Visible to the public Deterrence 2015Conflict Detection Enabled

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Finding ways both technical and behavioral to provide disincentives to threats is a promising area of research. Since most cybersecurity is “bolt on” rather than embedded, and since detection, response, and forensics are expensive, time-consuming processes, discouraging attacks can be a cost-effective cybersecurity approach. The research works cited here were presented and published in 2015.

M. K. Awad, B. Zogheib and H. M. K. Alazemi, “Optimal Penalties for Misbehavior Deterrence in Communication Networks,” Communications, Computers and Signal Processing (PACRIM), 2015 IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on, Victoria, BC, 2015,
pp. 381-384. doi: 10.1109/PACRIM.2015.7334866
Abstract: The communication among entities in any network is administered by a set of rules and technical specifications detailed in the communication protocol. All communicating entities adhere to the same protocol to successfully exchange data. Most of the rules are expressed in an algorithm format that computes a decision based on a set of inputs provided by communicating entities or collected by a central controller. Due to the increasing number of communicating entities and large bandwidth required to exchange the set of inputs generated at each entity, distributed implementations have been favorable to reduce the control overhead. In such implementations, each entity self-computes crucial protocol decisions; therefore, can alter these decisions to gain unfair share of the resources managed by the protocol. Misbehaving users degrade the performance of the whole network in-addition to starving well-behaving users. In this work we develop a framework to derive the optimal penalty strategy for penalizing misbehaving users. The proposed framework considers users learning of the detection mechanism techniques and the detection mechanism tracking of the users behavior and history of protocol offenses. Analysis indicates that escalating penalties are optimal for deterring repeat protocol offenses.
Keywords: protocols; communication networks; control overhead; crucial protocol decisions; detection mechanism techniques; misbehavior deterrence; optimal penalty strategy; Communication networks; Decision making; Mathematical model; Monitoring; Protocols; Quality of service; Throughput; Computer Networks Security; Penalty Scheme; Resource Allocation (ID#: 16-11053)


J. A. Ambrose, R. G. Ragel, D. Jayasinghe, T. Li and S. Parameswaran, “Side Channel Attacks in Embedded Systems: A Tale of Hostilities and Deterrence,” Quality Electronic Design (ISQED), 2015 16th International Symposium on, Santa Clara, CA, 2015, pp. 452-459. doi: 10.1109/ISQED.2015.7085468
Abstract: Security of embedded computing systems is becoming paramount as these devices become more ubiquitous, contain personal information and are increasingly used for financial transactions. Side Channel Attacks, in particular, have been effective in obtaining secret keys which protect information. In this paper we selectively classify the side channel attacks, and selectively demonstrate a few attacks. We further classify the popular countermeasures to Side Channel Attacks. The paper paints an overall picture for a researcher or a practitioner who seeks to understand or begin to work in the area of side channel attacks in embedded systems.
Keywords: embedded systems; security of data; embedded computing system; embedded system; financial transaction; personal information; security; side channel attack; Algorithm design and analysis; Correlation; Embedded systems; Encryption; Power demand; Timing (ID#: 16-11054)


A. L. Russell, “Strategic Anti-Access/Area Denial in Cyberspace,” Cyber Conflict: Architectures in Cyberspace (CyCon), 2015 7th International Conference on, Tallinn, 2015,
pp. 153-168. doi: 10.1109/CYCON.2015.7158475
Abstract: This paper investigates how anti-access and area denial (A2/AD) operations can be conducted to deny actors access to cyberspace. It examines multiple facets of cyberspace to identify the potential vulnerabilities within the system that could be exploited. This project will also touch upon the policy implications of strategic cyber A2/AD for national security, particularly as they relate to deterrence strategy, coercion, and interstate conflict. The question of deterrence is particularly important. Given the extensive reliance of modern states and societies on cyberspace, the ability to deny access to cyberspace would threaten the economy, security, and stability of a state. A credible threat of this nature may be sufficient to deter armed conflict or compel a more favorable course of action. Thus, strategic A2/AD in cyberspace may create new options and tools for international relations. This paper will address strategic A2/AD with regards to the physical aspects of cyberspace (i.e., cables, satellites). It will assess the strengths and potential vulnerabilities of the physical attributes (the architecture) of cyberspace, as they relate to potential A2/AD operations. It will also address the relevant policy and strategy implications of strategic cyber A2/AD for states, including how this may affects the development of cyber security strategy, critical infrastructure protection, and private sector cooperation. The paper will offer conclusions and recommendations to policymakers and scholars.
Keywords: national security; security of data; critical infrastructure protection; cybersecurity strategy; cyberspace; national security; private sector cooperation; strategic anti-access-area denial operation; strategic cyber A2-AD operation; Communication cables; Cyberspace; Internet; Optical fiber cables; Optical fibers; Physical layer; Satellites; A2/AD; anti-access/area denial; conflict; deterrence; infrastructure; strategy (ID#: 16-11055)


