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I. Ilhan, A. C. Gurbuz, O. Arikan.  2015.  "Sparsity based robust Stretch Processing". 2015 IEEE International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (DSP). :95-99.

Strecth Processing (SP) is a radar signal processing technique that provides high-range resolution with processing large bandwidth signals with lower rate Analog to Digital Converter(ADC)s. The range resolution of the large bandwidth signal is obtained through looking into a limited range window and low rate ADC samples. The target space in the observed range window is sparse and Compressive sensing(CS) is an important tool to further decrease the number of measurements and sparsely reconstruct the target space for sparse scenes with a known basis which is the Fourier basis in the general application of SP. Although classical CS techniques might be directly applied to SP, due to off-grid targets reconstruction performance degrades. In this paper, applicability of compressive sensing framework and its sparse signal recovery techniques to stretch processing is studied considering off-grid cases. For sparsity based robust SP, Perturbed Parameter Orthogonal Matching Pursuit(PPOMP) algorithm is proposed. PPOMP is an iterative technique that estimates off-grid target parameters through a gradient descent. To compute the error between actual and reconstructed parameters, Earth Movers Distance(EMD) is used. Performance of proposed algorithm are compared with classical CS and SP techniques.

I. Mukherjee, R. Ganguly.  2015.  "Privacy preserving of two sixteen-segmented image using visual cryptography". 2015 IEEE International Conference on Research in Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (ICRCICN). :417-422.

With the advancement of technology, the world has not only become a better place to live in but have also lost the privacy and security of shared data. Information in any form is never safe from the hands of unauthorized accessing individuals. Here, in our paper we propose an approach by which we can preserve data using visual cryptography. In this paper, two sixteen segment displayed text is broken into two shares that does not reveal any information about the original images. By this process we have obtained satisfactory results in statistical and structural testes.

Iakovakis, Dimitrios, Hadjileontiadis, Leontios.  2016.  Standing Hypotension Prediction Based on Smartwatch Heart Rate Variability Data: A Novel Approach. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services Adjunct. :1109–1112.

The number of wearable and smart devices which are connecting every day in the Internet of Things (IoT) is continuously growing. We have a great opportunity though to improve the quality of life (QoL) standards by adding medical value to these devices. Especially, by exploiting IoT technology, we have the potential to create useful tools which utilize the sensors to provide biometric data. This novel study aims to use a smartwatch, independent from other hardware, to predict the Blood Pressure (BP) drop caused by postural changes. In cases that the drop is due to orthostatic hypotension (OH) can cause dizziness or even faint factors, which increase the risk of fall in the elderly but, as well as, in younger groups of people. A mathematical prediction model is proposed here which can reduce the risk of fall due to OH by sensing heart rate variability (data and drops in systolic BP after standing in a healthy group of 10 subjects. The experimental results justify the efficiency of the model, as it can perform correct prediction in 86.7% of the cases, and are encouraging enough for extending the proposed approach to pathological cases, such as patients with Parkinson's disease, involving large scale experiments.

