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Gallagher, John C., Humphrey, Laura R., Matson, Eric.  2014.  Maintaining Model Consistency during In-Flight Adaptation in a Flapping-Wing Micro Air Vehicle. Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications 2: Results from the 2nd International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications. :517–530.

Machine-learning and soft computation methods are often used to adapt and modify control systems for robotic, aerospace, and other electromechanical systems. Most often, those who use such methods of self-adaptation focus on issues related to efficacy of the solutions produced and efficiency of the computational methods harnessed to create them. Considered far less often are the effects self-adaptation on Verification and Validation (V{&}V) of the systems in which they are used. Simply observing that a broken robotic or aerospace system seems to have been repaired is often not enough. Since self-adaptation can severely distort the relationships among system components, many V{&}V methods can quickly become useless. This paper will focus on a method by which one can interleave machine-learning and model consistency checks to not only improve system performance, but also to identify how those improvements modify the relationship between the system and its underlying model. Armed with such knowledge, it becomes possible to update the underlying model to maintain consistency between the real and modeled systems. We will focus on a specific application of this idea to maintaining model consistency for a simulated Flapping-Wing Micro Air Vehicle that uses machine learning to compensate for wing damage incurred while in flight. We will demonstrate that our method can detect the nature of the wing damage and update the underlying vehicle model to better reflect the operation of the system after learning. The paper will conclude with a discussion of potential future applications, including generalizing the technique to other vehicles and automating the generation of model consistency-testing hypotheses.