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A. A. Zewail, A. Yener.  2015.  "The two-hop interference untrusted-relay channel with confidential messages". 2015 IEEE Information Theory Workshop - Fall (ITW). :322-326.

This paper considers the two-user interference relay channel where each source wishes to communicate to its destination a message that is confidential from the other destination. Furthermore, the relay, that is the enabler of communication, due to the absence of direct links, is untrusted. Thus, the messages from both sources need to be kept secret from the relay as well. We provide an achievable secure rate region for this network. The achievability scheme utilizes structured codes for message transmission, cooperative jamming and scaled compute-and-forward. In particular, the sources use nested lattice codes and stochastic encoding, while the destinations jam using lattice points. The relay decodes two integer combinations of the received lattice points and forwards, using Gaussian codewords, to both destinations. The achievability technique provides the insight that we can utilize the untrusted relay node as an encryption block in a two-hop interference relay channel with confidential messages.

A. Akinbi, E. Pereira.  2015.  "Mapping Security Requirements to Identify Critical Security Areas of Focus in PaaS Cloud Models". 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology; Ubiquitous Computing and Communications; Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing; Pervasive Intelligence and Computing. :789-794.

Information Technology experts cite security and privacy concerns as the major challenges in the adoption of cloud computing. On Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) clouds, customers are faced with challenges of selecting service providers and evaluating security implementations based on their security needs and requirements. This study aims to enable cloud customers the ability to quantify their security requirements in order to identify critical areas in PaaS cloud architectures were security provisions offered by CSPs could be assessed. With the use of an adaptive security mapping matrix, the study uses a quantitative approach to presents findings of numeric data that shows critical architectures within the PaaS environment where security can be evaluated and security controls assessed to meet these security requirements. The matrix can be adapted across different types of PaaS cloud models based on individual security requirements and service level objectives identified by PaaS cloud customers.

A. Bekan, M. Mohorcic, J. Cinkelj, C. Fortuna.  2015.  "An Architecture for Fully Reconfigurable Plug-and-Play Wireless Sensor Network Testbed". 2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM). :1-7.

In this paper we propose an architecture for fully-reconfigurable, plug-and-play wireless sensor network testbed. The proposed architecture is able to reconfigure and support easy experimentation and testing of standard protocol stacks (i.e. uIPv4 and uIPv6) as well as non-standardized clean-slate protocol stacks (e.g. configured using RIME). The parameters of the protocol stacks can be remotely reconfigured through an easy to use RESTful API. Additionally, we are able to fully reconfigure clean-slate protocol stacks at run-time. The architecture enables easy set-up of the network - plug - by using a protocol that automatically sets up a multi-hop network (i.e. RPL protocol) and it enables reconfiguration and experimentation - play - by using a simple, RESTful interaction with each node individually. The reference implementation of the architecture uses a dual-stack Contiki OS with the ProtoStack tool for dynamic composition of services.

A. Chouhan, S. Singh.  2015.  "Real time secure end to end communication over GSM network". 2015 International Conference on Energy Systems and Applications. :663-668.

GSM network is the most widely used communication network for mobile phones in the World. However the security of the voice communication is the main issue in the GSM network. This paper proposes the technique for secure end to end communication over GSM network. The voice signal is encrypted at real time using digital techniques and transmitted over the GSM network. At receiver end the same decoding algorithm is used to extract the original speech signal. The speech trans-coding process of the GSM, severely distort an encrypted signal that does not possess the characteristics of speech signal. Therefore, it is not possible to use standard modem techniques over the GSM speech channel. The user may choose an appropriate algorithm and hardware platform as per requirement.

A. Dutta, R. K. Mangang.  2015.  "Analog to information converter based on random demodulation". 2015 International Conference on Electronic Design, Computer Networks Automated Verification (EDCAV). :105-109.

With the increase in signal's bandwidth, the conventional analog to digital converters (ADCs), operating on the basis of Shannon/Nyquist theorem, are forced to work at very high rates leading to low dynamic range and high power consumptions. This paper here tells about one Analog to Information converter developed based on compressive sensing techniques. The high sampling rates, which is the main drawback for ADCs, is being successfully reduced to 4 times lower than the conventional rates. The system is also accompanied with the advantage of low power dissipation.