J. Kallberg, “A Right to Cybercounter Strikes: The Risks of Legalizing Hack Backs,” in IT Professional, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 30-35, Jan.-Feb. 2015. doi: 10.1109/MITP.2015.1
Abstract: The idea to legalize hacking back has gained traction in the last few years and has received several influential corporate and political proponents in the US and Europe. The growing frustration with repeated cyberattacks and a lack of effective law enforcement pushes for alternative ways to prevent future exploits. Countercyberattacks are currently illegal in most nations, because they constitute a cybercrime independent of the initial attack. Considering the legalization of cyber counterattacks raises a set of questions, including those linked to the underlying assumptions supporting the proposal to legalize countercyberattacks. Another line of questions deal with the embedded challenges to the role of the nation state. Privatized countercyberattacks could jeopardize the authority and legitimacy of the state. The combined questions raised by hacking back undermines the viability of the action itself, so hacking back is likely to be ineffective and to have a negative impact on the development of Internet governance and norms. This article is part of a special issue on IT security.
Keywords: law; security of data; IT security; Internet governance; cyber counterattack legalization; cybercounter strikes; cybercrime; effective law enforcement; hack back legalization; privatized countercyberattacks; Computer crime; Computer hacking; Computer security; Information technology; Intellectual property; Internet; Law; cyber defense; cyber deterrence; cyber ethics; cyber theft; hack back; information technology; intellectual property; retaliation; security (ID#: 16-11056)


J. Rivera, “Achieving Cyberdeterrence and the Ability of Small States to Hold Large States at Risk,” Cyber Conflict: Architectures in Cyberspace (CyCon), 2015 7th International Conference on, Tallinn, 2015, pp. 7-24. doi: 10.1109/CYCON.2015.7158465
Abstract: Achieving cyberdeterrence is a seemingly elusive goal in the international cyberdefense community. The consensus among experts is that cyberdeterrence is difficult at best and perhaps impossible, due to difficulties in holding aggressors at risk, the technical challenges of attribution, and legal restrictions such as the UN Charter's prohibition against the use of force. Consequently, cyberspace defenders have prioritized increasing the size and strength of the metaphorical “walls” in cyberspace over facilitating deterrent measures.
Keywords: security of data; UN Charter prohibition; cyberdeterrence; cyberspace defenders; Cyberspace; Force; Internet; Lenses; National security; Power measurement; attribution; deterrence; use of force (ID#: 16-11057)


E. Takamura, K. Mangum, F. Wasiak and C. Gomez-Rosa, “Information Security Considerations for Protecting NASA Mission Operations Centers (MOCs),” Aerospace Conference, 2015 IEEE, Big Sky, MT, 2015, pp. 1-14. doi: 10.1109/AERO.2015.7119207
Abstract: In NASA space flight missions, the Mission Operations Center (MOC) is often considered “the center of the (ground segment) universe,” at least by those involved with ground system operations. It is at and through the MOC that spacecraft is commanded and controlled, and science data acquired. This critical element of the ground system must be protected to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the information and information systems supporting mission operations. This paper identifies and highlights key information security aspects affecting MOCs that should be taken into consideration when reviewing and/or implementing protecting measures in and around MOCs. It stresses the need for compliance with information security regulation and mandates, and the need for the reduction of IT security risks that can potentially have a negative impact to the mission if not addressed. This compilation of key security aspects was derived from numerous observations, findings, and issues discovered by IT security audits the authors have conducted on NASA mission operations centers in the past few years. It is not a recipe on how to secure MOCs, but rather an insight into key areas that must be secured to strengthen the MOC, and enable mission assurance. Most concepts and recommendations in the paper can be applied to non-NASA organizations as well. Finally, the paper emphasizes the importance of integrating information security into the MOC development life cycle as configuration, risk and other management processes are tailored to support the delicate environment in which mission operations take place.
Keywords: aerospace computing; command and control systems; data integrity; information systems; risk management; security of data; space vehicles; IT security audits; IT security risk reduction; MOC development life cycle; NASA MOC protection; NASA mission operation center protection; NASA space flight missions; ground system operations; information availability; information confidentiality; information integrity; information security considerations; information security regulation; information systems; nonNASA organizations; spacecraft command and control; Access control; Information security; Monitoring; NASA; Software; IT security metrics; NASA; access control; asset protection; automation; change control; connection protection; continuous diagnostics and mitigation; continuous monitoring; ground segment ground system; incident handling; information assurance; information security; information security leadership; information technology leadership; infrastructure protection; least privilege; logical security; mission assurance; mission operations; mission operations center; network security; personnel screening; physical security; policies and procedures; risk management; scheduling restrictions; security controls; security hardening; software updates; system cloning and software licenses; system security; system security life cycle; unauthorized change detection; unauthorized change deterrence; unauthorized change prevention (ID#: 16-11058)


