Visible to the public Cyber Physical Systems and Metrics 2015Conflict Detection Enabled

SoS Newsletter- Advanced Book Block



SoS Logo

Cyber Physical Systems and Metrics



The research work cited here looks at the Science of Security hard problem of measurement in the context of cyber physical systems. The work was presented in 2015.

C. Lv, J. Zhang, P. Nuzzo, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Y. Li and Y. Yuan, “Design Optimization of the Control System for the Powertrain of an Electric Vehicle: A Cyber-Physical System Approach,” Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, Beijing, 2015, pp. 814-819. doi: 10.1109/ICMA.2015.7237590
Abstract: By leveraging the interaction between the physical and the computation worlds, cyber-physical systems provide the capability of augmenting the available design space in several application domains, possibly improving the quality of the final design. In this paper, we propose a new, optimization-based methodology for the co-design of the gear ratio and the active damping controller of the powertrain system in an electric vehicle. Our goal is to explore the trade-off between vehicle acceleration performance and drivability. Using a platform-based approach, we first define the system architecture, the requirements, and quality metrics of interest. Then, we formulate the design problem for the powertrain control system as an optimization problem, and propose a procedure to derive an optimal system sizing, by relying on the simulation of the vehicle performance for a set of driving scenarios. Optimization results show that the driveline control performance can be substantially improved with respect to conventional solutions, using the proposed methodology. This further highlights the relevance and effectiveness of a cyber-physical system approach to system design across the boundary between plant architecture and control law.
Keywords: control system synthesis; damping; electric vehicles; gears; optimisation; power transmission (mechanical); active damping controller co-design; application domains; control law; control system design optimization; cyber-physical system approach; driveline control performance; electric vehicle powertrain; gear ratio co-design; optimal system sizing; optimization problem; optimization-based methodology; plant architecture; platform-based approach; powertrain control system; quality metrics; system architecture; vehicle acceleration performance; vehicle drivability; vehicle performance simulation; Acceleration; Damping; Gears; Mechanical power transmission; Optimization; Torque; Vehicles; Design optimization; cyber-physical system; electric vehicle; platform-based design; powertrain control system (ID#: 16-11046)


Y. Kwon, H. K. Kim, Y. H. Lim and J. I. Lim, “A Behavior-Based Intrusion Detection Technique for Smart Grid Infrastructure,” PowerTech, 2015 IEEE Eindhoven, Eindhoven, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.1109/PTC.2015.7232339
Abstract: A smart grid is a fully automated electricity network, which monitors and controls all its physical environments of electricity infrastructure being able to supply energy in an efficient and reliable way. As the importance of cyber-physical system (CPS) security is growing, various intrusion detection algorithms to protect SCADA system and generation sector have been suggested, whereas there were less consideration on distribution sector. Thus, this paper first highlights the significance of CPS security, especially the availability as the most important factor in smart grid environment. Then this paper classifies various modern intrusion detection system (IDS) techniques for securing smart grid network. In our approach, we propose a novel behavior-based IDS for IEC 61850 protocol using both statistical analysis of traditional network features and specification-based metrics. Finally, we present the attack scenarios and detection methods applicable for IEC 61850-based digital substation in Korean environment.
Keywords: IEC standards; SCADA systems; power engineering computing; power system security; security of data; smart power grids; statistical analysis; substation protection; CPS security; IEC 61850 protocol; Korean environment; SCADA system protection; behavior-based IDS; behavior-based intrusion detection technique; cyber physical system security; digital substation; electricity infrastructure physical environment; fully automated electricity network reliability; smart grid infrastructure; statistical analysis; Clustering algorithms; Indexes; Inductors; Measurement; Security; Cyber-physical system; IEC 61850; anomaly detection; intrusion detection; smart grid (ID#: 16-11047)