A. K. M. A., J. C. D..  2015.  "Execution Time Measurement of Virtual Machine Volatile Artifacts Analyzers". 2015 IEEE 21st International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS). :314-319.

Due to a rapid revaluation in a virtualization environment, Virtual Machines (VMs) are target point for an attacker to gain privileged access of the virtual infrastructure. The Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) such as malware, rootkit, spyware, etc. are more potent to bypass the existing defense mechanisms designed for VM. To address this issue, Virtual Machine Introspection (VMI) emerged as a promising approach that monitors run state of the VM externally from hypervisor. However, limitation of VMI lies with semantic gap. An open source tool called LibVMI address the semantic gap. Memory Forensic Analysis (MFA) tool such as Volatility can also be used to address the semantic gap. But, it needs to capture a memory dump (RAM) as input. Memory dump acquires time and its analysis time is highly crucial if Intrusion Detection System IDS (IDS) depends on the data supplied by FAM or VMI tool. In this work, live virtual machine RAM dump acquire time of LibVMI is measured. In addition, captured memory dump analysis time consumed by Volatility is measured and compared with other memory analyzer such as Rekall. It is observed through experimental results that, Rekall takes more execution time as compared to Volatility for most of the plugins. Further, Volatility and Rekall are compared with LibVMI. It is noticed that examining the volatile data through LibVMI is faster as it eliminates memory dump acquire time.

A. Motamedi, M. Najafi, N. Erami.  2015.  "Parallel secure turbo code for security enhancement in physical layer". 2015 Signal Processing and Intelligent Systems Conference (SPIS). :179-184.

Turbo code has been one of the important subjects in coding theory since 1993. This code has low Bit Error Rate (BER) but decoding complexity and delay are big challenges. On the other hand, considering the complexity and delay of separate blocks for coding and encryption, if these processes are combined, the security and reliability of communication system are guaranteed. In this paper a secure decoding algorithm in parallel on General-Purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) is proposed. This is the first prototype of a fast and parallel Joint Channel-Security Coding (JCSC) system. Despite of encryption process, this algorithm maintains desired BER and increases decoding speed. We considered several techniques for parallelism: (1) distribute decoding load of a code word between multiple cores, (2) simultaneous decoding of several code words, (3) using protection techniques to prevent performance degradation. We also propose two kinds of optimizations to increase the decoding speed: (1) memory access improvement, (2) the use of new GPU properties such as concurrent kernel execution and advanced atomics to compensate buffering latency.

A. Oprea, Z. Li, T. F. Yen, S. H. Chin, S. Alrwais.  2015.  "Detection of Early-Stage Enterprise Infection by Mining Large-Scale Log Data". 2015 45th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks. :45-56.

Recent years have seen the rise of sophisticated attacks including advanced persistent threats (APT) which pose severe risks to organizations and governments. Additionally, new malware strains appear at a higher rate than ever before. Since many of these malware evade existing security products, traditional defenses deployed by enterprises today often fail at detecting infections at an early stage. We address the problem of detecting early-stage APT infection by proposing a new framework based on belief propagation inspired from graph theory. We demonstrate that our techniques perform well on two large datasets. We achieve high accuracy on two months of DNS logs released by Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), which include APT infection attacks simulated by LANL domain experts. We also apply our algorithms to 38TB of web proxy logs collected at the border of a large enterprise and identify hundreds of malicious domains overlooked by state-of-the-art security products.

A. Papadopoulos, L. Czap, C. Fragouli.  2015.  "LP formulations for secrecy over erasure networks with feedback". 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :954-958.

We design polynomial time schemes for secure message transmission over arbitrary networks, in the presence of an eavesdropper, and where each edge corresponds to an erasure channel with public feedback. Our schemes are described through linear programming (LP) formulations, that explicitly select (possibly different) sets of paths for key-generation and message sending. Although our LPs are not always capacity-achieving, they outperform the best known alternatives in the literature, and extend to incorporate several interesting scenaria.

A. Pramanik, S. P. Maity.  2015.  "DPCM-quantized block-based compressed sensing of images using Robbins Monro approach". 2015 IEEE International WIE Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (WIECON-ECE). :18-21.

