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Aydin, Kevin, Bateni, MohammadHossein, Mirrokni, Vahab.  2016.  Distributed Balanced Partitioning via Linear Embedding. Proceedings of the Ninth ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining. :387–396.

Balanced partitioning is often a crucial first step in solving large-scale graph optimization problems: in some cases, a big graph is chopped into pieces that fit on one machine to be processed independently before stitching the results together, leading to certain suboptimality from the interaction among different pieces. In other cases, links between different parts may show up in the running time and/or network communications cost, hence the desire to have small cut size. We study a distributed balanced partitioning problem where the goal is to partition the vertices of a given graph into k pieces, minimizing the total cut size. Our algorithm is composed of a few steps that are easily implementable in distributed computation frameworks, e.g., MapReduce. The algorithm first embeds nodes of the graph onto a line, and then processes nodes in a distributed manner guided by the linear embedding order. We examine various ways to find the first embedding, e.g., via a hierarchical clustering or Hilbert curves. Then we apply four different techniques such as local swaps, minimum cuts on partition boundaries, as well as contraction and dynamic programming. Our empirical study compares the above techniques with each other, and to previous work in distributed algorithms, e.g., a label propagation method, FENNEL and Spinner. We report our results both on a private map graph and several public social networks, and show that our results beat previous distributed algorithms: we notice, e.g., 15-25% reduction in cut size over [UB13]. We also observe that our algorithms allow for scalable distributed implementation for any number of partitions. Finally, we apply our techniques for the Google Maps Driving Directions to minimize the number of multi-shard queries with the goal of saving in CPU usage. During live experiments, we observe an ≈ 40% drop in the number of multi-shard queries when comparing our method with a standard geography-based method.

Aydin, M., Jacob, J..  2015.  Cloud-COVER: Using User Security Attribute Preferences and Propagation Analysis to Prioritize Threats to Systems. 2015 European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference. :53–60.

We present Cloud-COVER (Controls and Orderings for Vulnerabilities and ExposuRes), a cloud security threat modelling tool. Cloud-COVER takes input from a user about their deployment, requiring information about the data, instances, connections, their properties, and the importance of various security attributes. This input is used to analyse the relevant threats, and the way they propagate through the system. They are then presented to the user, ordered according to the security attributes they have prioritised, along with the best countermeasures to secure against the dangers listed.

Aydin, Y., Ozkaynak, F..  2019.  A Provable Secure Image Encryption Schema Based on Fractional Order Chaotic Systems. 2019 23rd International Conference Electronics. :1–5.
In the literature, many chaotic systems have been used in the design of image encryption algorithms. In this study, an application of fractional order chaotic systems is investigated. The aim of the study is to improve the disadvantageous aspects of existing methods based on discrete and continuous time chaotic systems by utilizing the features of fractional order chaotic systems. The most important advantage of the study compared to the literature is that the proposed encryption algorithm is designed with a provable security approach. Analyses results have been shown that the proposed method can be used successfully in many information security applications.
Ayed, H. Kaffel-Ben, Boujezza, H., Riabi, I..  2017.  An IDMS approach towards privacy and new requirements in IoT. 2017 13th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :429–434.
Identities are known as the most sensitive information. With the increasing number of connected objects and identities (a connected object may have one or many identities), the computing and communication capabilities improved to manage these connected devices and meet the needs of this progress. Therefore, new IoT Identity Management System (IDMS) requirements have been introduced. In this work, we suggest an IDMS approach to protect private information and ensures domain change in IoT for mobile clients using a personal authentication device. Firstly, we present basic concepts, existing requirements and limits of related works. We also propose new requirements and show our motivations. Next, we describe our proposal. Finally, we give our security approach validation, perspectives, and some concluding remarks.
Ayers, H., Crews, P., Teo, H., McAvity, C., Levy, A., Levis, P..  2020.  Design Considerations for Low Power Internet Protocols. 2020 16th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS). :103–111.
Low-power wireless networks provide IPv6 connectivity through 6LoWPAN, a set of standards to aggressively compress IPv6 packets over small maximum transfer unit (MTU) links such as 802.15.4.The entire purpose of IP was to interconnect different networks, but we find that different 6LoWPAN implementations fail to reliably communicate with one another. These failures are due to stacks implementing different subsets of the standard out of concern for code size. We argue that this failure stems from 6LoWPAN's design, not implementation, and is due to applying traditional Internet protocol design principles to low- power networks.We propose three design principles for Internet protocols on low-power networks, designed to prevent similar failures in the future. These principles are based around the importance of providing flexible tradeoffs between code size and energy efficiency. We apply these principles to 6LoWPAN and show that the modified protocol provides a wide range of implementation strategies while allowing implementations with different strategies to reliably communicate.
Ayers, Hudson, Crews, Paul Thomas, Teo, Hubert Hua Kian, McAvity, Conor, Levy, Amit, Levis, Philip.  2018.  Design Considerations for Low Power Internet Protocols. Proceedings of the 16th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems. :317–318.
Examining implementations of the 6LoWPAN Internet Standard in major embedded operating systems, we observe that they do not fully interoperate. We find this is due to some inherent design flaws in 6LoWPAN. We propose and demonstrate four principles that can be used to structure protocols for low power devices that encourage interoperability between diverse implementations.
Aygun, R. C., Yavuz, A. G..  2017.  Network Anomaly Detection with Stochastically Improved Autoencoder Based Models. 2017 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud). :193–198.

