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Czerwinski, Wojciech, Martens, Wim, Niewerth, Matthias, Parys, Pawel.  2016.  Minimization of Tree Pattern Queries. Proceedings of the 35th ACM SIGMOD-SIGACT-SIGAI Symposium on Principles of Database Systems. :43–54.

We investigate minimization of tree pattern queries that use the child relation, descendant relation, node labels, and wildcards. We prove that minimization for such tree patterns is Sigma2P-complete and thus solve a problem first attacked by Flesca, Furfaro, and Masciari in 2003. We first provide an example that shows that tree patterns cannot be minimized by deleting nodes. This example shows that the M-NR conjecture, which states that minimality of tree patterns is equivalent to their nonredundancy, is false. We then show how the example can be turned into a gadget that allows us to prove Sigma2P-completeness.

Cvitić, I., Peraković, D., Periša, M., Musa, M..  2017.  Network parameters applicable in detection of infrastructure level DDoS attacks. 2017 25th Telecommunication Forum (℡FOR). :1–4.

Distributed denial of service attacks represent continuous threat to availability of information and communication resources. This research conducted the analysis of relevant scientific literature and synthesize parameters on packet and traffic flow level applicable for detection of infrastructure layer DDoS attacks. It is concluded that packet level detection uses two or more parameters while traffic flow level detection often used only one parameter which makes it more convenient and resource efficient approach in DDoS detection.

Cuzzocrea, Alfredo, Damiani, Ernesto.  2019.  Making the Pedigree to Your Big Data Repository: Innovative Methods, Solutions, and Algorithms for Supporting Big Data Privacy in Distributed Settings via Data-Driven Paradigms. 2019 IEEE 43rd Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 2:508–516.
Starting from our previous research where we in- troduced a general framework for supporting data-driven privacy-preserving big data management in distributed environments, such as emerging Cloud settings, in this paper we further and significantly extend our past research contributions, and provide several novel contributions that complement our previous work in the investigated research field. Our proposed framework can be viewed as an alternative to classical approaches where the privacy of big data is ensured via security-inspired protocols that check several (protocol) layers in order to achieve the desired privacy. Unfortunately, this injects considerable computational overheads in the overall process, thus introducing relevant challenges to be considered. Our approach instead tries to recognize the “pedigree” of suitable summary data representatives computed on top of the target big data repositories, hence avoiding computational overheads due to protocol checking. We also provide a relevant realization of the framework above, the so- called Data-dRIven aggregate-PROvenance privacy-preserving big Multidimensional data (DRIPROM) framework, which specifically considers multidimensional data as the case of interest. Extensions and discussion on main motivations and principles of our proposed research, two relevant case studies that clearly state the need-for and covered (related) properties of supporting privacy- preserving management and analytics of big data in modern distributed systems, and an experimental assessment and analysis of our proposed DRIPROM framework are the major results of this paper.
Cuzzocrea, Alfredo, Damiani, Ernesto.  2021.  Privacy-Preserving Big Data Exchange: Models, Issues, Future Research Directions. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :5081–5084.
Big data exchange is an emerging problem in the context of big data management and analytics. In big data exchange, multiple entities exchange big datasets beyond the common data integration or data sharing paradigms, mostly in the context of data federation architectures. How to make big data exchange while ensuring privacy preservation constraintsƒ The latter is a critical research challenge that is gaining momentum on the research community, especially due to the wide family of application scenarios where it plays a critical role (e.g., social networks, bio-informatics tools, smart cities systems and applications, and so forth). Inspired by these considerations, in this paper we provide an overview of models and issues in the context of privacy-preserving big data exchange research, along with a selection of future research directions that will play a critical role in next-generation research.
Cuzzocrea, Alfredo.  2017.  Privacy-Preserving Big Data Stream Mining: Opportunities, Challenges, Directions. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW). :992–994.
This paper explores recent achievements and novel challenges of the annoying privacy-preserving big data stream mining problem, which consists in applying mining algorithms to big data streams while ensuring the privacy of data. Recently, the emerging big data analytics context has conferred a new light to this exciting research area. This paper follows the so-depicted research trend.
ISSN: 2375-9259
Cuzzocrea, Alfredo, Pirrò, Giuseppe.  2016.  A Semantic-web-technology-based Framework for Supporting Knowledge-driven Digital Forensics. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Management of Digital EcoSystems. :58–66.

