by employing innovative services and products together with communication, control, intelligent monitoring, and self-healing technologies. For being fully functional, utility operators deploy various SG applications to handle the key requirements including delivery optimization, demand optimization and asset optimization needs. The SG applications can be categorized into two main classes: grid-focused applications and customer-focused applications. Although these applications differ in terms of security, Quality of Service (QoS) and reliability, their common requirement is a communication infrastructure. In this paper, we focus on the use of Next Generation Networks (NGNs) for SG applications. We also present a detailed analysis of a NGN-based communication infrastructure for SG applications in terms of global network statistics and node-level statistics.
Keywords: next generation networks; quality of service; smart power grids; NGN-based communication; QoS; asset optimization; delivery optimization; demand optimization; electrical grid; global network statistics; intelligent monitoring; next generation networks; node-level statistics; quality of service; self-healing technology; smart grid; Delays; IP networks; Next generation networking; Power industry; Quality of service; Reliability; Security; Next Generation Networks; Performance Evaluations; Smart Grid; Smart Grid Applications (ID#: 16-10694)


I. N. Md Isa, M. D. Baba, R. Ab Rahman, and A. L. Yusof, “Self-Organizing Network Based Handover Mechanism for LTE Networks,” Computer, Communications, and Control Technology (I4CT), 2015 International Conference on, Kuching, 2015,
pp. 11-15. doi:10.1109/I4CT.2015.7219527
Abstract: Self-Organizing Network (SON) mechanism comprises of three components of self-configuration, self-optimization and self-healing which can contribute to optimize the performance of the next generation broadband network such as the Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. The aim of this study is to propose a self-organizing handover procedure based on the Self-Organizing Network (SON) concept for LTE network. The simulation scenario and analysis on the performance of the proposed SON-based handover was conducted using the QualNet software. The two main handover parameters that have been modified are the Hysteresis (Hys) and Time-To-Trigger (TTT). The outcome of the simulation shows the network performance is better after optimizing the Hys and TTT setting of the handover parameters. In particular the LTE network shows remarkable improvement in the network throughput and smaller network delay. This study will be beneficial to future research works as the trend in the communication technologies are always changing rapidly and the self-manage mechanism will become essential for the network operators.
Keywords: Long Term Evolution; mobility management (mobile radio); next generation networks; Hys handover parameter; LTE network throughput; QualNet software; SON-based handover mechanism; TTT handover parameter; hysteresis handover parameter; next generation broadband network; self-configuration component; self-healing component; self-optimization component; self-organizing network; time-to-trigger handover parameter; Base stations; Delays; Handover; Optimization; Self-organizing networks; Throughput; LTE; Self-Organized Network; handover; hysteresis; time to trigger
(ID#: 16-10695)


L. A. Felber, P. F. Ribeiro, B. D. Bonatto, A. C. Z. de Souza, and J. A. S. Neto, “Low Cost Self-Healing Applied to Distribution Grid Supplying Brazilian Municipalities,” Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Latin America (ISGT LATAM), 2015 IEEE PES, Montevideo, 2015, pp. 292-297. doi:10.1109/ISGT-LA.2015.7381170
Abstract: Companies distributing electricity in the world have sought to enhance the operation of their networks in order to minimize the impact of supply disruptions. Nowadays, with the rise of the Smart Grid concept, the insertion of sophisticated features in the distribution of electric energy has become a reality. This article aims to describe the current situation of the implementation of smart grids by distribution companies in Brazil and the challenges especially regarding the economic viability of this technology for practical deployment. For this sake, this paper proposes the development of a low cost methodology that provides improvements in supplying power to municipalities of a Brazilian electricity company (CEMIG D), building the smart grid through the application of the concept of self-healing.
Keywords: power distribution economics; power distribution reliability; smart power grids; Brazilian electricity company; Brazilian municipalities; CEMIG D; distribution companies; distribution grid; electric energy; low cost self-healing; smart grid; supply disruptions; Automation; Companies; Ground penetrating radar; Power system reliability; Reliability; Smart grids; Voltage control; Smart Grids; automation; distribution system; power quality; reliability; self-healing (ID#: 16-10696)


S. Diaz and D. Mendez, “DACA - Disjoint Path and Clustering Algorithm for Self-healing WSN,” Communications and Computing (COLCOM), 2015 IEEE Colombian Conference on, Popayan, 2015, pp. 1-5. doi:10.1109/ColComCon.2015.7152076
Abstract: Due to their intrinsic characteristics, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are prone to failure, mainly because of their energy limitations. Considering this, the use of self-healing mechanisms becomes necessary in order to create a more fault-tolerant and robust WSN. With this problem at hand, we have proposed and developed DACA, a Disjoint path And Clustering Algorithm that increases the network lifetime through network topology control and self-healing mechanisms. By using the Collection Tree Protocol (CTP) algorithm, we first create a tree using all the initials nodes of the network, having this tree as our initial communication backbone. After this, we build a set of spatial clusters using K-means and reconstruct the tree using only the Cluster Heads (CH), therefore reducing the number of active nodes in the network. With this new subset of nodes forming a tree, we apply the N-to-1 algorithm to create disjoint paths, making the network more robust to communication failures. The experiments show that DACA considerably extends the lifetime of the network by having a set of backup nodes to support the communication network when an active node dies, while still maintaining a good coverage of the area of interest.
Keywords: routing protocols; telecommunication network topology; trees (mathematics); wireless sensor networks; DACA; N-to-1 algorithm; active nodes; backup nodes; cluster heads; collection tree protocol algorithm; communication backbone; communication failures; communication network; disjoint path and clustering algorithm; disjoint paths; energy limitations; fault-tolerant WSN; network lifetime; network topology control; self-healing WSN; self-healing mechanisms; spatial clusters; Clustering algorithms; Measurement; Optimization; Robustness; Routing; Topology; Wireless sensor networks; Clustering; Disjoint Paths; Multi-Objective Optimization; Tree routing (ID#: 16-10697)