Compressed Sensing or Compressive Sampling is the process of signal reconstruction from the samples obtained at a rate far below the Nyquist rate. In this work, Differential Pulse Coded Modulation (DPCM) is coupled with Block Based Compressed Sensing (CS) reconstruction with Robbins Monro (RM) approach. RM is a parametric iterative CS reconstruction technique. In this work extensive simulation is done to report that RM gives better performance than the existing DPCM Block Based Smoothed Projected Landweber (SPL) reconstruction technique. The noise seen in Block SPL algorithm is not much evident in this non-parametric approach. To achieve further compression of data, Lempel-Ziv-Welch channel coding technique is proposed.

A. Rahmani, A. Amine, M. R. Hamou.  2015.  "De-identification of Textual Data Using Immune System for Privacy Preserving in Big Data". 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence Communication Technology. :112-116.

With the growing observed success of big data use, many challenges appeared. Timeless, scalability and privacy are the main problems that researchers attempt to figure out. Privacy preserving is now a highly active domain of research, many works and concepts had seen the light within this theme. One of these concepts is the de-identification techniques. De-identification is a specific area that consists of finding and removing sensitive information either by replacing it, encrypting it or adding a noise to it using several techniques such as cryptography and data mining. In this report, we present a new model of de-identification of textual data using a specific Immune System algorithm known as CLONALG.

A. Rawat, A. K. Singh, J. Jithin, N. Jeyanthi, R. Thandeeswaran.  2016.  RSJ Approach for User Authentication. Proceeding AICTC '16 Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Information Communication Technology & Computing Article No. 101 .

Some of the common works like, upload and retrieval of data, buying and selling things, earning and donating or transaction of money etc., are the most common works performed in daily life through internet. For every user who is accessing the internet regularly, their highest priority is to make sure that there data is secured. Users are willing to pay huge amount of money to the service provider for maintaining the security. But the intention of malicious users is to access and misuse others data. For that they are using zombie bots. Always Bots are not the only malicious, legitimate authorized user can also impersonate to access the data illegally. This makes the job tougher to discriminate between the bots and boots. For providing security form that threats, here we are proposing a novel RSJ Approach by User Authentication. RSJ approach is a secure way for providing the security to the user form both bots and malicious users.

A. Roy, S. P. Maity.  2015.  "On segmentation of CS reconstructed MR images". 2015 Eighth International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition (ICAPR). :1-6.

This paper addresses the issue of magnetic resonance (MR) Image reconstruction at compressive sampling (or compressed sensing) paradigm followed by its segmentation. To improve image reconstruction problem at low measurement space, weighted linear prediction and random noise injection at unobserved space are done first, followed by spatial domain de-noising through adaptive recursive filtering. Reconstructed image, however, suffers from imprecise and/or missing edges, boundaries, lines, curvatures etc. and residual noise. Curvelet transform is purposely used for removal of noise and edge enhancement through hard thresholding and suppression of approximate sub-bands, respectively. Finally Genetic algorithms (GAs) based clustering is done for segmentation of sharpen MR Image using weighted contribution of variance and entropy values. Extensive simulation results are shown to highlight performance improvement of both image reconstruction and segmentation problems.

A. Soliman, L. Bahri, B. Carminati, E. Ferrari, S. Girdzijauskas.  2015.  "DIVa: Decentralized identity validation for social networks". 2015 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM). :383-391.

Online Social Networks exploit a lightweight process to identify their users so as to facilitate their fast adoption. However, such convenience comes at the price of making legitimate users subject to different threats created by fake accounts. Therefore, there is a crucial need to empower users with tools helping them in assigning a level of trust to whomever they interact with. To cope with this issue, in this paper we introduce a novel model, DIVa, that leverages on mining techniques to find correlations among user profile attributes. These correlations are discovered not from user population as a whole, but from individual communities, where the correlations are more pronounced. DIVa exploits a decentralized learning approach and ensures privacy preservation as each node in the OSN independently processes its local data and is required to know only its direct neighbors. Extensive experiments using real-world OSN datasets show that DIVa is able to extract fine-grained community-aware correlations among profile attributes with average improvements up to 50% than the global approach.