The usage of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) pervades everyday's life. If it is true that ICT contributed to improve the quality of our life, it is also true that new forms of (cyber)crime have emerged in this setting. The diversity and amount of information forensic investigators need to cope with, when tackling a cyber-crime case, call for tools and techniques where knowledge is the main actor. Current approaches leave to the investigator the chore of integrating the diverse sources of evidence relevant for a case thus hindering the automatic generation of reusable knowledge. This paper describes an architecture that lifts the classical phases of a digital forensic investigation to a knowledge-driven setting. We discuss how the usage of languages and technologies originating from the Semantic Web proposal can complement digital forensics tools so that knowledge becomes a first-class citizen. Our architecture enables to perform in an integrated way complex forensic investigations and, as a by-product, build a knowledge base that can be consulted to gain insights from previous cases. Our proposal has been inspired by real-world scenarios emerging in the context of an Italian research project about cyber security.

Cuzzocrea, Alfredo, Martinelli, Fabio, Mercaldo, Francesco.  2018.  Applying Machine Learning Techniques to Detect and Analyze Web Phishing Attacks. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Information Integration and Web-Based Applications & Services. :355-359.

Phishing is a technique aimed to imitate an official websites of any company such as banks, institutes, etc. The purpose of phishing is to theft private and sensitive credentials of users such as password, username or PIN. Phishing detection is a technique to deal with this kind of malicious activity. In this paper we propose a method able to discriminate between web pages aimed to perform phishing attacks and legitimate ones. We exploit state of the art machine learning algorithms in order to build models using indicators that are able to detect phishing activities.

Cuzzocrea, A., Maio, V. De, Fadda, E..  2020.  Experimenting and Assessing a Distributed Privacy-Preserving OLAP over Big Data Framework: Principles, Practice, and Experiences. 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :1344—1350.
OLAP is an authoritative analytical tool in the emerging big data analytics context, with particular regards to the target distributed environments (e.g., Clouds). Here, privacy-preserving OLAP-based big data analytics is a critical topic, with several amenities in the context of innovative big data application scenarios like smart cities, social networks, bio-informatics, and so forth. The goal is that of providing privacy preservation during OLAP analysis tasks, with particular emphasis on the privacy of OLAP aggregates. Following this line of research, in this paper we provide a deep contribution on experimenting and assessing a state-of-the-art distributed privacy-preserving OLAP framework, named as SPPOLAP, whose main benefit is that of introducing a completely-novel privacy notion for OLAP data cubes.
Cuzzocrea, A., Damiani, E..  2018.  Pedigree-Ing Your Big Data: Data-Driven Big Data Privacy in Distributed Environments. 2018 18th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing (CCGRID). :675-681.
This paper introduces a general framework for supporting data-driven privacy-preserving big data management in distributed environments, such as emerging Cloud settings. The proposed framework can be viewed as an alternative to classical approaches where the privacy of big data is ensured via security-inspired protocols that check several (protocol) layers in order to achieve the desired privacy. Unfortunately, this injects considerable computational overheads in the overall process, thus introducing relevant challenges to be considered. Our approach instead tries to recognize the "pedigree" of suitable summary data representatives computed on top of the target big data repositories, hence avoiding computational overheads due to protocol checking. We also provide a relevant realization of the framework above, the so-called Data-dRIven aggregate-PROvenance privacypreserving big Multidimensional data (DRIPROM) framework, which specifically considers multidimensional data as the case of interest.
Cushing, R., Koning, R., Zhang, L., Laat, C. d, Grosso, P..  2020.  Auditable secure network overlays for multi-domain distributed applications. 2020 IFIP Networking Conference (Networking). :658—660.

