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Himanshu Neema, Janos Sztipanovits, Cornelius Steinbrink, Thomas Raub, Bastian Cornelsen, Sebastian Lehnhoff.  2019.  Simulation Integration Platforms for Cyber-physical Systems. Workshop on Design Automation for Cyber-Physical Systems and Internet-of-Things. :10–19.

Simulation-based analysis is essential in the model-based design process of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). Since heterogeneity is inherent to CPS, virtual prototyping of CPS designs and the simulation of their behavior in various environments typically involve a number of physical and computation/communication domains interacting with each other. Affordability of the model-based design process makes the use of existing domain-specific modeling and simulation tools all but mandatory. However, this pressure establishes the requirement for integrating the domain-specific models and simulators into a semantically consistent and efficient system-of-system simulation. The focus of the paper is the interoperability of popular integration platforms supporting heterogeneous multi-model simulations. We examine the relationship among three existing platforms: the High-Level Architecture (HLA)-based CPS Wind Tunnel (CPSWT), MOSAIK, and the Functional Mockup Unit (FMU). We discuss approaches to establish interoperability and present results of ongoing work in the context of an example.

Martin Burns, Thomas Roth, Edward Griffor, Paul Boynton, Sztipanovits Janos, Neema, Himanshu.  2018.  Universal CPS Environment for Federation (UCEF). 2018 Winter Simulation Innovation Workshop.

NIST, in collaboration with Vanderbilt University, has assembled an open-source tool set for designing and implementing federated, collaborative and interactive experiments with cyber-physical systems (CPS). These capabilities are used in our research on CPS at scale for Smart Grid, Smart Transportation, IoT and Smart Cities. This tool set, "Universal CPS Environment for Federation (UCEF)," includes a virtual machine (VM) to house the development environment, a graphical experiment designer, a model repository, and an initial set of integrated tools including the ability to compose Java, C++, MATLABTM, OMNeT++, GridLAB-D, and LabVIEWTM based federates into consolidated experiments. The experiments themselves are orchestrated using a ‘federation manager federate,’ and progressed using courses of action (COA) experiment descriptions. UCEF utilizes a method of uniformly wrapping federates into a federation. The UCEF VM is an integrated toolset for creating and running these experiments and uses High Level Architecture (HLA) Evolved to facilitate the underlying messaging and experiment orchestration. Our paper introduces the requirements and implementation of the UCEF technology and indicates how we intend to use it in CPS Measurement Science.

Himanshu Neema, Bradley Potteiger, Xenofon Koutsoukos, Gabor Karsai, Peter Volgyesi, Janos Sztipanovits.  2018.  Integrated Simulation Testbed for Security and Resilience of CPS. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. :368–374.

Owing1 to an immense growth of internet-connected and learning-enabled cyber-physical systems (CPSs) [1], several new types of attack vectors have emerged. Analyzing security and resilience of these complex CPSs is difficult as it requires evaluating many subsystems and factors in an integrated manner. Integrated simulation of physical systems and communication network can provide an underlying framework for creating a reusable and configurable testbed for such analyses. Using a model-based integration approach and the IEEE High-Level Architecture (HLA) [2] based distributed simulation software; we have created a testbed for integrated evaluation of large-scale CPS systems. Our tested supports web-based collaborative metamodeling and modeling of CPS system and experiments and a cloud computing environment for executing integrated networked co-simulations. A modular and extensible cyber-attack library enables validating the CPS under a variety of configurable cyber-attacks, such as DDoS and integrity attacks. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation is also supported along with several hardware attacks. Further, a scenario modeling language allows modeling of alternative paths (Courses of Actions) that enables validating CPS under different what-if scenarios as well as conducting cyber-gaming experiments. These capabilities make our testbed well suited for analyzing security and resilience of CPS. In addition, the web-based modeling and cloud-hosted execution infrastructure enables one to exercise the entire testbed using simply a web-browser, with integrated live experimental results display.

Barve, Yogesh, Neema, Himanshu, Rees, Stephen, Sztipanovits, Janos.  2018.  Towards a Design Studio for Collaborative Modeling and Co-Simulations of Mixed Electrical Energy Systems. Third International Workshop on Science of Smart City Operations and Platforms Engineering (SCOPE).
Despite the known benefits of simulations in the study of mixed energy systems in the context of smart grid, the lack of collaboration facilities between multiple domain experts prevents a holistic analysis of smart grid operations. Current solutions do not provide a unified tool-chain that supports a secure and collaborative platform for not only the modeling and simulation of mixed electrical energy systems, but also the elastic execution of co-simulation experiments. To address above limitations, this paper proposes a design studio that provides an online collaborative platform for modeling and simulation of smart grids with mixed energy resources.
B. Potteiger, W. Emfinger, H. Neema, X. Koutosukos, C. Tang, K. Stouffer.  2017.  Evaluating the effects of cyber-attacks on cyber physical systems using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation testbed. 2017 Resilience Week (RWS). :177-183.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) consist of embedded computers with sensing and actuation capability, and are integrated into and tightly coupled with a physical system. Because the physical and cyber components of the system are tightly coupled, cyber-security is important for ensuring the system functions properly and safely. However, the effects of a cyberattack on the whole system may be difficult to determine, analyze, and therefore detect and mitigate. This work presents a model based software development framework integrated with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testbed for rapidly deploying CPS attack experiments. The framework provides the ability to emulate low level attacks and obtain platform specific performance measurements that are difficult to obtain in a traditional simulation environment. The framework improves the cybersecurity design process which can become more informed and customized to the production environment of a CPS. The developed framework is illustrated with a case study of a railway transportation system.
X. Koutsoukos, G. Karsai, A. Laszka, H. Neema, B. Potteiger, P. Volgyesi, Y. Vorobeychik, J. Sztipanovits.  2018.  SURE: A Modeling and Simulation Integration Platform for Evaluation of Secure and Resilient Cyber–Physical Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE. 106:93-112.
The exponential growth of information and communication technologies have caused a profound shift in the way humans engineer systems leading to the emergence of closed-loop systems involving strong integration and coordination of physical and cyber components, often referred to as cyber-physical systems (CPSs). Because of these disruptive changes, physical systems can now be attacked through cyberspace and cyberspace can be attacked through physical means. The paper considers security and resilience as system properties emerging from the intersection of system dynamics and the computing architecture. A modeling and simulation integration platform for experimentation and evaluation of resilient CPSs is presented using smart transportation systems as the application domain. Evaluation of resilience is based on attacker-defender games using simulations of sufficient fidelity. The platform integrates 1) realistic models of cyber and physical components and their interactions; 2) cyber attack models that focus on the impact of attacks to CPS behavior and operation; and 3) operational scenarios that can be used for evaluation of cybersecurity risks. Three case studies are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the platform: 1) vulnerability analysis of transportation networks to traffic signal tampering; 2) resilient sensor selection for forecasting traffic flow; and 3) resilient traffic signal control in the presence of denial-of-service attacks.