M. De Felice, I. V. Calcagni, F. Pesci, F. Cuomo, and A. Baiocchi, “Self-Healing Infotainment and Safety Application for VANET Dissemination,” Communication Workshop (ICCW), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, London, 2015, pp. 2495-2500. doi:10.1109/ICCW.2015.7247551
Abstract: Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs) are rapidly increasing their popularity and ductility, being an essential element for smart cities and smart driving. Layer three standards have already been approved, but they do not pursue optimality in terms of high throughput. This paper aims to identify a new algorithm to put on top of the standard routing layer, namely Self hEaling Infotainment and safetY Application (SEIYA), in order to create a vehicular distributed backbone, able to stay up as long as possible (thus reducing the election phase overhead). The main objective is to enable high speed data routes for several kinds of safety and infotainment applications of a stable vehicular cloud: traffic monitoring, emergency signals, augmented reality information are just few examples. Our approach is validated through simulations on real maps with realistic vehicle flows and high throughput demands.
Keywords: cloud computing; road safety; road traffic; telecommunication network routing; vehicular ad hoc networks; SEIYA; VANET dissemination; augmented reality information; election phase overhead reduction; emergency signals; high speed data routes; high throughput demands; realistic vehicle flows; self healing infotainment-and-safety application; smart cities; smart driving; stable vehicular cloud; standard routing layer; traffic monitoring; vehicular distributed backbone; Delays; Nominations and elections; Protocols; Safety; Standards; Throughput; Vehicles; Geonetworking extension; VANET; vehicular backbone; vehicular cloud (ID#: 16-10698)


A. S. Elsafrawey, E. S. Hassan, and M. I. Dessouky, “C21. Analytical Analysis of a Cluster Controlled Mobility Scheme for Data Security and Reliability in UWSNs,” Radio Science Conference (NRSC), 2015 32nd National, 6th of October City, Egypt, 2015, pp. 277-285. doi:10.1109/NRSC.2015.7117840
Abstract: This paper investigates the security and data reliability in Unattended Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). We deduce an analytical model for Self-Healing scheme based on Cluster Controlled Mobility (SH-CCM) for UWSNs. The SH-CCM is based on mobility inside a cluster of sick sensor beside the hybrid cooperation from both reactive and proactive peers to enhance self-healing probability. The analytical analysis of SH-CCM will ensure that both mobility and hybrid cooperation from both reactive and proactive peers within the cluster of sick sensor will enhance the Cooperation, Self-Healing, data security and reliability. Therefore, the proposed SH-CCM scheme will help the sick sensor to self-heal and restore its backward secrecy faster and better than the schemes without controlled mobility. A set of Analytical results are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SH-CCM scheme in the presence of an Adversary (ADV). The obtained results ensure that the proposed scheme has a better performance; it archives a probability of BSe to be compromised of 0.04 while CHSHRD [1] is 0.065.
Keywords: mobility management (mobile radio); probability; security of data; telecommunication network reliability; wireless sensor networks; SH-CCM scheme; UWSN; analytical analysis; cluster controlled mobility scheme; data reliability; data security; hybrid cooperation; proactive peers; reactive peers; self-healing probability; sick sensor cluster; unattended wireless sensor networks; Reliability; Mobile Adversary; Self-Healing; Sensor Cooperation; Sensor Mobility; Unattended Wireless Sensor Network
(ID#: 16-10699)


S. Ben Rejeb, S. Tabbane, and N. Nasser, “An Adaptive Auto-Tuning Scheme Based Mobility in 4G and Beyond Networks,” Electrical and Information Technologies (ICEIT), 2015 International Conference on, Marrakech, 2015, pp. 329-334. doi:10.1109/EITech.2015.7162986
Abstract: Self-Organizing Network, or SON, is a new technology that aims to minimize human efforts spent in management and operating processes. In technical term; this solution was proposed to reduce the operational expenditure for service providers in future wireless systems since it offers the possibility of automatic and remote managing of mobile networks especially in LTE-Advanced and beyond, coming within the 11th Release of 3GPP. SON includes a set of functions divided into three types: self-configuration, self-optimization and self-healing functions. Some of these functions have already been standardized but others still under researches, since they present some problems such as auto-tuning mobility parameters, which is the main topic that will be discussed throughout this work. Thus, we will try in this paper to find solutions to achieve traffic balancing and enhance the network capacity by developing a novel auto-tuning strategy based on mobility. This strategy will present the impact of LTE-A and mobility auto-tuning on the system performances, defined as the user throughput average and congestion indicators of the network. At the end simulation results demonstrate that the gain capacity when using the auto-tuning concept is further greater than without it.
Keywords: 3G mobile communication; 4G mobile communication; Long Term Evolution; mobility management (mobile radio); tuning; 3GPP; 4G networks; LTE- Advanced; SON; adaptive auto-tuning scheme; auto-tuning mobility; automatic managing; network mobility; remote managing; self-organizing network; Downlink; Handover; Interference; Load management; Mobile communication; Throughput; Auto-tuning; Handover; LTE-A; Load balancing; QoS (ID#: 16-10700)


I. N. M. Isa, M. Dani Baba, A. L. Yusof, and R. A. Rahman, “Handover Parameter Optimization for Self-Organizing LTE Networks,” Computer Applications & Industrial Electronics (ISCAIE), 2015 IEEE Symposium on, Langkawi, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi:10.1109/ISCAIE.2015.7298317
Abstract: Self-Organizing Network (SON) mechanism comprises of three components of self-configuration, self-optimization and self-healing which can contribute to optimize the performance of the next generation broadband network such as the Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. The aim of this study is to propose a self-organizing handover procedure based on the Self-Organizing Network (SON) concept for LTE network. The simulation of the proposed SON-based handover mechanism was conducted using the QualNet software. The two main handover parameters that have been modified are the Hysteresis (Hys) and Time-To-Trigger (TTT). The outcome of the simulation shows the network performance is better after optimizing the Hys and TTT of the handover parameters. The LTE network performance shows remarkable improvement in terms of network throughput, delay and jitter.
Keywords: Long Term Evolution; broadband networks; mobility management (mobile radio); next generation networks; LTE self-organizing network mechanism; QualNet software; SON Long Term Evolution network; handover parameter optimization; hysteresis optimization; next generation broadband network; time-to-trigger optimization; Base stations; Delays; Handover; Jitter; Optimization; Throughput; Hysteresis; LTE; Self-Organized Network; Time-To-Trigger (ID#: 16-10701)


