Visible to the public Cryptography with Photons 2015Conflict Detection Enabled

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Cryptography with Photons



Quantum cryptography uses the transfer of photons using a filter that indicates the orientation of the photon sent. Eavesdropping on the communication affects it. This property is of interest to the Science of Security community in building secure cyber-physical systems, and for resiliency and compositionality. The work cited here was presented in 2015.

B. Archana and S. Krithika, “Implementation of BB84 Quantum Key Distribution Using OptSim,” Electronics and Communication Systems (ICECS), 2015 2nd International Conference on, Coimbatore, 2015, pp. 457-460. doi: 10.1109/ECS.2015.7124946
Abstract: This paper proposes a cryptographic method know as quantum cryptography. Quantum cryptography uses quantum channel to exchange key securely and keeps unwanted parties or eavesdroppers from learning sensitive information. A technique called Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is used to share random secret key by encoding the information in quantum states. Photons are the quantum material used for encoding. QKD provides an unique way of sharing random sequence of bits between users with a level of security not attainable with any other classical cryptographic methods. In this paper, BB84 protocol is used to implement QKD, that deals with the photon polarization states used to transmit the telecommunication information with high level of security using optical fiber. In this paper we have implemented BB84 protocol using photonic simulator OptSim 5.2.
Keywords: cryptographic protocols; quantum cryptography; BB84 protocol; BB84 quantum key distribution; QKD; cryptographic method; eavesdroppers; learning sensitive information; optical fiber; photon polarization states; photonic simulator OptSim 5.2; quantum channel; quantum material; quantum states; random secret key; telecommunication information; Cryptography; Photonics; Polarization; Protocols; Quantum entanglement; BB84protocol; OptSim5.2; Quantum Mechanism(QM); QuantumKey Distribution (QKD); Quantumcryptography(QC); photonpolarization (ID#: 16-11339)


B. G. Norton, M. Ghadimi, V. Blums and D. Kielpinski, “Monolithic Optical Integration for Scalable Trapped-Ion Quantum Information Processing,” Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim (CLEO-PR), 2015 11th Conference on, Busan, 2015, pp. 1-2. doi: 10.1109/CLEOPR.2015.7376434
Abstract: Quantum information processing (QIP) promises to radically change the outlook for secure communications, both by breaking existing cryptographic protocols and offering new quantum protocols in their place. A promising technology for QIP uses arrays of atomic ions that are trapped in ultrahigh vacuum and manipulated by lasers. Over the last several years, work in my research group has led to the demonstration of a monolithically integrated, scalable optical interconnect for trapped-ion QIP. Our interconnect collects single photons from trapped ions using a diffractive mirror array, which is fabricated directly on a chip-type ion trap using a CMOS-compatible process. Based on this interconnect, we have proposed an architecture that couples trapped ion arrays with photonic integrated circuits to achieve compatibility with current telecom networks. Such tightly integrated, highly parallel systems open the prospect of long-distance quantum cryptography.
Keywords: CMOS integrated circuits; cryptographic protocols; integrated optics; mirrors; optical arrays; optical communication; optical fabrication; optical interconnections; quantum cryptography; quantum optics; security of data; CMOS-compatible process; QIP; chip-type ion trap; cryptographic protocols; diffractive mirror array; long-distance quantum cryptography; monolithic optical integration; photonic integrated circuits; quantum protocols; scalable optical interconnect; scalable trapped-ion quantum information processing; secure communications; ultrahigh vacuum; Charge carrier processes; Computer architecture; Information processing; Ions; Mirrors; Optical diffraction; Optical waveguides (ID#: 16-11340)