A. T. Erozan, A. S. Aydoğdu, B. Örs.  2015.  "Application specific processor design for DCT based applications". 2015 23nd Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU). :2157-2160.

Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used in JPEG compression, image encryption, image watermarking and channel estimation. In this paper, an Application Specific Processor (ASP) for DCT based applications is designed and implemented to Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). One dimensional DCT and IDCT hardwares which have fully parallel architecture have been implemented and connected to MicroBlaze softcore processer. To show a basic application of ASP, DCT based image watermarking example is studied in this system.

A., Jesudoss, M., Mercy Theresa.  2019.  Hardware-Independent Authentication Scheme Using Intelligent Captcha Technique. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Technologies (ICECCT). :1—7.
This paper provides hardware-independent authentication named as Intelligent Authentication Scheme, which rectifies the design weaknesses that may be exploited by various security attacks. The Intelligent Authentication Scheme protects against various types of security attacks such as password-guessing attack, replay attack, streaming bots attack (denial of service), keylogger, screenlogger and phishing attack. Besides reducing the overall cost, it also balances both security and usability. It is a unique authentication scheme.
Aafer, Yousra, Tao, Guanhong, Huang, Jianjun, Zhang, Xiangyu, Li, Ninghui.  2018.  Precise Android API Protection Mapping Derivation and Reasoning. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1151-1164.

The Android research community has long focused on building an Android API permission specification, which can be leveraged by app developers to determine the optimum set of permissions necessary for a correct and safe execution of their app. However, while prominent existing efforts provide a good approximation of the permission specification, they suffer from a few shortcomings. Dynamic approaches cannot generate complete results, although accurate for the particular execution. In contrast, static approaches provide better coverage, but produce imprecise mappings due to their lack of path-sensitivity. In fact, in light of Android's access control complexity, the approximations hardly abstract the actual co-relations between enforced protections. To address this, we propose to precisely derive Android protection specification in a path-sensitive fashion, using a novel graph abstraction technique. We further showcase how we can apply the generated maps to tackle security issues through logical satisfiability reasoning. Our constructed maps for 4 Android Open Source Project (AOSP) images highlight the significance of our approach, as \textasciitilde41% of APIs' protections cannot be correctly modeled without our technique.

Aal, Konstantin, Mouratidis, Marios, Weibert, Anne, Wulf, Volker.  2016.  Challenges of CI Initiatives in a Political Unstable Situation - Case Study of a Computer Club in a Refugee Camp. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Supporting Group Work. :409–412.

This poster describes the research around computer clubs in Palestinian refugee camps and the various lessons learned during the establishment of this intervention such the importance of the physical infrastructure (e.g. clean room, working hardware), soft technologies (e.g. knowledge transfer through workshops), social infrastructure (e.g. reliable partners in the refugee camp, partner from the university) and social capital (e.g. shared vision and values of all stakeholders). These important insights can be transferred on other interventions in similar unstable environments.