L. Watkins, K. Silberberg, J. A. Morales and W. H. Robinson, “Using Inherent Command and Control Vulnerabilities to Halt DDoS Attacks,” 2015 10th International Conference on Malicious and Unwanted Software (MALWARE), Fajardo, 2015, pp. 3-10. doi: 10.1109/MALWARE.2015.7413679
Abstract: Dirt Jumper is a powerful distributed denial of service (DDoS) family of toolkits (e.g., includes Drive version x, Dirt Jumper version x, and Pandora) sold in online black markets. The buyers are typically individuals who seek to infect computers globally and incite them to collectively emit crippling unsolicited network traffic to unsuspecting targets, often for criminal purposes. The Dirt Jumper Family (DJF) of botnets is not new; however, new variants have made the family more destructive and more relevant. The DJF has caused millions of dollars of damage across several different business sectors. Notably in 2014, a European media company was attacked with a 10-hour, 200 gigabit per second DDoS campaign with an estimated impact of $20M. Traditional defensive measures, like firewalls, intrusion prevention systems, and defense-in-depth, are not always effective. The threat may hasten the emergence of active defenses to protect Internet-based revenue streams or intellectual property. In practice, some companies have either found legal loopholes that provide immunity, or have decided to leverage the budding relationship between the government and the private sector to Hack Back with implied immunity. Either way, tools are currently being used to defend against hacking. This paper provides: (1) an overview of the present threat posed by the Dirt Jumper family of DDoS toolkits, (2) an overview of the Hacking Back debate and clear examples of the use of legal loopholes or implied immunity, and (3) novel offensive campaigns that could be used to stop active DDoS attacks by exploiting vulnerabilities in the botnet's command and control (C&C). Our work could be the first steps toward a cyber-deterrence strategy for hacking and cyber espionage, which is a National Security imperative.
Keywords: Internet; computer network security; industrial property; invasive software; national security; telecommunication traffic; DDoS attacks; DDoS campaign; DDoS toolkits; DJF; Dirt Jumper Family; Internet-based revenue streams; National Security; active defenses; botnet C and C; botnet command and control; crippling unsolicited network traffic; cyber espionage; cyber-deterrence strategy; distributed denial of service family; hacking; intellectual property; Companies; Computer crime; Computers; Government; Law; Malware (ID#: 16-11059)


Y. Fujii, N. Yoshiura, N. Ohta and A. Takita, “Abuse Prevention of Street Camera Network by Browsing-History Disclosure,” 2015 4th International Conference on Instrumentation, Communications, Information Technology, and Biomedical Engineering (ICICI-BME), Bandung, 2015, pp. 17-17. doi: 10.1109/ICICI-BME.2015.7401306
Abstract: Summary form only given. Street camera network, in which many street cameras are installed at high density just like street lights throughout the nation, will have a stronger positive effect in suspect tracking and crime deterrence in the near future. On the other hand, it will also have a stronger negative possibility in violation of privacy of ordinary citizen. It is necessary for such a stronger surveillance camera system, which forcibly captures the images of passers for the public interest, to be accepted as an essential social infrastructure by the society, that only the usage for the public interest, which is accepted by the society beforehand, is possible and this can be believed by the ordinary citizen. To realize this, a new concept, in which abuse of street camera network is deterred by browsing-history disclosure, is proposed. In the lecture, the concept, the prototype and the experiment will be reported and the future prospect will also be presented.
Keywords: target tracking; video cameras; video surveillance; abuse prevention; browsing-history disclosure; crime deterrence; ordinary citizen; privacy violation; social infrastructure; street camera network; surveillance camera system; suspect tracking; Biomedical engineering; Cameras; Information technology; Instruments; Privacy; Prototypes; Surveillance (ID#: 16-11060)