O. Iacoboaiea, B. Sayrac, S. Ben Jemaa, and P. Bianchi, “SON Conflict Diagnosis In Heterogeneous Networks,” Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2015 IEEE 26th Annual International Symposium on, Hong Kong, 2015,
pp. 1459-1463. doi:10.1109/PIMRC.2015.7343528
Abstract: In trying to meet the demands of traffic hungry users, mobile network operators are faced with increased CAPital EXpenditures (CAPEX) and OPerational EXpenditures (OPEX). The Self Organizing Network (SON) functions have been introduced by 3GPP as a means to cut down these costs. There are mainly 3 categories of such functions: self-configuration, self-optimization and self-healing. In this paper we focus on the second which represents the SON functions performing a runtime optimization of the network. We center our attention on LTE heterogeneous networks. Having several SON functions in a network may lead to conflicts and potentially to bad network Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Thus a troubleshooting mechanism has to be envisaged. Such a mechanism typically contains 3 steps: fault detection, cause diagnosis and solution deployment. In this paper we tackle the first two and we study the feasibility of using the Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC) in order to build a framework for SON Conflict Diagnosis (SONCD). We provide numeric results proving the feasibility of the framework.
Keywords: 3G mobile communication; Long Term Evolution; telecommunication network reliability; 3GPP; CAPEX; KPI; LTE heterogeneous networks; OPEX; SON conflict diagnosis; SONCD; cause diagnosis; fault detection; increased capital expenditures; key performance indicators; mobile network operators; naive Bayes classifier; operational expenditures; runtime optimization; self-configuration category; self-healing category; self-optimization category; self-organizing network function; solution deployment; traffic-hungry users; Heterogeneous networks; Indexes; Land mobile radio; Mobile computing; Optimization; Wireless networks; Bayesian networks; CRE; LTE; MRO; SON; SON Conflict Diagnosis; eICIC (ID#: 16-10702)


M. Choobineh and S. Mohagheghi, “Emergency Electric Service Restoration in the Aftermath of a Natural Disaster,” Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC), 2015 IEEE, Seattle, WA, 2015, pp. 183-190. doi:10.1109/GHTC.2015.7343971
Abstract: The colossal amount of energy released by natural disaster events can devastate the critical infrastructure of affected cities and rural regions. Possible damages to the electric power grid can lead to large-scale interruption in electric service, which could greatly impede post-disaster relief efforts. To make communities resilient against natural hazards, the power grid must have post-disaster self-healing capability, allowing it to restore power to as many sections of the network as possible within a reasonably short timeframe. Traditionally, electric service restoration is performed by first identifying alternative substations and possible routes, followed by network reconfiguration, so that the outage area can be re-energized via these substations. However, this approach may not be possible in the aftermath of a natural disaster. This is because many parts of the network may already have become non-operational due to direct or indirect damages incurred by the event. Here, service restoration can be achieved through a decentralized approach where one or more Microgrids are formed in order to supply the loads locally. A Microgrid dispatch solution is proposed in this paper for emergency electric service restoration in the aftermath of a natural disaster event. A nonlinear mixed-integer optimization problem is formulated that finds the optimal dispatch of the energy resources within the Microgrid subject to capacity and fuel availability constraints. To demonstrate the applicability of the solution, a case study is provided using the IEEE 123-bus test distribution system.
Keywords: disasters; integer programming; load dispatching; nonlinear programming; power system restoration; IEEE 123-bus test distribution system; alternative substations; electric power grid; emergency electric service restoration; energy resources optimal dispatch; fuel availability constraints; microgrid; natural disaster; network reconfiguration; nonlinear mixed-integer optimization problem; post-disaster self-healing capability; Batteries; Density estimation robust algorithm; Fuels; Indexes; Microgrids; Distributed energy resource; Microgrid; demand response; (ID#: 16-10703)


D. Q. Oliveira, A. C. Zambroni de Souza, A. B. Almeida, and I. Lima, “An Artificial Immune Approach for Service Restoration in Smart Distribution Systems,” Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Latin America (ISGT LATAM), 2015 IEEE PES, Montevideo, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi:10.1109/ISGT-LA.2015.7381120
Abstract: The power system reconfiguration is a challenging task. As smart grids concepts develop, different approaches try to take advantage of the grid intelligent features and infrastructure to evolve a fast and robust self-healing scheme. At the distribution level, the self-healing schemes are responsible for performing automatic corrective and self-restorative actions. This task includes managing the service restoration by locating and isolating the fault, and reconfiguring the network topology to decrease the harm. This paper presents a self-healing scheme using Artificial Immune System as an optimization tool to solve the service restoration problem in power systems considering faults within the internal switch breakers. To make this approach suitable for bigger systems, the Prim Algorithm is used due to its capacity to generate minimum spanning trees from a graph. The proposed scheme is tested on benchmark systems to investigate the capacity of proposing feasible solutions for faulted systems.
Keywords: distribution networks; optimisation; power system faults; power system restoration; smart power grids; trees (mathematics); Prim Algorithm; artificial immune approach; artificial immune system; automatic corrective actions; benchmark systems; distribution level; faulted systems; grid intelligent features; internal switch breakers; network topology; optimization tool; power system reconfiguration; self-healing scheme; self-healing schemes; self-restorative actions; service restoration; service restoration problem; smart distribution systems; smart grids; spanning trees; Cloning; Fault location; Immune system; Smart grids; Sociology; Switches; Topology; Evolutionary Algorithms; Service restoration; self-healing (ID#: 16-10704)