Intrusion detection systems do not perform well when it comes to detecting zero-day attacks, therefore improving their performance in that regard is an active research topic. In this study, to detect zero-day attacks with high accuracy, we proposed two deep learning based anomaly detection models using autoencoder and denoising autoencoder respectively. The key factor that directly affects the accuracy of the proposed models is the threshold value which was determined using a stochastic approach rather than the approaches available in the current literature. The proposed models were tested using the KDDTest+ dataset contained in NSL-KDD, and we achieved an accuracy of 88.28% and 88.65% respectively. The obtained results show that, as a singular model, our proposed anomaly detection models outperform any other singular anomaly detection methods and they perform almost the same as the newly suggested hybrid anomaly detection models.

Aylett, Ruth, Broz, Frank, Ghosh, Ayan, McKenna, Peter, Rajendran, Gnanathusharan, Foster, Mary Ellen, Roffo, Giorgio, Vinciarelli, Alessandro.  2017.  Evaluating Robot Facial Expressions. Proceedings of the 19th ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction. :516–517.

This paper outlines a demonstration of the work carried out in the SoCoRo project investigating how far a neuro-typical population recognises facial expressions on a non-naturalistic robot face that are designed to show approval and disapproval. RFID-tagged objects are presented to an Emys robot head (called Alyx) and Alyx reacts to each with a facial expression. Participants are asked to put the object in a box marked 'Like' or 'Dislike'. This study is being extended to include assessment of participants' Autism Quotient using a validated questionnaire as a step towards using a robot to help train high-functioning adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder in social signal recognition.

Ayoade, G., Akbar, K. A., Sahoo, P., Gao, Y., Agarwal, A., Jee, K., Khan, L., Singhal, A..  2020.  Evolving Advanced Persistent Threat Detection using Provenance Graph and Metric Learning. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—9.

Advanced persistent threats (APT) have increased in recent times as a result of the rise in interest by nation-states and sophisticated corporations to obtain high profile information. Typically, APT attacks are more challenging to detect since they leverage zero-day attacks and common benign tools. Furthermore, these attack campaigns are often prolonged to evade detection. We leverage an approach that uses a provenance graph to obtain execution traces of host nodes in order to detect anomalous behavior. By using the provenance graph, we extract features that are then used to train an online adaptive metric learning. Online metric learning is a deep learning method that learns a function to minimize the separation between similar classes and maximizes the separation between dis-similar instances. We compare our approach with baseline models and we show our method outperforms the baseline models by increasing detection accuracy on average by 11.3 % and increases True positive rate (TPR) on average by 18.3 %.

Ayoade, G., Chandra, S., Khan, L., Hamlen, K., Thuraisingham, B..  2018.  Automated Threat Report Classification over Multi-Source Data. 2018 IEEE 4th International Conference on Collaboration and Internet Computing (CIC). :236–245.

With an increase in targeted attacks such as advanced persistent threats (APTs), enterprise system defenders require comprehensive frameworks that allow them to collaborate and evaluate their defense systems against such attacks. MITRE has developed a framework which includes a database of different kill-chains, tactics, techniques, and procedures that attackers employ to perform these attacks. In this work, we leverage natural language processing techniques to extract attacker actions from threat report documents generated by different organizations and automatically classify them into standardized tactics and techniques, while providing relevant mitigation advisories for each attack. A naïve method to achieve this is by training a machine learning model to predict labels that associate the reports with relevant categories. In practice, however, sufficient labeled data for model training is not always readily available, so that training and test data come from different sources, resulting in bias. A naïve model would typically underperform in such a situation. We address this major challenge by incorporating an importance weighting scheme called bias correction that efficiently utilizes available labeled data, given threat reports, whose categories are to be automatically predicted. We empirically evaluated our approach on 18,257 real-world threat reports generated between year 2000 and 2018 from various computer security organizations to demonstrate its superiority by comparing its performance with an existing approach.