A. Basuchoudhary, M. Eltoweissy, M. Azab, L. Razzolini and S. Mohamed, “Cyberdefense When Attackers Mimic Legitimate Users: A Bayesian Approach,” Information Reuse and Integration (IRI), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, San Francisco, CA, 2015, pp. 502-509. doi: 10.1109/IRI.2015.83
Abstract: Cyber defenders cannot clearly identify attackers from other legitimate users on a computer network. The network administration can protect the network using an active or a passive defense. Attackers can mount attacks like denial of service attacks or try to gain entry into secure systems. We model cyber defense as a signaling game. We find Bayesian Nash equilibria for both the attacker and the defender and characterize how these equilibria respond to changes in underlying parameters. We explore the question, is there an optimal deterrence policy that utilizes passive and/or active defenses given that both attacks and defenses impose costs on legitimate users? Comparative static results show how exogenous changes in the context and the nature of the attack change optimal strategies for both the attacker and the defender. These results suggest that sensors should look for certain kinds of information and not others as well as technologies that can automatically calibrate a response. Results also suggest when attackers are more likely to break into secure systems relative to mounting DDoS attacks. We use simulation to verify the analytical results.
Keywords: Bayes methods; computer crime; computer network security; game theory; Bayesian Nash equilibria; Bayesian approach; DDoS attacks; active defense; attackers; computer network; cyber defenders; cyber defense; denial of service attacks; legitimate users; network administration; network protection; optimal deterrence policy; optimal strategies; passive defense; secure systems; signaling game; Bayes methods; Computational modeling; Computer crime; Computer networks; Economics; Games; Military computing; Bayesian; Cyber Defense; Nash Equilibrium (ID#: 16-11061)


K. Mehmood, M. Afzal, M. Mukaram Khan and M. M. WaseemIqbal, “A Practical Approach to Impede Key Recovery and Piracy in Digital Rights Management System (DRM),” Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST), 2015 12th International Bhurban Conference on, Islamabad, 2015, pp. 349-353. doi: 10.1109/IBCAST.2015.7058528
Abstract: With the invention of high speed internet and content digitization, large scale content sharing has become exceptionally easy. This ease adds fuel to the fire of piracy, which causes a gigantic loss to content providers. Copyright laws only cause deterrence. Hence a technological solution was required to protect the rights of digital content owners. This inevitably gave birth to Digital Rights Management System (DRM). But DRM could not fulfill this obligation and is broken time to time. Two major types of attacks faced by DRM are the key recovery and unencrypted content capturing. In this paper a DRM model has been proposed which will employ elliptic curve integrated encryption system (ECIES) and a secure one-way hash function for generating a dynamic one time content encryption/decryption key. A portion of key is stored in license. With the proposed technique, the knowledge of a portion of key will reveal no information about the key itself. The key will never be reused and will never be stored on end user device. The proposed solution will raise the scale of difficulty for key recovery and piracy. If any effort is made to distribute the contents illegally, the contents will be locked cryptographically for both legal and illegal consumers. The proposed technique also provides protection against attacks, wherein an attacker becomes successful in extracting the content decryption key and publishes it on a public website database. With the help of any well-known technique like remote attestation, the proposed solution also allows checking the integrity of DRM client software which is executed in malicious host environment.
Keywords: Internet; computer crime; copyright; digital rights management; public key cryptography; DRM model; ECIES; attacks; content digitization; content providers; copyright laws; digital content owners; digital rights management system; dynamic one time content encryption/decryption key; elliptic curve integrated encryption system; end user device; high speed Internet; illegal consumers; key recovery; large scale content sharing; license; malicious host environment; piracy; public Website database; rights protection; secure one-way hash function; unencrypted content capturing; Computational modeling; Computer architecture; Encryption
(ID#: 16-11062)