The push for data sharing and data processing across organisational boundaries creates challenges at many levels of the software stack. Data sharing and processing rely on the participating parties agreeing on the permissible operations and expressing them into actionable contracts and policies. Converting these contracts and policies into a operational infrastructure is still a matter of research and therefore begs the question how should a digital data market place infrastructure look like? In this paper we investigate how communication fabric and applications can be tightly coupled into a multi-domain overlay network which enforces accountability. We prove our concepts with a prototype which shows how a simple workflow can run across organisational boundaries.

Cusack, Greg, Michel, Oliver, Keller, Eric.  2018.  Machine Learning-Based Detection of Ransomware Using SDN. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM International Workshop on Security in Software Defined Networks & Network Function Virtualization. :1–6.
The growth of malware poses a major threat to internet users, governments, and businesses around the world. One of the major types of malware, ransomware, encrypts a user's sensitive information and only returns the original files to the user after a ransom is paid. As malware developers shift the delivery of their product from HTTP to HTTPS to protect themselves from payload inspection, we can no longer rely on deep packet inspection to extract features for malware identification. Toward this goal, we propose a solution leveraging a recent trend in networking hardware, that is programmable forwarding engines (PFEs). PFEs allow collection of per-packet, network monitoring data at high rates. We use this data to monitor the network traffic between an infected computer and the command and control (C&C) server. We extract high-level flow features from this traffic and use this data for ransomware classification. We write a stream processor and use a random forest, binary classifier to utilizes these rich flow records in fingerprinting malicious, network activity without the requirement of deep packet inspection. Our classification model achieves a detection rate in excess of 0.86, while maintaining a false negative rate under 0.11. Our results suggest that a flow-based fingerprinting method is feasible and accurate enough to catch ransomware before encryption.
Curtis, Peter M..  2020.  Energy and Cyber Security and Its Effect on Business Resiliency. Maintaining Mission Critical Systems in a 24/7 Environment. :31–62.
It is important to address the physical and cyber security needs of critical infrastructures, including systems, facilities, and assets. Security requirements may include capabilities to prevent and protect against both physical and digital intrusion, hazards, threats, and incidents, and to expeditiously recover and reconstitute critical services. Energy security has serious repercussions for mission critical facilities. Mission critical facilities do not have the luxury of being able to shut down or run at a reduced capacity during outages, whether they last minutes, hours, or days. Disaster recovery plans are a necessity for mission critical facilities, involving the proper training of business continuity personnel to enact enterprise-level plans for business resiliency. Steps need to be taken to improve information security and mitigate the threat of cyber-attacks. The Smart Grid is the convergence of electric distribution systems and modern digital information technology.
Curry, Amanda Cercas, Hastie, Helen, Rieser, Verena.  2017.  A Review of Evaluation Techniques for Social Dialogue Systems. Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGCHI International Workshop on Investigating Social Interactions with Artificial Agents. :25–26.

In contrast with goal-oriented dialogue, social dialogue has no clear measure of task success. Consequently, evaluation of these systems is notoriously hard. In this paper, we review current evaluation methods, focusing on automatic metrics. We conclude that turn-based metrics often ignore the context and do not account for the fact that several replies are valid, while end-of-dialogue rewards are mainly hand-crafted. Both lack grounding in human perceptions.

Curran, Max T., Merrill, Nick, Chuang, John, Gandhi, Swapan.  2017.  One-step, Three-factor Authentication in a Single Earpiece. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing and Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers. :21–24.