T. Graham, C. Zeitler, J. Chapman, P. Kwiat, H. Javadi and H. Bernstein, “Superdense Teleportation and Quantum Key Distribution for Space Applications,” 2015 IEEE International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (ICSOS), New Orleans, LA, 2015, pp. 1-7. doi: 10.1109/ICSOS.2015.7425090
Abstract: The transfer of quantum information over long distances has long been a goal of quantum information science and is required for many important quantum communication and computing protocols. When these channels are lossy and noisy, it is often impossible to directly transmit quantum states between two distant parties. We use a new technique called superdense teleportation to communicate quantum information deterministically with greatly reduced resources, simplified measurements, and decreased classical communication cost. These advantages make this technique ideal for communicating quantum information for space applications. We are currently implementing an superdense teleportation lab demonstration, using photons hyperentangled in polarization and temporal mode to communicate a special set of two-qubit, single-photon states between two remote parties. A slight modification of the system readily allows it to be used to implement quantum cryptography as well. We investigate the possibility of implementation from an Earth's orbit to ground. We will discuss our current experimental progress and the design challenges facing a practical demonstration of satellite-to-Earth SDT.
Keywords: optical communication; quantum computing; quantum cryptography; quantum entanglement; satellite communication; teleportation; hyperentangled photons; lossy channels; noisy channels; quantum communication; quantum information; quantum key distribution; quantum states; satellite-to-Earth SDT; space applications; superdense teleportation; two-qubit single-photon states; Extraterrestrial measurements; Photonics; Protocols; Quantum entanglement; Satellites; Teleportation; Superdense teleportation;  (ID#: 16-11341)


K. W. C. Chan, M. E. Rifai, P. Verma, S. Kak and Y. Chen, “Multi-Photon Quantum Key Distribution Based on Double-Lock Encryption,” 2015 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, 2015, pp. 1-2. doi: 10.1364/CLEO_QELS.2015.FF1A.3
Abstract: We present a quantum key distribution protocol based on the double-lock cryptography. It exploits the asymmetry in the detection strategies between the legitimate users and the eavesdropper. With coherent states, the mean photon number can be as larger as 10.
Keywords: light coherence; multiphoton processes; photodetectors; quantum cryptography; quantum optics; coherent states; double-lock cryptography; double-lock encryption; mean photon number; multiphoton quantum key distribution; photodetection strategies; Authentication; Computers; Error probability; Photonics; Protocols; Quantum cryptography (ID#: 16-11342)


M. Koashi, “Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent Laser Pulse Train: Security Without Monitoring Disturbance,” Photonics North, 2015, Ottawa, ON, 2015, pp. 1-1. doi: 10.1109/PN.2015.7292456
Abstract: Conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) schemes determine the amount of leaked information through estimation of signal disturbance. Here we present a QKD protocol based on an entirely different principle, which works without monitoring the disturbance. The protocol is implemented with a laser, an interferometer with a variable delay, and photon detectors. It is capable of producing a secret key when the bit error rate is high and the communication time is short.
Keywords: high-speed optical techniques; light coherence; quantum cryptography; quantum optics; QKD; bit error rate; coherent laser pulse train; photon detectors; quantum key distribution; secret key; variable delay; Delays; Estimation; Monitoring; Photonics; Privacy; Protocols; Security; differential phase shift keying; information-disturbance trade off; variable delay (ID#: 16-11343)


C. J. Chunnilall, “Metrology for Quantum Communications,” 2015 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, 2015, pp. 1-2. doi: 10.1364/CLEO_AT.2015.AF1J.6
Abstract: Industrial technologies based on the production, manipulation, and detection of single and entangled photons are emerging, and quantum key distribution via optical fibre is one of the most commercially-advanced. The National Physical Laboratory is developing traceable performance metrology for the quantum devices used in these technologies. This is part of a broader effort to develop metrological techniques and standards to accelerate the development and commercial uptake of new industrial quantum communication technologies based on single photons. This presentation will give an overview of the work carried out at NPL and within the wider European community, and highlight plans for the future.
Keywords: fibre optic sensors; photon counting; quantum cryptography; quantum entanglement; National Physical Laboratory; entangled photons; metrology; optical fibre; quantum communications; quantum devices; quantum key distribution; single photons; Communication systems; Detectors; Metrology; Optical fibers; Optical transmitters; Photonics; Security (ID#: 16-11344)


D. Bunandar, Z. Zhang, J. H. Shapiro and D. R. Englund, “Practical High-Dimensional Quantum Key Distribution with Decoy States,” 2015 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, 2015, pp. 1-2. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.022336
Abstract: We propose a high-dimensional quantum key distribution protocol secure against photon-number splitting attack by employing only one or two decoy states. Decoy states dramatically increase the protocol's secure distance.
Keywords: cryptographic protocols; quantum cryptography; quantum optics; security of data; decoy states; high-dimensional quantum key distribution protocol; photon-number splitting attack; protocol secure distance; Correlation; Dispersion; Photonics; Protocols; Security; System-on-chip (ID#: 16-11345)