C. He, Y. Liu, G. E. Arrobo, T. P. Ketterl, and R. D. Gitlin, “In Vivo Wireless Communications and Networking,” Information Theory and Applications Workshop (ITA), 2015, San Diego, CA, 2015, pp. 163-172. doi:10.1109/ITA.2015.7308982
Abstract: In vivo wireless communications and networking of biomedical devices has the potential of being a critical component in advancing health care delivery. Such systems offer the promise of improving the effectiveness of sophisticated cyber-physical biomedical systems. This paper provides an overview of our research on characterizing the in vivo wireless channel and contrasting this channel with the familiar cellular and WLAN channels. Characterization of the in vivo channel is still in its infancy, but the importance of obtaining accurate channel models is essential to the design of efficient communication systems and network protocols to support advanced biomedical applications. We describe our initial research on signal processing matched to the in vivo channel including MIMO in vivo and Cooperative Network Coding [CNC] systems. MIMO in vivo 2×2 systems demonstrate substantial performance improvement relative to SISO arrangements that significantly depends on antenna location. MIMO makes it possible to achieve the target data rate of 100 Mbps, with maximum SAR [Specific Absorption Rate] levels met. Furthermore, it is found that, to satisfy the maximum allowed SAR, a larger bandwidth may, but not necessarily, increase the system capacity. Also, we discuss the ability of Cooperative Network Coding [CNC] to increase the reliability (especially for real-time applications), provide transparent self-healing, and enhance the expected number of correctly received and decoded packets at the WBAN destination, while transmitting at low power. Because of the real-time nature of many of these medical applications and the fact that many sensors can only transmit, error detection and retransmission (i.e., ARQ) is not a preferred option. CNC requires about 3.5 dB less energy per bit than extant WBAN systems that do not use cooperation or network coding.
Keywords: MIMO communication; biomedical equipment; body area networks; cellular radio; channel coding; computer network reliability; cooperative communication; decoding; health care; medical computing; network coding; wireless LAN; wireless channels; MIMO in vivo wireless communication; WBAN destination; WLAN channel reliability; advanced biomedical applications; biomedical device; cellular channel; cooperative network coding system; health care delivery; in vivo wireless channel; in vivo wireless networking protocol; multiple-input multiple-output communication; packet decoding; sophisticated cyber-physical biomedical system effectiveness improvement; Biomedical optical imaging; Dispersion; Optical receivers; Protocols; Real-time systems; Wireless LAN; In vivo wireless communications; MIMO in vivo capacity; WBAN; in vivo channel; network coding (ID#: 16-10705)


Y. Jia, Z. Xu, L. L. Lai, and K. P. Wong, “A Novel Network Partitioning Approach in Smart Grid Environment,” Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, Kowloon, 2015, pp. 641-646. doi:10.1109/SMC.2015.122
Abstract: Smart grid development highlights the “self-healing” capability as it enables a power system to efficiently and automatically react to disturbances and guide the system to the best possible state. Effectively partitioning the power network (PN) into suitable areas or zones to accommodate subsequent control actions is useful. In this paper, a novel partitioning approach that combines Laplacian spectrum of a PN and self organizing map (SOM) algorithm is proposed. This approach aims to optimize the partitioning solution so as to minimize the real power imbalance and simultaneously maintain a satisfactory voltage profile. Case study is carried out on New England 39-bus system, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Laplace transforms; self-organising feature maps; smart power grids; Laplacian spectrum; New England 39-bus system; PN algorithm; network partitioning approach; real power imbalance; satisfactory voltage profile; self organizing map algorithm; smart grid environment; Clustering algorithms; Laplace equations; Partitioning algorithms; Reactive power; Smart grids; Transmission line matrix methods; Laplacian spectrum; graph partitioning; self healing; self-organizing map; smart grid (ID#: 16-10706)


V. Monteiro, S. Mumtaz, J. Rodriguez, and I. Ashraf, “Self-Organized Energy Efficient Scheduling in LTE-A,” Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2015 IEEE 81st, Glasgow, 2015, pp. 1-5. doi:10.1109/VTCSpring.2015.7146078
Abstract: Traditional packet scheduling is mainly designed for increasing spectral efficiency (SE) but not for the energy efficiency (EE). Self-organized network (SON) has prospective for self- configuring, self-optimizing self-healing and minimizes the energy consumption in the network. We consider self-optimizing and self-healing property of SON and investigate a novel energy efficient scheduling algorithm for LTEA. We first compare the state the of art scheduling in view of energy efficiency, then explain the tradeoff between EE and SE. System level simulation (SLS) analysis shows that the investigated SON approach achieves notable energy gain over traditional scheduling algorithm.
Keywords: Long Term Evolution; telecommunication power management; telecommunication scheduling; LTE-A; energy consumption; energy efficiency; self-organized energy efficient scheduling; self-organized network; system level simulation analysis; Algorithm design and analysis; Energy efficiency; Quality of service; Resource management; Scheduling; Scheduling algorithms; Throughput (ID#: 16-10707)