S. Grüner and U. Epple, “Real-Time Properties for Design of Heterogeneous Industrial Automation Systems,” Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015 - 41st Annual Conference of the IEEE, Yokohama, 2015, pp. 004500-004505. doi: 10.1109/IECON.2015.7392801
Abstract: Scenarios for future industrial production, e.g., cyber-physical production systems, Industrie 4.0 or cloud manufacturing rely on the integration of heterogeneous physical production equipment, automation and IT systems. Moreover, a dynamic reconfiguration of these systems shall be possible without or with minimal work effort and system downtime. These requirements entail the consideration of timing aspects throughout all involved systems, which can ideally be employed by algorithms that support the dynamic reconfiguration. For this purpose, the paper introduces a generic terminology and metrics for the design of heterogeneous real-time systems.
Keywords: cyber-physical systems; production engineering computing; production equipment; dynamic reconfiguration; heterogeneous industrial automation system design; heterogeneous physical production equipment; industrial production; Automation; Context; Delays; Real-time systems; Terminology; Time factors (ID#: 16-11048)


M. Rodriguez, K. A. Kwiat and C. A. Kamhoua, “Modeling Fault Tolerant Architectures with Design Diversity for Secure Systems,” Military Communications Conference, MILCOM 2015 - 2015 IEEE, Tampa, FL, 2015, pp. 1254-1263. doi: 10.1109/MILCOM.2015.7357618
Abstract: Modern critical systems are facing an increasingly number of new security risks. Nowadays, the extensive use of third-party components and tools during design, and the massive outsourcing overseas of the implementation and integration of systems parts, augment the chances for the introduction of malicious system alterations along the development lifecycle. In addition, the growing dominance of monocultures in the cyberspace, comprising collections of identical interconnected computer platforms, leads to systems that are subject to the same vulnerabilities and attacks. This is especially important for cyber-physical systems, which interconnect cyberspace with computing resources and physical processes. The application of concepts and principles from design diversity to the development and operation of critical systems can help palliate these emerging security challenges. This paper defines and analyzes models of fault tolerant architectures for secure systems that rely on the use of design diversity. The models are built using minimal extensions to classical architectures according to a set of defined failure classes for secure services. A number of metrics are provided to quantify fault tolerance and performance as a function of design diversity. The architectures are analyzed with respect to the design diversity, and compared based on the undetected failure probability, the number of tolerated and detected failures, and the performance delay.
Keywords: diversity reception; telecommunication security; computer platforms; cyber-physical systems; cyberspace; design diversity; fault tolerance; fault tolerant architectures; secure systems; security risks; third-party components; Circuit faults; Computer architecture; Fault tolerance; Fault tolerant systems; Nuclear magnetic resonance; Security; Software; dependability; design diversity; modeling; security (ID#: 16-11049)


O. Arouk, A. Ksentini and T. Taleb, “Performance Analysis of RACH Procedure with Beta Traffic-Activated Machine-Type-Communication,” 2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), San Diego, CA, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.1109/GLOCOM.2015.7417095
Abstract: Machine-Type-Communication (MTC) is a key enabler for a variety of novel smart systems, such as smart grid, eHealth, Intelligent Transport System (ITS), and smart city, opening the area of the cyber physical systems. These systems may require the use of a huge number of MTC devices, which will put a great pressure on the whole network, i.e. Radio Access Network (RAN) and Core Network (CN) parts, resulting in the shape of congestion and system overload. Aiming at better evaluating the network performance under the existence of MTC traffic and also the effectiveness of the congestion control methods, the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) group has proposed two traffic models: Uniform Distribution (over 60 s) and Beta Distribution (over 10 s). In this paper, a recursive operation-based analytical model, namely General Recursive Estimation (GRE), for modeling the performance of RACH procedure in the existence of MTC with Beta traffic is proposed. In order to show the effectiveness of our analytical model GRE, many metrics have been considered, such as the total number of MTC devices in each Random Access (RA) slot, the number of success MTC devices in each RA slot, and the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of preamble transmission. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of GRE. Moreover, our model GRE could be used to model the performance of RACH procedure with any type of traffic.
Keywords: 3G mobile communication; recursive estimation; statistical distributions; telecommunication congestion control; telecommunication traffic; wireless channels; 3GPP; 3rd Generation Partnership Project; CDF; GRE; ITS; MTC devices; RA slot; RACH procedure; RAN; beta distribution traffic model; beta traffic-activated machine-type-communication; congestion control methods; core network; cumulative distribution function; cyber physical systems; eHealth; general recursive estimation; intelligent transport system; performance analysis; radio access network; random access channel; random access slot; recursive operation-based analytical model; smart city; smart grid; smart systems; system overload; uniform distribution traffic model; Analytical models; Long Term Evolution; Performance evaluation; Radio access networks; Recursive estimation; Synchronization; Uplink (ID#: 16-11050)