Iashvili, Giorgi, Iavich, Maksim, Bocu, Razvan, Odarchenko, Roman, Gnatyuk, Sergiy.  2021.  Intrusion Detection System for 5G with a Focus on DOS/DDOS Attacks. 2021 11th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 2:861–864.
The industry of telecommunications is being transformed towards 5G technology, because it has to deal with the emerging and existing use cases. Because, 5G wireless networks need rather large data rates and much higher coverage of the dense base station deployment with the bigger capacity, much better Quality of Service - QoS, and the need very low latency [1–3]. The provision of the needed services which are envisioned by 5G technologies need the new service models of deployment, networking architectures, processing technologies and storage to be defined. These technologies will cause the new problems for the cybersecurity of 5G systems and the security of their functionality. The developers and researchers working in this field make their best to secure 5G systems. The researchers showed that 5G systems have the security challenges. The researchers found the vulnerabilities in 5G systems which allow attackers to integrate malicious code into the system and make the different types of the illegitimate actions. MNmap, Battery drain attacks and MiTM can be successfully implemented on 5G. The paper makes the analysis of the existing cyber security problems in 5G technology. Based on the analysis, we suggest the novel Intrusion Detection System - IDS by means of the machine-learning algorithms. In the related papers the scientists offer to use NSL-KDD in order to train IDS. In our paper we offer to train IDS using the big datasets of DOS/DDOS attacks, besides of training using NSL-KDD. The research also offers the methodology of integration of the offered intrusion detection systems into an standard architecture of 5G. The paper also offers the pseudo code of the designed system.
Ibarra, Jaime, Javed Butt, Usman, Do, Anh, Jahankhani, Hamid, Jamal, Arshad.  2019.  Ransomware Impact to SCADA Systems and its Scope to Critical Infrastructure. 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Security, Safety and Sustainability (ICGS3). :1–12.
SCADA systems are being constantly migrated to modern information and communication technologies (ICT) -based systems named cyber-physical systems. Unfortunately, this allows attackers to execute exploitation techniques into these architectures. In addition, ransomware insertion is nowadays the most popular attacking vector because it denies the availability of critical files and systems until attackers receive the demanded ransom. In this paper, it is analysed the risk impact of ransomware insertion into SCADA systems and it is suggested countermeasures addressed to the protection of SCADA systems and its components to reduce the impact of ransomware insertion.
Ibdah, D., Kanani, M., Lachtar, N., Allan, N., Al-Duwairi, B..  2017.  On the security of SDN-enabled smartgrid systems. 2017 International Conference on Electrical and Computing Technologies and Applications (ICECTA). :1–5.

Software Defined Networks (SDNs) is a new networking paradigm that has gained a lot of attention in recent years especially in implementing data center networks and in providing efficient security solutions. The popularity of SDN and its attractive security features suggest that it can be used in the context of smart grid systems to address many of the vulnerabilities and security problems facing such critical infrastructure systems. This paper studies the impact of different cyber attacks that can target smart grid communication network which is implemented as a software defined network on the operation of the smart grid system in general. In particular, we perform different attack scenarios including DDoS attacks, location highjacking and link overloading against SDN networks of different controller types that include POX, Floodlight and RYU. Our experiments were carried out using the mininet simulator. The experiments show that SDN-enabled smartgrid systems are vulnerable to different types of attacks.

Iber, J., Rauter, T., Krisper, M., Kreiner, C..  2017.  An Integrated Approach for Resilience in Industrial Control Systems. 2017 47th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W). :67–74.
New generations of industrial control systems offer higher performance, they are distributed, and it is very likely that they are internet connected in one way or another. These trends raise new challenges in the contexts of reliability and security. We propose a novel approach that tackles the complexity of industrial control systems at design time and run time. At design time our target is to ease the configuration and verification of controller configurations through model-driven engineering techniques together with the contract-based design paradigm. At run time the information from design time is reused in order to support a modular and distributed self-adaptive software system that aims to increase reliability and security. The industrial setting of the presented approach are control devices for hydropower plant units.
Ibrahim, A. A., Ata, S. Özgür, Durak-Ata, L..  2020.  Performance Analysis of FSO Systems over Imperfect Málaga Atmospheric Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors. 2020 12th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP). :1–5.
In this study, we investigate the performance of FSO communication systems under more realistic channel model considering atmospheric turbulence, pointing errors and channel estimation errors together. For this aim, we first derived the composite probability density function (PDF) of imperfect Málaga turbulence channel with pointing errors. Then using this PDF, we obtained bit-error-rate (BER) and ergodic channel capacity (ECC) expressions in closed forms. Additionally, we present the BER and ECC metrics of imperfect Gamma-Gamma and K turbulence channels with pointing errors as special cases of Málaga channel. We further verified our analytic results through Monte-Carlo simulations.
Ibrahim, A. K., Hagras, E. A. A. A., Alfhar, A., El-Kamchochi, H. A..  2020.  Dynamic Chaotic Biometric Identity Isomorphic Elliptic Curve (DCBI-IEC) for Crypto Images. 2020 2nd International Conference on Computer Communication and the Internet (ICCCI). :119–125.