S. Terryn, G. Mathijssen, J. Brancart, G. Van Assche, B. Vanderborght, and D. Lefeber, “Investigation of Self-Healing Compliant Actuators for Robotics,” Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, Seattle, WA, 2015,
pp. 258-263. doi:10.1109/ICRA.2015.7139009
Abstract: Last 15 years, a wide range of self-healing (SH) materials has been developed and recently these materials are increasingly used in applications in multiple fields, like the automotive industry and aerospace. However, so far this material technology is not yet explored in robotics. The introduction of these materials in robotics will potentially reduce the over-dimensioning of current robotic systems, leading to lighter systems and eventually to more efficient designs. Compliant elements used in next generation soft robots, can be constructed from available SH-materials, making them able to autonomously heal cuts and perforations caused by sharp objects in unstructured environments. In addition, the use of SH-materials will have a beneficial impact on the life span of robotic components, reducing the required maintenance drastically. This paper presents the innovative concept of implementing a SH-mechanism in compliant actuators, using dynamic covalent polymer network systems based on the reversible Diels-Alder (DA) reaction. For two entirely different compliant actuators, a series elastic actuator (SEA) and a soft pneumatic actuator (SPA), an analysis is presented on the integration of the DA-polymers in the actuator designs. For both actuator types, a prototype was designed, developed and validated.
Keywords: pneumatic actuators; robots; DA-polymer; SEA; SH material; SH-mechanism; SPA; aerospace industry; automotive industry; dynamic covalent polymer network system; next generation soft robot; reversible DA reaction; reversible Diels-Alder reaction; self-healing compliant actuator; series elastic actuator; soft pneumatic actuator; Actuators; Force; Fuses; Polymers; Prototypes; Robots (ID#: 16-10708)


H. Nasiraee, J. Bagherzadeh, and M. Nasiraee, “A New Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Scheme,” Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC), 2015 12th International Iranian Society of Cryptology Conference on, Rasht, 2015, pp. 85-90. doi:10.1109/ISCISC.2015.7387903
Abstract: Self-healing group key distribution is a recent attended research topic in the literature. Common approaches for self-healing schemes use redundancy into broadcast message which would allow user nodes to recover previous session keys, lost due to communication errors. The redundant information lead to communication overhead, but this paper aims to address this concept, by one-way functions, without redundancy. We apply our idea in identity-based cryptography and pairing operations. Our proposal can enable a node in lossy network to recover its lost session keys efficiently along with providing acceptable forward/backward secrecy and collusion resistance.
Keywords: cryptography; fault tolerant computing; collusion resistance; communication overhead; forward-backward secrecy; identity-based cryptography; lossy network; one-way functions; pairing operations; self-healing group key distribution scheme; Encryption; Proposals; Public key; Redundancy; Resistance; Security; cryptographic protocols; group key distribution; self-healing (ID#: 16-10709)


C. H. Ng, T. Logenthiran, and W. L. Woo, “Intelligent Distributed Smart Grid Network — Reconfiguration,” Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT ASIA), 2015 IEEE Innovative, Bangkok, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi:10.1109/ISGT-Asia.2015.7387125
Abstract: Smart grid, modernization of electrical power system that is recognized globally as a vision to achieve a self-automated electrical network that is flexible, accessible, reliable and economical. With the integration of distributed and renewable generation into the transmission network, power system restoration faces new challenges. As the demand for power increases, the ability to perform restoration after any blackouts is vital. Smart grid aims to perform automated action in restoring power back to the transmission network. This feature of the system is also known as self-healing. Self-healing aims to perform self-adjustments during the normal operation state and performs self-restoration to the power system by identifying and reacting to interruption with minimal human intervention. The objective of self-healing is to supply electricity to users with no disturbances, making the system highly dependable and efficient. This paper presents an approach to perform power restoration on a mesh transmission network. In this approach, a knowledge based-environment was first created from performing case studies on a mesh network, a set of rules were developed after the environment and a search technique are than used in responding to the contingency observed and obtaining a restoration solution.
Keywords: distributed power generation; power system restoration; smart power grids; transmission networks; distributed generation; electrical power system; intelligent distributed smart grid network reconfiguration; knowledge based-environment; mesh transmission network; renewable generation; self-automated electrical network; self-healing system; Bismuth; Generators; Mesh networks; Power transmission lines; Smart grids; Switches; Power system network; Reconfiguration; Rule-based system; Self-healing; Smart grid; restoration (ID#: 16-10710)


T. U. Sane, S. L. Shue, and J. M. Conrad, “Implementation of Dynamic Source Routing Using 802.15.4 on XBee Series 1 Modules,” SoutheastCon 2015, Fort Lauderdale, FL, 2015, pp. 1-8. doi:10.1109/SECON.2015.7132965
Abstract: An implementation of Dynamic Source Routing on 802.15.4 using XBee Series 1 modules is presented. This implementation demonstrates the use of Dynamic Source Routing to determine the route from initiator (source) node to target (destination) node and used it to deliver message packets within an intra-network of wireless motes. The wireless motes compromise of Atmega 328P based microcontroller board (Red Board) interfaced with XBee Series 1. The algorithm itself searches for the desired route based on first come first serve basis and uses it to forward the message packet to the target node. Due to the dynamic nature of the protocol, the network has self-healing ability. The software library developed in the course of this implementation provides the user an interface to implement customized multi-hopping on XBee Series1 due to absence of any underlying operating system.
Keywords: Zigbee; microcontrollers; telecommunication network routing; 802.15.4; Atmega 328P based microcontroller board; XBee series 1 modules; dynamic source routing; operating system; software library; wireless motes; Hardware; Microcontrollers; Routing; Routing protocols; Software; Wireless communication; Wireless sensor networks; Dynamic Source Routing (DSR); SubMinature version A (SMA); XBee Series 1 (XBee S1) (ID#: 16-10711)