Multifactor authentication presents a robust security method, but typically requires multiple steps on the part of the user resulting in a high cost to usability and limiting adoption. Furthermore, a truly usable system must be unobtrusive and inconspicuous. Here, we present a system that provides all three factors of authentication (knowledge, possession, and inherence) in a single step in the form of an earpiece which implements brain-based authentication via custom-fit, in-ear electroencephalography (EEG). We demonstrate its potential by collecting EEG data using manufactured custom-fit earpieces with embedded electrodes. Across 7 participants, we are able to achieve perfect performance, mean 0% false acceptance (FAR) and 0% false rejection rates (FRR), using participants' best performing tasks collected in one session by one earpiece with three electrodes. Our results indicate that a single earpiece with embedded electrodes could provide a discreet, convenient, and robust method for secure one-step, three-factor authentication.

Cuong Pham, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Zachary J. Estrada, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Zbigniew Kalbarczyk, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Ravishankar K. Iyer, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  2014.  Reliability and Security Monitoring of Virtual Machines using Hardware Architectural Invariants. 44th International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks.

This paper presents a solution that simultaneously addresses both reliability and security (RnS) in a monitoring framework. We identify the commonalities between reliability and security to guide the design of HyperTap, a hypervisor-level framework that efficiently supports both types of monitoring in virtualization environments. In HyperTap, the logging of system events and states is common across monitors and constitutes the core of the framework. The audit phase of each monitor is implemented and operated independently. In addition, HyperTap relies on hardware invariants to provide a strongly isolated root of trust. HyperTap uses active monitoring, which can be adapted to enforce a wide spectrum of RnS policies. We validate Hy- perTap by introducing three example monitors: Guest OS Hang Detection (GOSHD), Hidden RootKit Detection (HRKD), and Privilege Escalation Detection (PED). Our experiments with fault injection and real rootkits/exploits demonstrate that HyperTap provides robust monitoring with low performance overhead.

Winner of the William C. Carter Award for Best Paper based on PhD work and Best Paper Award voted by conference participants.

Cuong Pham, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Zachary J. Estrada, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Phuong Cao, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Zbigniew Kalbarczyk, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Ravishankar K. Iyer, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  2014.  Building Reliable and Secure Virtual Machines using Architectural Invariants. IEEE Security and Privacy. 12(5):82-85.

Reliability and security tend to be treated separately because they appear orthogonal: reliability focuses on accidental failures, security on intentional attacks. Because of the apparent dissimilarity between the two, tools to detect and recover from different classes of failures and attacks are usually designed and implemented differently. So, integrating support for reliability and security in a single framework is a significant challenge.

Here, we discuss how to address this challenge in the context of cloud computing, for which reliability and security are growing concerns. Because cloud deployments usually consist of commodity hardware and software, efficient monitoring is key to achieving resiliency. Although reliability and security monitoring might use different types of analytics, the same sensing infrastructure can provide inputs to monitoring modules.

We split monitoring into two phases: logging and auditing. Logging captures data or events; it constitutes the framework’s core and is common to all monitors. Auditing analyzes data or events; it’s implemented and operated independently by each monitor. To support a range of auditing policies, logging must capture a complete view, including both actions and states of target systems. It must also provide useful, trustworthy information regarding the captured view.

We applied these principles when designing HyperTap, a hypervisor-level monitoring framework for virtual machines (VMs). Unlike most VM-monitoring techniques, HyperTap employs hardware architectural invariants (hardware invariants, for short) to establish the root of trust for logging. Hardware invariants are properties defined and enforced by a hardware platform (for example, the x86 instruction set architecture). Additionally, HyperTap supports continuous, event-driven VM monitoring, which enables both capturing the system state and responding rapidly to actions of interest.

Cummings, Rachel, Ligett, Katrina, Radhakrishnan, Jaikumar, Roth, Aaron, Wu, Zhiwei Steven.  2016.  Coordination Complexity: Small Information Coordinating Large Populations. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference on Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science. :281–290.