Ayoob, Mustafa, Adi, Wael, Prevelakis, Vassilis.  2017.  Using Ciphers for Failure-Recovery in ITS Systems. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :98:1–98:7.
Combining Error-Correction Coding ECC and cryptography was proposed in the recent decade making use of bit-quality parameters to improve the error correction capability. Most of such techniques combine authentication crypto-functions jointly with ECC codes to improve system reliability, while fewer proposals involve ciphering functions with ECC to improve reliability. In this work, we propose practical and pragmatic low-cost approaches for making use of existing ciphering functions for reliability improvement. The presented techniques show that ciphering functions (as deterministic, non-linear bijective functions) can serve to achieve error correction enhancement and hence allow error recovery and scalable security trade-offs with or without additional ECC components. We demonstrate two best-effort error-correcting strategies. It is further shown, that the targeted reliability improvement is scalable to attain practical usability. The first proposed technique is pure-cipher-based error correction procedure deploying hard decision, best-effort operations to improve the system-survivability without changing system configuration. The second strategy is making use of ECC in combination with the ciphering function to enhance system-survivability. The correction procedures are based on simple experimental search-and-modify the corrupted ciphertext until predefined criteria become valid. This procedure may, however, turn out to become equivalent to a successful integrity/authenticity attack that may reduce the system security level, however in a scalable and predictable non-significant fashion.
Ayotte, Blaine, Banavar, Mahesh K., Hou, Daqing, Schuckers, Stephanie.  2019.  Fast and Accurate Continuous User Authentication by Fusion of Instance-Based, Free-Text Keystroke Dynamics. 2019 International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG). :1–6.

Keystroke dynamics study the way in which users input text via their keyboards, which is unique to each individual, and can form a component of a behavioral biometric system to improve existing account security. Keystroke dynamics systems on free-text data use n-graphs that measure the timing between consecutive keystrokes to distinguish between users. Many algorithms require 500, 1,000, or more keystrokes to achieve EERs of below 10%. In this paper, we propose an instance-based graph comparison algorithm to reduce the number of keystrokes required to authenticate users. Commonly used features such as monographs and digraphs are investigated. Feature importance is determined and used to construct a fused classifier. Detection error tradeoff (DET) curves are produced with different numbers of keystrokes. The fused classifier outperforms the state-of-the-art with EERs of 7.9%, 5.7%, 3.4%, and 2.7% for test samples of 50, 100, 200, and 500 keystrokes.

Ayub, M. A., Continella, A., Siraj, A..  2020.  An I/O Request Packet (IRP) Driven Effective Ransomware Detection Scheme using Artificial Neural Network. 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :319–324.
In recent times, there has been a global surge of ransomware attacks targeted at industries of various types and sizes from retail to critical infrastructure. Ransomware researchers are constantly coming across new kinds of ransomware samples every day and discovering novel ransomware families out in the wild. To mitigate this ever-growing menace, academia and industry-based security researchers have been utilizing unique ways to defend against this type of cyber-attacks. I/O Request Packet (IRP), a low-level file system I/O log, is a newly found research paradigm for defense against ransomware that is being explored frequently. As such in this study, to learn granular level, actionable insights of ransomware behavior, we analyze the IRP logs of 272 ransomware samples belonging to 18 different ransomware families captured during individual execution. We further our analysis by building an effective Artificial Neural Network (ANN) structure for successful ransomware detection by learning the underlying patterns of the IRP logs. We evaluate the ANN model with three different experimental settings to prove the effectiveness of our approach. The model demonstrates outstanding performance in terms of accuracy, precision score, recall score, and F1 score, i.e., in the range of 99.7%±0.2%.
Ayub, Md. Ahsan, Smith, Steven, Siraj, Ambareen.  2019.  A Protocol Independent Approach in Network Covert Channel Detection. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) and IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC). :165—170.