E. Pashajavid, F. Shahnia, and A. Ghosh, “Overloading Conditions Management in Remote Networks by Coupling Neighboring Microgrids,” Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), 2015 50th International Universities, Stoke on Trent, 2015,
pp. 1-6. doi:10.1109/UPEC.2015.7339874
Abstract: Remote area microgrids (MG) can experience overloading or power deficiency throughout their dynamic operations due to load and generation uncertainties. Under such conditions, load-shedding is traditionally considered as the first successful mechanism to prevent system instability. To minimize load-shedding, islanded neighboring MGs can be connected to each other in remote areas to provide a self-healing capability. For this, extra generation capacity needs to be available in the distributed energy resources (DER) of one of the MGs to supply the extra demand in the other MG. In this way, the total load in the system of interconnected MGs will be shared by all the DERs within those MGs. This process falls within the network tertiary controller functions. Therefore, the tertiary controller should have a self-healing algorithm that needs to be carefully designed to initiate the command for interconnection of the MGs. The self-healing strategy needs to consider the required criteria to prevent system instability. The MGs will then be interconnected through an interconnecting static switch (ISS). This strategy also needs to decide when two interconnected MGs should be isolated. This paper focuses on the self-healing strategy, its criteria and features. The efficacy of the developed strategy in interconnecting and isolating the neighboring MGs is validated through PSCAD/EMTDC simulations.
Keywords: distributed power generation; load shedding; power system interconnection; power system stability; DER; ISS; MG interconnection; PSCAD-EMTDC simulation; distributed energy resource; interconnecting static switch; load shedding; network tertiary controller function; overloading conditions management; power deficiency; remote area microgrids; self-healing strategy; system instability prevention; Couplings; Density estimation robust algorithm; Microgrids; Power conversion; Switches; Coupled microgrids (CMGs); Interconnecting static switch (ISS); Remote microgrids; Self-healing (ID#: 16-10712)


R. Aboli, M. Ramezani, and H. Falaghi, “Voltage Control of Distribution Networks Using Fuzzy Approach and Capacitors Offline Planning,” Electrical Power Distribution Networks Conference (EPDC), 2015 20th Conference on, Zahedan, 2015,
pp. 150-155. doi:10.1109/EPDC.2015.7330488
Abstract: This paper proposes a new approach to real time control of the bus voltages in the distribution systems. This approach consists of two control parts; includes offline and online control. In the offline part, switchable capacitors are scheduled based on day-ahead load forecasting. This step is solved using an efficient coding PSO algorithm. The under load tap changer (ULTC) is not a control variable in the offline scheduling and is only operated to improve voltage based on fuzzy approach. Once the switchable capacitors are scheduled, they are fixed on their hourly position in the real time operation. Then the ULTC is controlled based on the fuzzy system in the real time operation of the network. Easy implementation of the offline scheduling due to elimination of the ULTC as a control variable, removal of switching operation constraint and removal approximately of the voltage constraint is the main advantage of the proposed method. In addition, self-healing and possibility control of the bus voltages in different conditions such as unpredictable load changes and contingencies are other benefits. The 69 bus IEEE test system has been used to analyze and validation of the proposed approach.
Keywords: IEEE standards; busbars; capacitor switching; fuzzy control; load forecasting; particle swarm optimisation; power distribution control; power distribution planning; voltage control; ULTC; bus IEEE test system; capacitor offline planning; coding PSO algorithm; day-ahead load forecasting; distribution network voltage control; fuzzy approach; offline control; online control; switchable capacitor scheduling; switching operation constraint removal; under load tap changer; Capacitors; Sociology; Software; Statistics; Switches; Voltage control; Voltage measurement; PSO algorithm; capacitor; distribution system; fuzzy system; real time control (ID#: 16-10713)


E. Pashajavid, F. Shahnia, and A. Ghosh, “A Decentralized Strategy to Remedy the Power Deficiency in Remote Area Microgrids,” Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), 2015 50th International Universities, Stoke on Trent, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi:10.1109/UPEC.2015.7339865
Abstract: Power deficiency management is an important factor in the operation of remote microgrids (MG). Load-shedding is traditionally considered as the main mechanism to manage the network under power deficiency conditions. To minimize load-shedding, islanded neighboring MGs can be connected to each other in remote areas to provide a self-healing capability. For this, extra generation capacity needs to be available in the distributed energy resources (DER) of one of the MGs to supply the extra demand in the other MG. In this way, the total load in the system of interconnected MGs will be shared by all the DERs within those MGs. This paper presents a strategy which aims to interconnect two neighboring microgrids in remote areas to minimize the necessity of load-shedding. This strategy also needs to decide when two interconnected MGs should be isolated. This paper focuses on the self-healing strategy, its criteria and features. The presented algorithm in this paper does not need any data communication system for its operation. The performance of the developed technique is validated by PSCAD/EMTDC simulations.
Keywords: decentralised control; distributed power generation; load shedding; power generation control; power system interconnection; renewable energy sources; DER; MG interconnection; PSCAD-EMTDC simulation; decentralized strategy; distributed energy resource; load shedding; power deficiency management; remote area microgrid; self-healing strategy; Density estimation robust algorithm; Frequency control; Microgrids; Phase transformers; Power conversion; Switches; Distributed energy resources (DER); Frequency; Interconnected microgrids; Self-healing (ID#: 16-10714)


A. Ortega, A. A. Shinoda, C. M. Schweitzer, F. Granelli, A. V. Ortega, and F. Bonvecchio, “Proposal DNP3 Protocol Simulation on NS-2 in IEEE 802.11g Wireless Network Ad Hoc over TCP/IP in Smart Grid Applications,” Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Latin America (ISGT LATAM), 2015 IEEE PES, Montevideo, 2015, pp. 635-640. doi:10.1109/ISGT-LA.2015.7381229
Abstract: The smart grid is a highly complex system of electric power system involving a large number of devices embedded in information and communication technology for fault detection and control. To validate the functionality, reliability and security of a smart grid is required communication protocol. This paper proposes an evaluation of the DNP3 performance across an 802.11g wireless network ad hoc, encapsulated in TCP/IP using the NS-2. The objective is to investigate the feasibility of using DNP3 through an ad hoc network, such as monitoring and teleprotection, measuring the delay required to complete a transaction messages in a self-healing system.
Keywords: fault diagnosis; power system reliability; power system security; smart power grids; transport protocols; wireless LAN; DNP3 protocol; IEEE 802.11g wireless network ad hoc; NS-2 simulation; TCP/IP protocol; complex system; electric power system; fault control; fault detection; information and communication technology; smart grid reliability; smart grid security; Protocols; Smart grids; Substations; Switches; Switching circuits; TCPIP; DNP3; NS-2; Protocol; Smart Grid; TCP/IP; self-healing (ID#: 16-10715)