N. Li, S. M. Cui, Y. M. Ji, K. s. Feng and L. Shi, “Analysis for Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution Based on the Law of Large Number,” 2015 IEEE Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC), Chongqing, 2015, pp. 1073-1076. doi: 10.1109/IAEAC.2015.7428723
Abstract: Measuring device-independent quantum key distribution scheme can remove all detectors' side-channel flaw, combined with decoy state program to achieve absolute security of quantum key distribution. In this paper, the statistical law of large numbers fluctuate limited key length measuring device-independent quantum key distribution scheme in single-photon counting rate and BER (Bit Error Rate) were analyzed, and the key length of the single-photon N = 106 ~ 1012 counting rate and the key generation rate simulation were performed. Simulation results show that: in the optical fiber transmission, with decreasing key length 300 km, the secure transmission distance, decreased respectively to 260 km (N = 1010) and 75 km (N = 106). When N = 1012, secure transmission distance is reached at 295km, close to the theoretical limit.
Keywords: error statistics; quantum cryptography; BER; bit error rate; decoy state program; key generation rate simulation; key length measuring device-independent quantum key distribution scheme; law of large number; optical fiber transmission; secure transmission distance; security; side-channel flaw; single-photon counting rate; statistical law; Decision support systems; Force measurement; Frequency modulation; Navigation; Q measurement; Measuring device-independent; QKD; law of large numbers; three-intensity decoy-state program (ID#: 16-11346)


F. Piacentini et al., “Metrology for Quantum Communication,” 2015 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), San Diego, CA, 2015, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.1109/GLOCOMW.2015.7413960
Abstract: INRIM is making efforts to produce a metrology for quantum communication purposes, ranging from the establishment of measurement procedures for specific quantities related to QKD components, namely pseudo single-photon sources and detectors, to the implementation of novel QKD protocol based on paradigm other than non-commuting observables, to the development of quantum tomographic techniques, to the realization and characterization of a quasi-noiseless single-photon source. In particular in this paper we summarize this last activity together with the description of the preliminary results related to a four-wave mixing source that our group realized in order to obtain a source with a narrow band low noise single photon emission, a demanding feature for applications to quantum repeaters and memories.
Keywords: multiwave mixing; quantum cryptography; INRIM; QKD components; QKD protocol; four-wave mixing source; measurement procedures; narrow band low noise single photon emission; pseudo single-photon sources; quantum communication metrology; quantum tomographic techniques; quasi-noiseless single-photon source; Cesium; Communication systems; Four-wave mixing; Laser beams; Laser excitation; Metrology; Photonics (ID#: 16-11347)


U. S. Chahar and K. Chatterjee, “A Novel Differential Phase Shift Quantum Key Distribution Scheme for Secure Communication,” Computing and Communications Technologies (ICCCT), 2015 International Conference on, Chennai, 2015,
pp. 156-159. doi: 10.1109/ICCCT2.2015.7292737
Abstract: Quantum key distribution is used for secure communication between two parties for generation of secret key. Differential Phase Shift Quantum Key Distribution is a new and unique QKD protocol that is different from traditional ones, providing simplicity and practicality. This paper presents Delay Selected DPS-QKD scheme in which it uses a weak coherent pulse train, and features simple configuration and efficient use of the time domain. All detected photon participate to form a secure key bits and resulting in a higher key creation efficiency.
Keywords: cryptographic protocols; differential phase shift keying; quantum cryptography; telecommunication security; time-domain analysis; QKD protocol; coherent pulse train; delay selected DPS-QKD scheme; differential phase shift quantum key distribution scheme; secret key generation; secure communication; secure key bits; time domain analysis; Delays; Detectors; Differential phase shift keying; Photonics; Protocols; Security; Differential Phase Shift; Differential phase shift keying protocol; Quantum Key Distribution (ID#: 16-11348)