We initiate the study of a quantity that we call coordination complexity. In a distributed optimization problem, the information defining a problem instance is distributed among n parties, who need to each choose an action, which jointly will form a solution to the optimization problem. The coordination complexity represents the minimal amount of information that a centralized coordinator, who has full knowledge of the problem instance, needs to broadcast in order to coordinate the n parties to play a nearly optimal solution. We show that upper bounds on the coordination complexity of a problem imply the existence of good jointly differentially private algorithms for solving that problem, which in turn are known to upper bound the price of anarchy in certain games with dynamically changing populations. We show several results. We fully characterize the coordination complexity for the problem of computing a many-to-one matching in a bipartite graph. Our upper bound in fact extends much more generally to the problem of solving a linearly separable convex program. We also give a different upper bound technique, which we use to bound the coordination complexity of coordinating a Nash equilibrium in a routing game, and of computing a stable matching.

Cultice, Tyler, Ionel, Dan, Thapliyal, Himanshu.  2020.  Smart Home Sensor Anomaly Detection Using Convolutional Autoencoder Neural Network. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :67–70.
We propose an autoencoder based approach to anomaly detection in smart grid systems. Data collecting sensors within smart home systems are susceptible to many data corruption issues, such as malicious attacks or physical malfunctions. By applying machine learning to a smart home or grid, sensor anomalies can be detected automatically for secure data collection and sensor-based system functionality. In addition, we tested the effectiveness of this approach on real smart home sensor data collected for multiple years. An early detection of such data corruption issues is essential to the security and functionality of the various sensors and devices within a smart home.
Culler, Megan J., Morash, Sean, Smith, Brian, Cleveland, Frances, Gentle, Jake.  2021.  A Cyber-Resilience Risk Management Architecture for Distributed Wind. 2021 Resilience Week (RWS). :1–8.
Distributed wind is an electric energy resource segment with strong potential to be deployed in many applications, but special consideration of resilience and cybersecurity is needed to address the unique conditions associated with distributed wind. Distributed wind is a strong candidate to help meet renewable energy and carbon-free energy goals. However, care must be taken as more systems are installed to ensure that the systems are reliable, resilient, and secure. The physical and communications requirements for distributed wind mean that there are unique cybersecurity considerations, but there is little to no existing guidance on best practices for cybersecurity risk management for distributed wind systems specifically. This research develops an architecture for managing cyber risks associated with distributed wind systems through resilience functions. The architecture takes into account the configurations, challenges, and standards for distributed wind to create a risk-focused perspective that considers threats, vulnerabilities, and consequences. We show how the resilience functions of identification, preparation, detection, adaptation, and recovery can mitigate cyber threats. We discuss common distributed wind architectures and interconnections to larger power systems. Because cybersecurity cannot exist independently, the cyber-resilience architecture must consider the system holistically. Finally, we discuss risk assessment recommendations with special emphasis on what sets distributed wind systems apart from other distributed energy resources (DER).
Culler, M., Davis, K..  2018.  Toward a Sensor Trustworthiness Measure for Grid-Connected IoT-Enabled Smart Cities. 2018 IEEE Green Technologies Conference (GreenTech). :168–171.

Traditional security measures for large-scale critical infrastructure systems have focused on keeping adversaries out of the system. As the Internet of Things (IoT) extends into millions of homes, with tens or hundreds of devices each, the threat landscape is complicated. IoT devices have unknown access capabilities with unknown reach into other systems. This paper presents ongoing work on how techniques in sensor verification and cyber-physical modeling and analysis on bulk power systems can be applied to identify malevolent IoT devices and secure smart and connected communities against the most impactful threats.

Cui, Zhicheng, Zhang, Muhan, Chen, Yixin.  2018.  Deep Embedding Logistic Regression. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Big Knowledge (ICBK). :176–183.
Logistic regression (LR) is used in many areas due to its simplicity and interpretability. While at the same time, those two properties limit its classification accuracy. Deep neural networks (DNNs), instead, achieve state-of-the-art performance in many domains. However, the nonlinearity and complexity of DNNs make it less interpretable. To balance interpretability and classification performance, we propose a novel nonlinear model, Deep Embedding Logistic Regression (DELR), which augments LR with a nonlinear dimension-wise feature embedding. In DELR, each feature embedding is learned through a deep and narrow neural network and LR is attached to decide feature importance. A compact and yet powerful model, DELR offers great interpretability: it can tell the importance of each input feature, yield meaningful embedding of categorical features, and extract actionable changes, making it attractive for tasks such as market analysis and clinical prediction.
Cui, Yongcheng, Wang, Wenyong.  2019.  Colorless Video Rendering System via Generative Adversarial Networks. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Applications (ICAICA). :464—467.