Aanjanadevi, S., Palanisamy, V., Aanjankumar, S..  2019.  An Improved Method for Generating Biometric-Cryptographic System from Face Feature. 2019 3rd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :1076—1079.
One of the most difficult tasks in networking is to provide security to data during transmission, the main issue using network is lack of security. Various techniques and methods had been introduced to satisfy the needs to enhance the firmness of the data while transmitting over internet. Due to several reasons and intruders the mechanism of providing security becomes a tedious task. At first conventional passwords are used to provide security to data while storing and transmitting but remembering the password quite confusing and difficult for the user to access the data. After that cryptography methodology is introduced to protect the data from the intruders by converting readable form of data into unreadable data by encryption process. Then the data is processed and received the receiver can access the original data by the reverse process of encryption called decryption. The processes of encoding have broken by intruders using various combinations of keys. In this proposed work strong encryption key can be generated by combining biometric and cryptography methods for enhancing firmness of data. Here biometric face image is pre-processed at initial stage then facial features are extracted to generate biometric-cryptographic key. After generating bio-crypto key data can be encrypted along with newly produced key with 0's or 1's bit combination and stored in the database. By generating bio-crypto key and using them for transmitting or storing the data the privacy and firmness of the data can be enhanced and by using own biometrics as key the process of hacking and interfere of intruders to access the data can be minimized.
Ababtain, Eman, Engels, Daniel.  2019.  Security of Gestures Based CAPTCHAs. 2019 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :120—126.
We present a security analysis of several gesture CAPTCHA challenges designed to operate on mobiles. Mobile gesture CAPTCHA challenges utilize the accelerometer and the gyroscope inputs from a mobile to allow a human to solve a simple test by physically manipulating the device. We have evaluated the security of gesture CAPTCHA in mobile devices and found them resistant to a range of common automated attacks. Our study has shown that using an accelerometer and the gyroscope readings as an input to solve the CAPTCHA is difficult for malware, but easy for a real user. Gesture CAPTCHA is effective in differentiating between humans and machines.
Ababtain, Eman, Engels, Daniel.  2019.  Gestures Based CAPTCHAs the Use of Sensor Readings to Solve CAPTCHA Challenge on Smartphones. 2019 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :113—119.
We present novel CAPTCHA challenges based on user gestures designed for mobile. A gesture CAPTCHA challenge is a security mechanism to prevent malware from gaining access to network resources from mobile. Mobile devices contain a number of sensors that record the physical movement of the device. We utilized the accelerometer and gyroscope data as inputs to our novel CAPTCHAs to capture the physical manipulation of the device. We conducted an experimental study on a group of people. We discovered that younger people are able to solve this type of CAPTCHA challenges successfully in a short amount of time. We found that using accelerometer readings produces issues for some older people.
Abaid, Z., Kaafar, M. A., Jha, S..  2017.  Early Detection of In-the-Wild Botnet Attacks by Exploiting Network Communication Uniformity: An Empirical Study. 2017 IFIP Networking Conference (IFIP Networking) and Workshops. :1–9.

Distributed attacks originating from botnet-infected machines (bots) such as large-scale malware propagation campaigns orchestrated via spam emails can quickly affect other network infrastructures. As these attacks are made successful only by the fact that hundreds of infected machines engage in them collectively, their damage can be avoided if machines infected with a common botnet can be detected early rather than after an attack is launched. Prior studies have suggested that outgoing bot attacks are often preceded by other ``tell-tale'' malicious behaviour, such as communication with botnet controllers (C&C servers) that command botnets to carry out attacks. We postulate that observing similar behaviour occuring in a synchronised manner across multiple machines is an early indicator of a widespread infection of a single botnet, leading potentially to a large-scale, distributed attack. Intuitively, if we can detect such synchronised behaviour early enough on a few machines in the network, we can quickly contain the threat before an attack does any serious damage. In this work we present a measurement-driven analysis to validate this intuition. We empirically analyse the various stages of malicious behaviour that are observed in real botnet traffic, and carry out the first systematic study of the network behaviour that typically precedes outgoing bot attacks and is synchronised across multiple infected machines. We then implement as a proof-of-concept a set of analysers that monitor synchronisation in botnet communication to generate early infection and attack alerts. We show that with this approach, we can quickly detect nearly 80% of real-world spamming and port scanning attacks, and even demonstrate a novel capability of preventing these attacks altogether by predicting them before they are launched.

Abani, Noor, Braun, Torsten, Gerla, Mario.  2018.  Betweenness Centrality and Cache Privacy in Information-Centric Networks. Proceedings of the 5th ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking. :106-116.

In-network caching is a feature shared by all proposed Information Centric Networking (ICN) architectures as it is critical to achieving a more efficient retrieval of content. However, the default "cache everything everywhere" universal caching scheme has caused the emergence of several privacy threats. Timing attacks are one such privacy breach where attackers can probe caches and use timing analysis of data retrievals to identify if content was retrieved from the data source or from the cache, the latter case inferring that this content was requested recently. We have previously proposed a betweenness centrality based caching strategy to mitigate such attacks by increasing user anonymity. We demonstrated its efficacy in a transit-stub topology. In this paper, we further investigate the effect of betweenness centrality based caching on cache privacy and user anonymity in more general synthetic and real world Internet topologies. It was also shown that an attacker with access to multiple compromised routers can locate and track a mobile user by carrying out multiple timing analysis attacks from various parts of the network. We extend our privacy evaluation to a scenario with mobile users and show that a betweenness centrality based caching policy provides a mobile user with path privacy by increasing an attacker's difficulty in locating a moving user or identifying his/her route.