A. G. d. M. Rossetto et al., “A New Unreliable Failure Detector for Self-Healing in Ubiquitous Environments,” Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA), 2015 IEEE 29th International Conference on, Gwangiu, 2015, pp. 316-323. doi:10.1109/AINA.2015.201
Abstract: Due to the nature of ubiquitous systems, nodes (e.g., Sensors) are frequently prone to failures. Such systems must, therefore, present self-healing capabilities in order to detect failures and make the necessary adjustments to prevent their impact on applications. In such a context, this work proposes a new and flexible unreliable failure detector, denoted as the Impact failure detector (FD), for self-healing system in ubiquitous environments. The output of the Impact FD concerns the confidence in the system as a whole. By expressing the relevance of each node by an impact factor value as well as a margin of acceptable failures of the system, the Impact FD enables the user to tune the failure detection configuration in accordance with the requirements of the application: in some scenarios, the failure of low impact or redundant nodes does not jeopardize the confidence in the system, while the crash of a high impact factor one may seriously affect it. Either a softer or stricter monitoring is thus possible. The performance evaluation results using real Planet Lab traces confirm the degree of flexible applicability of our failure detector and, that due to the margin of failure, the number of false responses may be reduced when it is compared with traditional unreliable failure detectors.
Keywords: fault diagnosis; fault tolerant computing; telecommunication network reliability; ubiquitous computing; Planet Lab traces; failure detection configuration; false responses; impact FD; impact factor value; impact failure detector; self-healing capabilities; ubiquitous environments; ubiquitous systems; unreliable failure detector; Accuracy; Computer crashes; Detectors; Heart beat; Monitoring; Sensor phenomena and characterization; failure detector; impact factor; self-healing; trust level (ID#: 16-10716)


K. Hashimoto et al., “iKaaS Data Modeling: A Data Model for Community Services and Environment Monitoring in Smart City,” Autonomic Computing (ICAC), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, Grenoble, 2015, pp. 301-306. doi:10.1109/ICAC.2015.64
Abstract: Intelligent Knowledge as a Service (iKaaS) is an ambitious project aiming at integrating sensor management using Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud services by employing sensor data. The platform design covers self-healing functions based on self-awareness as well as basic functions such as inter-cloud, security/privacy management, and devices and data management. From the viewpoint of application development, ontology sharing is the most important to integrate services. This paper, the first step towards ontology sharing, defines the iKaaS data model as one that integrates data models used in all applications in the project. The data defined in the iKaaS data model is converted into RDF format and stored in the RDF database. The reasoning mechanism in semantic web allows the semantic integration of data and applications. The iKaaS project is developing a prototype community service, town management and healthcare, in Tagonishi's Smart City. Presenting the iKaaS data model for these said services, this paper emphasizes the necessity of higher contextual awareness to achieve the goal of a better-fitted personalization for the individual.
Keywords: Internet of Things; cloud computing; inference mechanisms; ontologies (artificial intelligence); relational databases; semantic Web; smart cities; town and country planning; IoT; RDF database; RDF format; application development; cloud services; community services; environment monitoring; health care; iKaaS data modeling; intelligent knowledge-as-a-service; ontology sharing; reasoning mechanism; resource description function; Semantic Web; sensor management; smart city; town management; Cities and towns; Context; Data models; Geospatial analysis; Smart cities; Three-dimensional displays; City GML; Community Service; Context-Awareness; Data Model; Sensor Network; Smart City (ID#: 16-10717)


J. D. Nieto, D. Remon, A. M. Cantarellas, C. Koch-Ciobotaru, and P. Rodriguez, “Overview of Intelligent Substation Automation in Distribution Systems,” Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2015 IEEE 24th International Symposium on, Buzios, 2015, pp. 922-927. doi:10.1109/ISIE.2015.7281594
Abstract: New trends in electricity production, that involve generating power locally at the distribution voltage level by using renewable energy sources, are changing the paradigm of the distribution network, giving it an active role with the integration of Distributed Generators (DG), which leads to the concept of active distribution networks. A key element that connects the distribution system to the rest of the power system is the medium to low voltage transformer substation, which requires further research and development in order to develop active distribution networks. This document presents an overview about the components and functions that an intelligent substation automation system may have.
Keywords: distribution networks; substation automation; transformer substations; distributed generators; distribution network; distribution systems; electricity production; intelligent substation automation; renewable energy sources; transformer substation; Artificial intelligence; Energy storage; Reliability; Smart grids; Substation automation; Voltage control; IEC 61850; Smart Grid; intelligent substation; renewable energy resources; self-healing (ID#: 16-10718)


R. Jia, S. Abdelwahed, and A. Erradi, “Towards Proactive Fault Management of Enterprise Systems,” Cloud and Autonomic Computing (ICCAC), 2015 International Conference on, Boston, MA, 2015, pp. 21-32. doi:10.1109/ICCAC.2015.18
Abstract: This paper introduces a model-based approach for autonomic fault management of computing systems. The proposed approach can recover a system from common faults while minimizing the impact on the system's quality of service and reducing potential revenue loss. When faults occur, the approach identifies fault types and accordingly compute the optimal recovery action with minimum impact on performance and operating cost using a predictive control algorithm. The paper introduces the formal settings of the model-based fault management approach and the underlying predictive control algorithm. The fault management approach has been verified on a testbed with respect to simulated faults including memory leak and network congestion. Simulation results show that our approach enabled effective automatic recovery from these faults with minimum impacts of system performance.
Keywords: quality of service; software fault tolerance; QoS; autonomic fault management; enterprise system; model-based fault management; predictive control algorithm; Computational modeling; Fault tolerance; Fault tolerant systems; Hardware; Predictive models; Servers; Software; Autonomic Computing; Fault Tolerance; Model-based Control; Self-healing (ID#: 16-10719)