Network covert channels are used in various cyberattacks, including disclosure of sensitive information and enabling stealth tunnels for botnet commands. With time and technology, covert channels are becoming more prevalent, complex, and difficult to detect. The current methods for detection are protocol and pattern specific. This requires the investment of significant time and resources into application of various techniques to catch the different types of covert channels. This paper reviews several patterns of network storage covert channels, describes generation of network traffic dataset with covert channels, and proposes a generic, protocol-independent approach for the detection of network storage covert channels using a supervised machine learning technique. The implementation of the proposed generic detection model can lead to a reduction of necessary techniques to prevent covert channel communication in network traffic. The datasets we have generated for experimentation represent storage covert channels in the IP, TCP, and DNS protocols and are available upon request for future research in this area.

Azab, M., Fortes, J. A. B..  2017.  Towards Proactive SDN-Controller Attack and Failure Resilience. 2017 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :442–448.

SDN networks rely mainly on a set of software defined modules, running on generic hardware platforms, and managed by a central SDN controller. The tight coupling and lack of isolation between the controller and the underlying host limit the controller resilience against host-based attacks and failures. That controller is a single point of failure and a target for attackers. ``Linux-containers'' is a successful thin virtualization technique that enables encapsulated, host-isolated execution-environments for running applications. In this paper we present PAFR, a controller sandboxing mechanism based on Linux-containers. PAFR enables controller/host isolation, plug-and-play operation, failure-and-attack-resilient execution, and fast recovery. PAFR employs and manages live remote checkpointing and migration between different hosts to evade failures and attacks. Experiments and simulations show that the frequent employment of PAFR's live-migration minimizes the chance of successful attack/failure with limited to no impact on network performance.

Azab, M..  2014.  Multidimensional Diversity Employment for Software Behavior Encryption. New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS), 2014 6th International Conference on. :1-5.

Modern cyber systems and their integration with the infrastructure has a clear effect on the productivity and quality of life immensely. Their involvement in our daily life elevate the need for means to insure their resilience against attacks and failure. One major threat is the software monoculture. Latest research work demonstrated the danger of software monoculture and presented diversity to reduce the attack surface. In this paper, we propose ChameleonSoft, a multidimensional software diversity employment to, in effect, induce spatiotemporal software behavior encryption and a moving target defense. ChameleonSoft introduces a loosely coupled, online programmable software-execution foundation separating logic, state and physical resources. The elastic construction of the foundation enabled ChameleonSoft to define running software as a set of behaviorally-mutated functionally-equivalent code variants. ChameleonSoft intelligently Shuffle, at runtime, these variants while changing their physical location inducing untraceable confusion and diffusion enough to encrypt the execution behavior of the running software. ChameleonSoft is also equipped with an autonomic failure recovery mechanism for enhanced resilience. In order to test the applicability of the proposed approach, we present a prototype of the ChameleonSoft Behavior Encryption (CBE) and recovery mechanisms. Further, using analysis and simulation, we study the performance and security aspects of the proposed system. This study aims to assess the provisioned level of security by measuring the avalanche effect percentage and the induced confusion and diffusion levels to evaluate the strength of the CBE mechanism. Further, we compute the computational cost of security provisioning and enhancing system resilience.

Azab, M..  2014.  Multidimensional Diversity Employment for Software Behavior Encryption. New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS), 2014 6th International Conference on. :1-5.

Modern cyber systems and their integration with the infrastructure has a clear effect on the productivity and quality of life immensely. Their involvement in our daily life elevate the need for means to insure their resilience against attacks and failure. One major threat is the software monoculture. Latest research work demonstrated the danger of software monoculture and presented diversity to reduce the attack surface. In this paper, we propose ChameleonSoft, a multidimensional software diversity employment to, in effect, induce spatiotemporal software behavior encryption and a moving target defense. ChameleonSoft introduces a loosely coupled, online programmable software-execution foundation separating logic, state and physical resources. The elastic construction of the foundation enabled ChameleonSoft to define running software as a set of behaviorally-mutated functionally-equivalent code variants. ChameleonSoft intelligently Shuffle, at runtime, these variants while changing their physical location inducing untraceable confusion and diffusion enough to encrypt the execution behavior of the running software. ChameleonSoft is also equipped with an autonomic failure recovery mechanism for enhanced resilience. In order to test the applicability of the proposed approach, we present a prototype of the ChameleonSoft Behavior Encryption (CBE) and recovery mechanisms. Further, using analysis and simulation, we study the performance and security aspects of the proposed system. This study aims to assess the provisioned level of security by measuring the avalanche effect percentage and the induced confusion and diffusion levels to evaluate the strength of the CBE mechanism. Further, we compute the computational cost of security provisioning and enhancing system resilience.