Z. Ghasem, I. Frommholz and C. Maple, “A Hybrid Approach to Combat Email-Based Cyberstalking,” Future Generation Communication Technology (FGCT), 2015 Fourth International Conference on, Luton, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.1109/FGCT.2015.7300257
Abstract: Email is one of the most popular Internet applications which enables individuals and organisations alike to communicate and work effectively. However, email has also been used by criminals as a means to commit cybercrimes such as phishing, spamming, cyberbullying and cyberstalking. Cyberstalking is a relatively new surfacing cybercrime, which recently has been recognised as a serious social and worldwide problem. Combating email-based cyberstalking is a challenging task that involves two crucial steps: a robust method for filtering and detecting cyberstalking emails and documenting evidence for identifying cyberstalkers as a prevention and deterrence measure. In this paper, we discuss a hybrid approach that applies machine learning to detect, filter and file evidence. To this end we present a new robust feature selection approach to select informative features, aiming to improve the performance of machine learning within this task.
Keywords: Internet; computer crime; feature selection; learning (artificial intelligence); unsolicited e-mail; Internet applications; cyberbullying; cybercrimes; cyberstalking; email-based cyberstalking; machine learning; phishing; robust feature selection approach; spamming; Computer crime; Computers; Electronic mail; Feature extraction; Law enforcement; Robustness (ID#: 16-11063)


V. P. Sonawane and P. Irabashetti, “Method for Preventing Direct and Indirect Discrimination in Data Mining,” Computing Communication Control and Automation (ICCUBEA), 2015 International Conference on, Pune, 2015, pp. 353-357. doi: 10.1109/ICCUBEA.2015.74
Abstract: For extorting the helpful comprehension concealed in the biggest compilation of a database the data mining technology is used. There are some negative approaches occurred about the data mining technology, among which the potential privacy incursion and potential discrimination. The latter consists of irrationally considering individuals on the source of their fitting to an exact group. Data mining and automated data collection methods like the classification covered the way forsaking the automated judgment like granting or denying the loan on the basis of race, creed, etc. If the training data sets are unfair in what respects discriminatory attributes like masculine category, race, creed, etc., discriminator decisions may ensue. Because of this reason the data mining technology introduced ant discrimination methods with including the discrimination discovery and avoidance. The discrimination can direct or indirect. When any decisions were made to the sensitive attributes at that time direct discrimination are occurring. While the indirect discrimination are occurring when the decision remade on the basis of non-sensitive attributes which are strongly associated with the sensitive. Here in this paper, we deal with discrimination avoidance in data mining and proposed novel method for discrimination prevention with the post processing approach. We projected Classification based on predictive association rules (CPAR) algorithm, which is a kind of association classification methods. The algorithm combines the advantages of both association classification methods and traditional rule based classification. The algorithm used to thwart discrimination deterrence in post processing. We calculate the utility of the proposed approach and compare with the existing approaches. The experimental assessment proved that the proposed method is effectively removing the direct or unintended discrimination prejudices in the original data set for maintaining the quality of data.
Keywords: data analysis; data mining; database management systems; CPAR algorithm; antidiscrimination methods; automated data collection methods; automated judgment; classification based on predictive association rules; creed; data mining technology; data sets; database; discrimination avoidance; discrimination discovery; discriminatory attributes; masculine category; nonsensitive attributes; post processing approach; race; Accuracy; Computers; Data mining; Data models; Databases; Prediction algorithms; Training data; Direct discrimination prevention; Indirect discrimination prevention; antidiscrimination; post-processing; privacy; rule generalization; rule protection (ID#: 16-11064)


G. G. Thoreson, E. A. Schneider, H. Armstrong and C. A. van der Hoeven, “The Application of Neutron Transport Green’s Functions to Threat Scenario Simulation,” in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 236-249, Feb. 2015.  doi: 10.1109/TNS.2015.2389769
Abstract: Radiation detectors provide deterrence and defense against nuclear smuggling attempts by scanning vehicles, ships, and pedestrians for radioactive material. Understanding detector performance is crucial to developing novel technologies, architectures, and alarm algorithms. Detection can be modeled through radiation transport simulations; however, modeling a spanning set of threat scenarios over the full transport phase-space is computationally challenging. Previous research has demonstrated Green's functions can simulate photon detector signals by decomposing the scenario space into independently simulated submodels. This paper presents decomposition methods for neutron and time-dependent transport. As a result, neutron detector signals produced from full forward transport simulations can be efficiently reconstructed by sequential application of submodel response functions.
Keywords: Green's function methods; neutron detection; neutron transport theory; nuclear materials transportation; particle detectors; photodetectors; alarm algorithm; full forward transport simulation; full transport phase-space; neutron detector signals; neutron transport Green functions; nuclear smuggling; photon detector signals; radiation detectors; radiation transport simulation; radioactive material; scanning vehicles; submodel response function; threat scenario simulation; time-dependent transport; Computational modeling; Detectors; Geometry; Materials; Neutrons; Photonics; Interdiction; nuclear material; photon transport; radiation portal monitor; smuggle (ID#: 16-11065)