Abate, Alessandro.  2017.  Formal Verification of Complex Systems: Model-Based and Data-Driven Methods. Proceedings of the 15th ACM-IEEE International Conference on Formal Methods and Models for System Design. :91–93.

Two known shortcomings of standard techniques in formal verification are the limited capability to provide system-level assertions, and the scalability to large, complex models, such as those needed in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) applications. Leveraging data, which nowadays is becoming ever more accessible, has the potential to mitigate such limitations. However, this leads to a lack of formal proofs that are needed for modern safety-critical systems. This contribution presents a research initiative that addresses these shortcomings by bringing model-based techniques and data-driven methods together, which can help pushing the envelope of existing algorithms and tools in formal verification and thus expanding their applicability to complex engineering systems, such as CPS. In the first part of the contribution, we discuss a new, formal, measurement-driven and model-based automated technique, for the quantitative verification of physical systems with partly unknown dynamics. We formulate this setup as a data-driven Bayesian inference problem, formally embedded within a quantitative, model-based verification procedure. We argue that the approach can be applied to complex physical systems that are key for CPS applications, dealing with spatially continuous variables, evolving under complex dynamics, driven by external inputs, and accessed under noisy measurements. In the second part of the contribution, we concentrate on systems represented by models that evolve under probabilistic and heterogeneous (continuous/discrete - that is "hybrid" - as well as nonlinear) dynamics. Such stochastic hybrid models (also known as SHS) are a natural mathematical framework for CPS. With focus on model-based verification procedures, we provide algorithms for quantitative model checking of temporal specifications on SHS with formal guarantees. This is attained via the development of formal abstraction techniques that are based on quantitative approximations. Theory is complemented by algorithms, all packaged in software tools that are available to users, and which are applied here in the domain of Smart Energy.

Abate, Carmine, Blanco, Roberto, Garg, Deepak, Hritcu, Catalin, Patrignani, Marco, Thibault, Jérémy.  2019.  Journey Beyond Full Abstraction: Exploring Robust Property Preservation for Secure Compilation. 2019 IEEE 32nd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :256–25615.
Good programming languages provide helpful abstractions for writing secure code, but the security properties of the source language are generally not preserved when compiling a program and linking it with adversarial code in a low-level target language (e.g., a library or a legacy application). Linked target code that is compromised or malicious may, for instance, read and write the compiled program's data and code, jump to arbitrary memory locations, or smash the stack, blatantly violating any source-level abstraction. By contrast, a fully abstract compilation chain protects source-level abstractions all the way down, ensuring that linked adversarial target code cannot observe more about the compiled program than what some linked source code could about the source program. However, while research in this area has so far focused on preserving observational equivalence, as needed for achieving full abstraction, there is a much larger space of security properties one can choose to preserve against linked adversarial code. And the precise class of security properties one chooses crucially impacts not only the supported security goals and the strength of the attacker model, but also the kind of protections a secure compilation chain has to introduce. We are the first to thoroughly explore a large space of formal secure compilation criteria based on robust property preservation, i.e., the preservation of properties satisfied against arbitrary adversarial contexts. We study robustly preserving various classes of trace properties such as safety, of hyperproperties such as noninterference, and of relational hyperproperties such as trace equivalence. This leads to many new secure compilation criteria, some of which are easier to practically achieve and prove than full abstraction, and some of which provide strictly stronger security guarantees. For each of the studied criteria we propose an equivalent “property-free” characterization that clarifies which proof techniques apply. For relational properties and hyperproperties, which relate the behaviors of multiple programs, our formal definitions of the property classes themselves are novel. We order our criteria by their relative strength and show several collapses and separation results. Finally, we adapt existing proof techniques to show that even the strongest of our secure compilation criteria, the robust preservation of all relational hyperproperties, is achievable for a simple translation from a statically typed to a dynamically typed language.