Azad, Muhammad Ajmal, Bag, Samiran.  2017.  Decentralized Privacy-aware Collaborative Filtering of Smart Spammers in a Telecommunication Network. Proceedings of the Symposium on Applied Computing. :1711–1717.

Smart spammers and telemarketers circumvent the standalone spam detection systems by making low rate spam-ming activity to a large number of recipients distributed across many telecommunication operators. The collaboration among multiple telecommunication operators (OPs) will allow operators to get rid of unwanted callers at the early stage of their spamming activity. The challenge in the design of collaborative spam detection system is that OPs are not willing to share certain information about behaviour of their users/customers because of privacy concerns. Ideally, operators agree to share certain aggregated statistical information if collaboration process ensures complete privacy protection of users and their network data. To address this challenge and convince OPs for the collaboration, this paper proposes a decentralized reputation aggregation protocol that enables OPs to take part in a collaboration process without use of a trusted third party centralized system and without developing a predefined trust relationship with other OPs. To this extent, the collaboration among operators is achieved through the exchange of cryptographic reputation scores among OPs thus fully protects relationship network and reputation scores of users even in the presence of colluders. We evaluate the performance of proposed protocol over the simulated data consisting of five collaborators. Experimental results revealed that proposed approach outperforms standalone systems in terms of true positive rate and false positive rate.

Azahari, A. M., Ahmad, A., Rahayu, S. B., Halip, M. H. Mohamed.  2020.  CheckMyCode: Assignment Submission System with Cloud-Based Java Compiler. 2020 8th International Conference on Information Technology and Multimedia (ICIMU). :343–347.
Learning programming language of Java is a basic part of the Computer Science and Engineering curriculum. Specific Java compiler is a requirement for writing and convert the writing code to executable format. However, some local installed Java compiler is suffering from compatibility, portability and storage space issues. These issues sometimes affect student-learning interest and slow down the learning process. This paper is directed toward the solution for such problems, which offers a new programming assignment submission system with cloud-based Java compiler and is known as CheckMyCode. Leveraging cloud-computing technology in terms of its availability, prevalence and affordability, CheckMyCode implements Java cloud-based programming compiler as a part of the assignment management system. CheckMyCode system is a cloud-based system that allows both main users, which are a lecturer and student to access the system via a browser on PC or smart devices. Modules of submission assignment system with cloud compiler allow lecturer and student to manage Java programming task in one platform. A framework, system module, main user and feature of CheckMyCode are presented. Also, taking into account are the future study/direction and new enhancement of CheckMyCode.
Azaiez, Meriem, Chainbi, Walid.  2016.  A Multi-agent System Architecture for Self-Healing Cloud Infrastructure. Proceedings of the International Conference on Internet of Things and Cloud Computing. :7:1–7:6.

The popularity of Cloud computing has considerably increased during the last years. The increase of Cloud users and their interactions with the Cloud infrastructure raise the risk of resources faults. Such a problem can lead to a bad reputation of the Cloud environment which slows down the evolution of this technology. To address this issue, the dynamic and the complex architecture of the Cloud should be taken into account. Indeed, this architecture requires that resources protection and healing must be transparent and without external intervention. Unlike previous work, we suggest integrating the fundamental aspects of autonomic computing in the Cloud to deal with the self-healing of Cloud resources. Starting from the high degree of match between autonomic computing systems and multiagent systems, we propose to take advantage from the autonomous behaviour of agent technology to create an intelligent Cloud that supports autonomic aspects. Our proposed solution is a multi-agent system which interacts with the Cloud infrastructure to analyze the resources state and execute Checkpoint/Replication strategy or migration technique to solve the problem of failed resources.

Azakami, T., Shibata, C., Uda, R..  2017.  Challenge to Impede Deep Learning against CAPTCHA with Ergonomic Design. 2017 IEEE 41st Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 1:637–642.

Once we had tried to propose an unbreakable CAPTCHA and we reached a result that limitation of time is effect to prevent computers from recognizing characters accurately while computers can finally recognize all text-based CAPTCHA in unlimited time. One of the existing usual ways to prevent computers from recognizing characters is distortion, and adding noise is also effective for the prevention. However, these kinds of prevention also make recognition of characters by human beings difficult. As a solution of the problems, an effective text-based CAPTCHA algorithm with amodal completion was proposed by our team. Our CAPTCHA causes computers a large amount of calculation costs while amodal completion helps human beings to recognize characters momentarily. Our CAPTCHA has evolved with aftereffects and combinations of complementary colors. We evaluated our CAPTCHA with deep learning which is attracting the most attention since deep learning is faster and more accurate than existing methods for recognition with computers. In this paper, we add jagged lines to edges of characters since edges are one of the most important parts for recognition in deep learning. In this paper, we also evaluate that how much the jagged lines decrease recognition of human beings and how much they prevent computers from the recognition. We confirm the effects of our method to deep learning.