A. Le Compte, D. Elizondo and T. Watson, “A Renewed Approach to Serious Games for Cyber Security,” Cyber Conflict: Architectures in Cyberspace (CyCon), 2015 7th International Conference on, Tallinn, 2015, pp. 203-216. doi: 10.1109/CYCON.2015.7158478
Abstract: We are living in a world which is continually evolving and where modern conflicts have moved to the cyber domain. In its 2010 Strategic Concept, NATO affirmed its engagement to reinforce the defence and deterrence of its state members. In this light, it has been suggested that the gamification of training and education for cyber security will be beneficial. Although serious games have demonstrated pedagogic effectiveness in this field, they have only been used in a limited number of contexts, revealing some limitations. Thus, it is argued that serious games could be used in informal contexts while achieving similar pedagogic results. It is also argued that the use of such a serious game could potentially reach a larger audience than existing serious games, while complying with national cyber strategies. To this end, a framework for designing serious games which are aimed at raising an awareness of cyber security to those with little or no knowledge of the subject is presented. The framework, based upon existing frameworks and methodologies, is also accompanied with a set of cyber security skills, itself based upon content extracted from government sponsored awareness campaigns, and a method of integrating these skills into the framework. Finally, future research will be conducted to refine the framework and to improve the set of cyber security related skills in order to suit a larger range of players. A proof of concept will also be designed in order to collect empirical data and to validate the effectiveness of the framework.
Keywords: security of data; serious games (computing); cyber domain; cyber security; empirical data collection; national cyber strategy; renewed approach; serious games; Business; Computer security; Context; Games; Industries; Training; cyber security; framework; serious games (ID#: 16-11066)


H. T. Liu and Y. M. Tang, “The Causal Model Analysis of Resident's Evaluation of Closed Circuit TV and Security Perception,” Security Technology (ICCST), 2015 International Carnahan Conference on, Taipei, 2015, pp. 61-66. doi: 10.1109/CCST.2015.7389658
Abstract: Closed Circuit TV (CCTV) was considered to be an effective technology for crime deterrence in Taiwan. But the resource of CCTV effectiveness always came from police administration, and there were little studies exploring the relationship among community surveillance, public space environment, situational crime prevention, security perception and Closed Circuit TV evaluation from residents' viewpoint. This study developed one integrative model to examine their causal relationships quantitatively. We collected 830 community resident samples around Taiwan and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to verify those hypotheses we explored. The results showed that resident's perception of community surveillance, public space environment, situational crime prevention all positively influenced security perception and Closed Circuit TV evaluation.
Keywords: closed circuit television; CCTV resident evaluation causal model analysis; Taiwan; closed circuit TV security perception; community surveillance; police administration; public space environment; situational crime prevention; structural equation model; Aerospace electronics; Green design; Mathematical model; Reliability; Security; Surveillance; TV; Closed Circuit TV evaluation; Community surveillance; public space environment; security perception; situational crime prevention (ID#: 16-11067)


“IEEE Draft Standard for Identification of Contact Wire Used in Overhead Contact Systems,” in IEEE P1896 /D2.2, June 2015, pp. 1-15, July 23 2015. doi:  (not provided)
Abstract: This standard defines the parameters to be used in the identification of contact wires used in transit systems and electric railways and railroads. This standard is intended for use in identifying contact wire by metallurgical content, electrical conductivity and agency ownership. This standard is not intended to replace or supersede existing identification standards using grooving but rather to simplify identification methods.
Keywords: IEEE Standards; Light rail systems; Overhead cable systems; Power transmission lines; Public transportation; Rail transportation; OCS design; OCS styles; Overhead Contact System or OCS; contact wire; electric trolley buses; light rail system; streetcars; transit systems; trolley; trolley wire (ID#: 16-11068)


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