F. Hämmerle et al., “Evaluation of Context Management Architectures: The Case of Context Framework and Context Broker,” Industrial Technology (ICIT), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, Seville, 2015, pp. 1870-1875. doi: 10.1109/ICIT.2015.7125369
Abstract: In recent years Context Management Systems have been increasingly adopted for processing sensory information in different fields of applications, such as surveillance of construction areas, coordination of emergencies and production monitoring. While system architectures have been designed for specific domains, literature informs only little about evaluation criteria for Context Management-Architectures. Nevertheless it is crucial to use the right criteria, when the system has to face requirements of industrial applications. While one system may be designed for reusable contextualisation mechanisms, others provide real-time information for Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES). In this paper we develop suitable scenarios and metrics for architecture evaluation and apply these on two exemplary real-world architectures. The development of scenarios was based on domain experts and researchers in a project 1 concerning Cyber Physical Production Systems (CPPS), funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. Our results show, that early architectural decisions have a high influence on the systems performance and therefore the systems applicability. The developed criteria also provide knowledge for system engineers in industrial practice.
Keywords: expert systems; production engineering computing; software architecture; software performance evaluation; CPPS; European industrial production; context broker; context framework; context management architecture evaluation; cyber physical production system; domain expert; system performance evaluation; systems applicability; Computer architecture; Context; Measurement; Production; Scalability; Sensors; Time factors; Architecture; Context Management; Industrial Internet; Industry 4.0; System Evaluation (ID#: 16-11051)


F. Zhang, Y. Wang and F. Kuang, “A Cognitive Network for Reliability Maintenance of Double-Path Routing in IEEE 802.15.4 Networks,” Cyber Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, Shenyang, 2015, pp. 82-87. doi: 10.1109/CYBER.2015.7287914
Abstract: In order to build a reliable traffic to overcome ever-changing scenarios with different QoS requirements for WSN-based M2M applications, a cognitive technology using the causality tree is proposed for the reliability maintenance of wireless sensor networks. Routing maintenance metrics are defined as basic initiatives for device maintenance. The metrics enable to guarantee quality of services for the development of machine-to-machine communications. The causality tree performs a comprehensive survey of the metrics, and possible events are analyzed to identify routing design issues about link states, link reliability, and correlated dynamics transitions in terms of RSSI and PRR. Device maintenance metrics categorize the proposed semantic metrics into six class events. A global profile of the causality tree is finally put forward for each intelligent node. Physical experiments are used to evaluate the reliable performance of wireless nodes in the scenarios of channel and electromagnetic interference.
Keywords: cognitive radio; quality of service; telecommunication network reliability; telecommunication network routing; wireless sensor networks; PRR; QoS requirements; RSSI; WSN-based M2M applications; causality tree; channel interference; cognitive technology; correlated dynamics transitions; device maintenance metrics; double-path routing; electromagnetic interference; link reliability; link states; machine-to-machine communications; quality of services; reliability maintenance; routing design issues; routing maintenance metrics; semantic metrics; wireless nodes; wireless sensor networks; Data transfer; Logic gates; Maintenance engineering; Measurement; Reliability; Routing; Wireless sensor networks; M2M; QoS; WSN; reliability; routing (ID#: 16-11052)


Articles listed on these pages have been found on publicly available internet pages and are cited with links to those pages. Some of the information included herein has been reprinted with permission from the authors or data repositories. Direct any requests via Email to for removal of the links or modifications to specific citations. Please include the ID# of the specific citation in your correspondence.