Azakami, Tomoka, Shibata, Chihiro, Uda, Ryuya, Kinoshita, Toshiyuki.  2019.  Creation of Adversarial Examples with Keeping High Visual Performance. 2019 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Information and Computer Technologies (ICICT). :52—56.
The accuracy of the image classification by the convolutional neural network is exceeding the ability of human being and contributes to various fields. However, the improvement of the image recognition technology gives a great blow to security system with an image such as CAPTCHA. In particular, since the character string CAPTCHA has already added distortion and noise in order not to be read by the computer, it becomes a problem that the human readability is lowered. Adversarial examples is a technique to produce an image letting an image classification by the machine learning be wrong intentionally. The best feature of this technique is that when human beings compare the original image with the adversarial examples, they cannot understand the difference on appearance. However, Adversarial examples that is created with conventional FGSM cannot completely misclassify strong nonlinear networks like CNN. Osadchy et al. have researched to apply this adversarial examples to CAPTCHA and attempted to let CNN misclassify them. However, they could not let CNN misclassify character images. In this research, we propose a method to apply FGSM to the character string CAPTCHAs and to let CNN misclassified them.
Azaman, M. A. bin, Nguyen, N. P., Ha, D. B., Truong, T. V..  2017.  Secrecy outage probability of full-duplex networks with cognitive radio environment and partial relay selection. 2017 International Conference on Recent Advances in Signal Processing, Telecommunications Computing (SigTelCom). :119–123.

This paper investigates the secrecy performance of full-duplex relay mode in underlay cognitive radio networks using decode-and-forward relay selection. The analytical results prove that full-duplex mode can guarantee security under critical conditions such as the bad residual self-interference and the presence of hi-tech eavesdropper. The secrecy outage probability is derived based on the statistical characteristics of channels in this considered system. The system is examined under five circumferences: 1) Different values of primary network's desired outage probability; 2) Different values of primary transmitter's transmit power; 3) Applying of multiple relays selection; 4) Systems undergo path-loss during the transmission process; 5) Systems undergo self-interference in relays. Simulation results are presented to verify the analysis.

Azarderakhsh, Reza, Jao, David, Kalach, Kassem, Koziel, Brian, Leonardi, Christopher.  2016.  Key Compression for Isogeny-Based Cryptosystems. Proceedings of the 3rd ACM International Workshop on ASIA Public-Key Cryptography. :1–10.

We present a method for key compression in quantumresistant isogeny-based cryptosystems, which allows a reduction in and transmission costs of per-party public information by a factor of two, with no e ect on security. We achieve this reduction by associating a canonical choice of elliptic curve to each j-invariant, and representing elements on the curve as linear combinations with respect to a canonical choice of basis. This method of compressing public information can be applied to numerous isogeny-based protocols, such as key exchange, zero-knowledge identi cation, and public-key encryption. We performed personal computer and ARM implementations of the key exchange with compression and decompression in C and provided timing results, showing the computational cost of key compression and decompression at various security levels. Our results show that isogeny-based cryptosystems achieve by far the smallest possible key sizes among all existing families of post-quantum cryptosystems at practical security levels; e.g. 3073-bit public keys at the quantum 128-bit security level, comparable to (non-quantum) RSA key sizes.

Azarderakhsh, Reza, Karabina, Koray.  2016.  Efficient Algorithms and Architectures for Double Point Multiplication on Elliptic Curves. Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Cryptography and Security in Computing Systems. :25–30.

Efficient implementation of double point multiplication is crucial for elliptic curve cryptographic systems. We propose efficient algorithms and architectures for the computation of double point multiplication on binary elliptic curves and provide a comparative analysis of their performance for 112-bit security level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work in the literature which considers the design and implementation of simultaneous computation of double point multiplication. We first provide algorithmics for the three main double point multiplication methods. Then, we perform data-flow analysis and propose hardware architectures for the presented algorithms. Finally, we implement the proposed state-of-the-art architectures on FPGA platform for the comparison purposes and report the area and timing results. Our results indicate that differential addition chain based algorithms are better suited to compute double point multiplication over binary elliptic curves for high performance applications.