S. Chernov, D. Petrov, and T. Ristaniemi, “Location Accuracy Impact on Cell Outage Detection in LTE-A Networks,” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), 2015 International, Dubrovnik, 2015, pp. 1162-1167. doi:10.1109/IWCMC.2015.7289247
Abstract: Automated and timely detection of malfunctioning cells in Long-Term Evolution (LTE) networks is of high importance. Sleeping cell is a particular type of cell degradation hardly detectable by traditional network monitoring systems. Recent introduction of Minimization of Drive Test (MDT) functionality enables to collect user-level statistics from regular user devices without expensive and time-consuming drive-test and measurement campaigns. In this study data mining techniques are used to process MDT measurements to detect efficiently a sleeping cell. The developed earlier data mining framework is briefly overviewed in the paper. Special attention is devoted to post-processing stage as one of the key elements of the detection scheme. In practice, location information of collected measurements might contain considerable errors. This factor impacts the precision of malfunctioning cell detection. Therefore several post-processing algorithms are proposed, where location accuracy is taken into account. The performance of the algorithms is compared based on the results of thorough system-level LTE network simulations. Combined post-processing method shows the best reliability against location errors in terms of Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and percent gain.
Keywords: Long Term Evolution; data mining; telecommunication computing; telecommunication network reliability; LTE-A networks; Long Term Evolution networks; cell outage detection; data mining techniques; location accuracy impact; malfunctioning cell detection; minimization of drive test; sleeping cell detection; Accuracy; Algorithm design and analysis; Data mining; Handover; Histograms; Training; LTE; SON; Self-healing; anomaly detection; cell outage (ID#: 16-10720)


R. Ghosh and J. Bera, “A Novel Approach for Detection and Avoidance of Black Hole Nodes in Wireless Data Transmission,” Next Generation Computing Technologies (NGCT), 2015 1st International Conference on, Dehradun, 2015,
pp. 344-349. doi:10.1109/NGCT.2015.7375138
Abstract: A novel approach has been introduced in this paper to detect and avoid black hole nodes during formation of reliable path for wireless data transmission. A valid acknowledgement is transmitted to the data packet sending node and its predecessor connected node. A trusted routing table created with valid acknowledgement receiver node. Secure data transmission is dependent upon the trusted routing table. Black hole nodes are required to be discarded from the data transmission. The information about the black hole node is broadcasted to the other nodes of the network to eliminate the uses of false route declaration.
Keywords: mobile ad hoc networks; radio receivers; telecommunication network reliability; telecommunication network routing; telecommunication security; trusted computing; MANET; black hole node avoidance; black hole node detection; data packet sending node; false route declaration; mobile ad-hoc network; predecessor connected node; reliable path formation; secure data transmission; trusted routing table; wireless data transmission; Communication system security; Data communication; Mobile ad hoc networks; Peer-to-peer computing; Routing; Wireless communication; Ad Hoc Networks; Black Hole; Mobility; Routing; Self-healing; Trusted routing table (ID#: 16-10721)


T. Huusari, Y. S. Choi, P. Liikkanen, D. Korpi, S. Talwar, and M. Valkama, “Wideband Self-Adaptive RF Cancellation Circuit for Full-Duplex Radio: Operating Principle and Measurements,” Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2015 IEEE 81st, Glasgow, 2015, pp. 1-7. doi:10.1109/VTCSpring.2015.7146163
Abstract: This paper presents a novel RF circuit architecture for self-interference cancellation in inband full-duplex radio transceivers. The developed canceller is able to provide wideband cancellation with waveform bandwidths in the order of 100 MHz or beyond and contains also self-adaptive or self-healing features enabling automatic tracking of time-varying self-interference channel characteristics. In addition to architecture and operating principle descriptions, we also provide actual RF measurements at 2.4 GHz ISM band demonstrating the achievable cancellation levels with different bandwidths and when operating in different antenna configurations and under low-cost highly nonlinear power amplifier. In a very challenging example with a 100 MHz waveform bandwidth, around 41 dB total cancellation is obtained while the corresponding cancellation figure is close to 60 dB with the more conventional 20 MHz carrier bandwidth. Also, efficient tracking in time-varying reflection scenarios is demonstrated.
Keywords: interference suppression; network synthesis; power amplifiers; radio transceivers; radiofrequency interference; ISM band; RF circuit architecture; antenna; frequency 100 MHz; frequency 2.4 GHz; inband full-duplex radio transceivers; nonlinear power amplifier; self-interference cancellation; time-varying self-interference channel; wideband cancellation; wideband self-adaptive RF cancellation circuit; Antenna measurements; Antennas; Bandwidth; Delays; Radio frequency; Receivers; Transmission line measurements (ID#: 16-10722)


Zhe Liu, Jianjun Ju, Weidong Chen, Xiangyu Fu and Hesheng Wang, “A Gradient-Based Self-Healing Algorithm for Mobile Robot Formation,” Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2015 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, Hamburg, 2015,
pp. 3395-3400. doi:10.1109/IROS.2015.7353850
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the self-healing problem of mobile robot formation after some robots have been damaged, and present a gradient-based algorithm which enables mobile robots to restore the topology of the formation through local interactions among neighboring robots. Firstly, in order to optimize the repair path in a distributed manner, a gradient generation and diffusion mechanism is proposed to generate a specific gradient distribution in the formation. Then, utilizing several predefined path selection rules, a path selection algorithm is presented to guarantee the optimality of the selected repair path. Furthermore, several optimization indices are presented to quantitatively characterize the performance of self-healing algorithms. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is validated by numerical simulations and the simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can restore the topology of the formation with the fewer repair robots and lower energy consumptions.
Keywords: mobile robots; numerical analysis; diffusion mechanism; gradient distribution; gradient generation; gradient-based algorithm; gradient-based self-healing algorithm; mobile robot formation; numerical simulations; optimization indices; path selection algorithm; predefined path selection rules; repair robots; self-healing algorithms; self-healing problem; Heuristic algorithms; Maintenance engineering; Mobile robots; Network topology; Robot kinematics; Topology (ID#: 16-10723)


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