G. S. Kanter, “Fortifying Single Photon Detectors to Quantum Hacking Attacks by Using Wavelength Upconversion,” 2015 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, 2015, pp. 1-2. doi: 10.1364/CLEO_AT.2015.JW2A.7
Abstract: Upconversion detection can isolate the temporal and wavelength window over which light can be efficiency received. Using appropriate designs the ability of an eavesdropper to damage, measure, or control QKD receiver components is significantly constricted.
Keywords: optical control; optical design techniques; optical receivers; optical testing; optical wavelength conversion; optical windows; photodetectors; photon counting; quantum cryptography; QKD receiver component control; QKD receiver component measurement; optical designs; quantum hacking attacks; single-photon detectors; temporal window; wavelength upconversion detection; wavelength window; Band-pass filters; Computer crime; Detectors; Insertion loss; Monitoring; Photonics; Receivers (ID#: 16-11349)


T. Horikiri, “Quantum Key Distribution with Mode-Locked Two-Photon States,” Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim (CLEO-PR), 2015 11th Conference on, Busan, 2015, pp. 1-2. doi: 10.1109/CLEOPR.2015.7376514
Abstract: Quantum key distribution (QKD) with mode-locked two-photon states is discussed. The photon source with a comb-like second-order correlation function is shown to be useful for implementing long distance time-energy entanglement QKD.
Keywords: laser mode locking; optical correlation; quantum cryptography; quantum entanglement; quantum optics; two-photon processes; comblike second-order correlation function; long distance time-energy entanglement QKD; mode-locked two-photon states; quantum key distribution; Cavity resonators; Correlation; Detectors; Photonics; Signal resolution; Timing; Yttrium (ID#: 16-11350)


X. Tan, S. Cheng, J. Li and Z. Feng, “Quantum Key Distribution Protocol Using Quantum Fourier Transform,” Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2015 IEEE 29th International Conference on, Gwangiu, 2015,
pp. 96-101. doi: 10.1109/WAINA.2015.8
Abstract: A quantum key distribution protocol is proposed base on the discrete quantum Fourier transform. In our protocol, we perform Fourier transform on each particle of the sequence to encode the qubits and insert sufficient decoy photons into the sequence for preventing eavesdropping. Furthermore, we prove the security of this protocol with it's immunization to intercept-measurement attack, intercept-resend attack and entanglement-measurement attack. Then, we analyse the efficiency of the protocol, the efficiency of our protocol is about 25% that higher than many other protocols. Also, the proposed protocol has another advantage that it is completely compatible with quantum computation and more easy to realize in the distributed quantum secure computation.
Keywords: cryptographic protocols; discrete Fourier transforms; quantum cryptography; discrete quantum Fourier transform; distributed quantum secure computation; eavesdropping; immunization; intercept-measurement attack; intercept-resend attack; quantum key distribution protocol; Atmospheric measurements; Fourier transforms; Particle measurements; Photonics; Protocols; Quantum computing; Security; Intercept-resend attack; Quantum Fourier transform; Quantum key distribution; Unitary operation (ID#: 16-11351)


D. Aktas, B. Fedrici, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté and S. Tanzilli, “Distributing Energy-Time Entangled Photon Pairs in Demultiplexed Channels Over 110 Km,” 2015 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, 2015, pp. 1-2. doi: 10.1364/CLEO_QELS.2015.FTu2A.6
Abstract: We propose a novel approach to quantum cryptography using the latest demultiplexing technology to distribute photonic entanglement over a fully fibred network. We achieve unprecedented bit-rates, beyond the state of the art for similar approaches.
Keywords: demultiplexing; optical fibre networks; quantum cryptography; quantum entanglement; quantum optics; demultiplexed channels; demultiplexing technology; distance 110 km; energy-time entangled photon pairs; fully fibred network; photonic entanglement; quantum cryptography; Bit rate; Optical filters; Optimized production technology; Photonics; Quantum cryptography; Quantum entanglement; Standards (ID#: 16-11352)