In today's society, even though the technology is so developed, the coloring of computer images has remained at the manual stage. As a carrier of human culture and art, film has existed in our history for hundred years. With the development of science and technology, movies have developed from the simple black-and-white film era to the current digital age. There is a very complicated process for coloring old movies. Aside from the traditional hand-painting techniques, the most common method is to use post-processing software for coloring movie frames. This kind of operation requires extraordinary skills, patience and aesthetics, which is a great test for the operator. In recent years, the extensive use of machine learning and neural networks has made it possible for computers to intelligently process images. Since 2016, various types of generative adversarial networks models have been proposed to make deep learning shine in the fields of image style transfer, image coloring, and image style change. In this case, the experiment uses the generative adversarial networks principle to process pictures and videos to realize the automatic rendering of old documentary movies.

Cui, Ying, Yao, Yifan, Xu, GuanNan.  2020.  Research of Ubiquitous Power Internet of Things Security Authentication Method Based on CPK and RIFD. 2020 IEEE 4th Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). 1:1519–1523.
As RFID system has fewer calculation and storage resources for RF tag, it is difficult to adopt the traditional encryption algorithm technology with higher security, which leads to the system being vulnerable to counterfeiting, tampering, leakage and other problems. To this end, a lightweight bidirectional security authentication method based on the combined public key is proposed. The method deals with the key management problem of the power Internet of things (IoT) in the terminal layer device by studying the combined public key (CPK) technology. The elliptic curve cryptosystem in the CPK has the advantages of short key length, fast calculation speed and small occupied bandwidth, which is very suitable for the hardware environment of RFID system with limited performance. It also ensures the security of the keys used in the access of the IoT terminal equipment to the authentication, and achieves overall optimization of speed, energy consumption, processing capacity and security.
Cui, Yang, Ma, Yikai, Zhang, Yudong, Lin, Xi, Zhang, Siwei, Si, Tianbin, Zhang, Changhai.  2022.  Effect of multilayer structure on energy storage characteristics of PVDF ferroelectric polymer. 2022 4th International Conference on Intelligent Control, Measurement and Signal Processing (ICMSP). :582–586.
Dielectric capacitors have attracted attention as energy storage devices that can achieve rapid charge and discharge. But the key to restricting its development is the low energy storage density of dielectric materials. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), as a polymer with high dielectric properties, is expected to improve the energy storage density of dielectric materials. In this work, the multilayer structure of PVDF ferroelectric polymer is designed, and the influence of the number of layers on the maximum polarization, remanent polarization, applied electric field and energy storage density of the dielectric material is studied. The final obtained double-layer PVDF obtained a discharge energy storage density of 10.6 J/cm3 and an efficiency of 49.1% at an electric field of 410 kV/mm; the three-layer PVDF obtained a discharge energy storage density of 11.0 J/cm3 and an efficiency of 37.2% at an electric field of 440 kV/mm.
Cui, X., Wu, K., Karri, R..  2018.  Hardware Trojan Detection Using Path Delay Order Encoding with Process Variation Tolerance. 2018 IEEE 23rd European Test Symposium (ETS). :1-2.

The outsourcing for fabrication introduces security threats, namely hardware Trojans (HTs). Many design-for-trust (DFT) techniques have been proposed to address such threats. However, many HT detection techniques are not effective due to the dependence on golden chips, limitation of useful information available and process variations. In this paper, we data-mine on path delay information and propose a variation-tolerant path delay order encoding technique to detect HTs.