M. Koashi, “Round-Robin Differential-Phase-Shift QKD Protocol,” Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim (CLEO-PR), 2015 11th Conference on, Busan, 2015, pp. 1-2. doi: 10.1109/CLEOPR.2015.7376020
Abstract: Conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) schemes determine the amount of leaked information through estimation of signal disturbance. Here we present a QKD protocol based on an entirely different principle, which works without monitoring the disturbance.
Keywords: cryptographic protocols; differential phase shift keying; optical communication; quantum cryptography; quantum optics; leaked information; quantum key distribution schemes; round-robin differential-phase-shift QKD protocol; signal disturbance; Delays; Detectors; Optical interferometry; Photonics; Privacy; Protocols; Receivers (ID#: 16-11353)


J. M. Vilardy O., M. S. Millán and E. Pérez-Cabré, “Secure Image Encryption and Authentication Using the Photon Counting Technique in the Gyrator Domain,” Signal Processing, Images and Computer Vision (STSIVA), 2015 20th Symposium on, Bogota, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.1109/STSIVA.2015.7330460
Abstract: In this work, we present the integration of the photon counting technique (PhCT) with an encryption system in the Gyrator domain (GD) for secure image authentication. The encryption system uses two random phase masks (RPMs), one RPM is defined at the spatial domain and the other RPM is defined at the GD, in order to encode the image to encrypt (original image) into random noise. The rotation angle of the Gyrator transform adds a new key that increases the security of the encryption system. The decryption system is an inverse system with respect to the encryption system. The PhCT limits the information content of an image in a nonlinear, random and controlled way; the photon-limited image only has a few pixels of information, this type of image is usually known as sparse image. We apply the PhCT over the encrypted image. The resulting image in the decryption system is not a copy of the original image, this decrypted image is a random code that should contain the sufficient information for the authentication of the original image using a nonlinear correlation technique. Finally, we evaluate the peak-to-correlation energy metric for different values of the parameters involved in the encryption and authentication systems, in order to test the verification capability of the authentication system.
Keywords: cryptography; image processing; photon counting; random noise; gyrator domain; inverse system; nonlinear correlation technique; peak-to-correlation energy metric; photon counting technique; random noise; random phase masks; secure image authentication; secure image encryption; sparse image; Authentication; Correlation; Encryption; Gyrators; Photonics; Transforms (ID#: 16-11354)


E. Y. Zhu, C. Corbari, A. V. Gladyshev, P. G. Kazansky, H. K. Lo and L. Qian, “Multi-Party Agile QKD Network with a Fiber-Based Entangled Source,” 2015 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, 2015, pp. 1-2. doi: 10.1364/CLEO_AT.2015.JW2A.10
Abstract: A multi-party quantum key distribution scheme is experimentally demonstrated by utilizing a poled fiber-based broadband polarization-entangled source and dense wavelength-division multiplexing. Entangled photon pairs are delivered over 40-km of fiber, with secure key rates of more than 20 bits/s observed.
Keywords: optical fibre networks; optical fibre polarisation; quantum cryptography; quantum entanglement; quantum optics; wavelength division multiplexing; bit rate 20 bit/s; dense wavelength-division multiplexing; entangled photon pairs; fiber-based entangled source; multiparty Agile QKD network; multiparty quantum key distribution scheme; poled fiber-based broadband polarization-entangled source; secure key rates; size 40 km; Adaptive optics; Broadband communication; Optical polarization; Optical pumping; Photonics; Wavelength division multiplexing (ID#: 16-11355)


S. Kleis, R. Herschel and C. G. Schaeffer, “Simple and Efficient Detection Scheme for Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution with M-ary Phase-Shift-Keying,” 2015 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, 2015, pp. 1-2. doi: 10.1364/CLEO_SI.2015.SW3M.7
Abstract: A detection scheme for discriminating coherent states in quantum key distribution systems employing PSK is proposed. It is simple and uses only standard components. Its applicability at extremely low power levels of as low as 0.045 photons per symbol is experimentally verified.
Keywords: light coherence; optical modulation; phase shift keying; photodetectors; quantum cryptography; quantum optics; PSK; coherent states discrimination; continuous variable quantum key distribution; detection scheme; m-ary phase-shift-keying; Modulation; Optical mixing; Optical receivers; Optical transmitters; Photonics; Signal to noise ratio (ID#: 16-11356)


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