In this paper, a novel Dynamic Chaotic Biometric Identity Isomorphic Elliptic Curve (DCBI-IEC) has been introduced for Image Encryption. The biometric digital identity is extracted from the user fingerprint image as fingerprint minutia data incorporated with the chaotic logistic map and hence, a new DCBDI-IEC has been suggested. DCBI-IEC is used to control the key schedule for all encryption and decryption processing. Statistical analysis, differential analysis and key sensitivity test are performed to estimate the security strengths of the proposed DCBI-IEC system. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is robust against common signal processing attacks and provides a high security level for image encryption application.

Ibrahim, Ahmad, Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza, Tsudik, Gene, Zeitouni, Shaza.  2016.  DARPA: Device Attestation Resilient to Physical Attacks. Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Security & Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks. :171–182.

As embedded devices (under the guise of "smart-whatever") rapidly proliferate into many domains, they become attractive targets for malware. Protecting them from software and physical attacks becomes both important and challenging. Remote attestation is a basic tool for mitigating such attacks. It allows a trusted party (verifier) to remotely assess software integrity of a remote, untrusted, and possibly compromised, embedded device (prover). Prior remote attestation methods focus on software (malware) attacks in a one-verifier/one-prover setting. Physical attacks on provers are generally ruled out as being either unrealistic or impossible to mitigate. In this paper, we argue that physical attacks must be considered, particularly, in the context of many provers, e.g., a network, of devices. As- suming that physical attacks require capture and subsequent temporary disablement of the victim device(s), we propose DARPA, a light-weight protocol that takes advantage of absence detection to identify suspected devices. DARPA is resilient against a very strong adversary and imposes minimal additional hardware requirements. We justify and identify DARPA's design goals and evaluate its security and costs.

Ibrahim, Ahmed, El-Ramly, Mohammad, Badr, Amr.  2019.  Beware of the Vulnerability! How Vulnerable are GitHub's Most Popular PHP Applications? 2019 IEEE/ACS 16th International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA). :1–7.
The presence of software vulnerabilities is a serious threat to any software project. Exploiting them can compromise system availability, data integrity, and confidentiality. Unfortunately, many open source projects go for years with undetected ready-to-exploit critical vulnerabilities. In this study, we investigate the presence of software vulnerabilities in open source projects and the factors that influence this presence. We analyzed the top 100 open source PHP applications in GitHub using a static analysis vulnerability scanner to examine how common software vulnerabilities are. We also discussed which vulnerabilities are most present and what factors contribute to their presence. We found that 27% of these projects are insecure, with a median number of 3 vulnerabilities per vulnerable project. We found that the most common type is injection vulnerabilities, which made 58% of all detected vulnerabilities. Out of these, cross-site scripting (XSS) was the most common and made 43.5% of all vulnerabilities found. Statistical analysis revealed that project activities like branching, pulling, and committing have a moderate positive correlation with the number of vulnerabilities in the project. Other factors like project popularity, number of releases, and number of issues had almost no influence on the number of vulnerabilities. We recommend that open source project owners should set secure code development guidelines for their project members and establish secure code reviews as part of the project's development process.
Ibrahim, Habib, Özkaynak, Fatih.  2021.  A Random Selection Based Substitution-box Structure Dataset for Cryptology Applications. IEEE EUROCON 2021 - 19th International Conference on Smart Technologies. :321—325.
The cryptology science has gradually gained importance with our digitalized lives. Ensuring the security of data transmitted, processed and stored across digital channels is a major challenge. One of the frequently used components in cryptographic algorithms to ensure security is substitution-box structures. Random selection-based substitution-box structures have become increasingly important lately, especially because of their advantages to prevent side channel attacks. However, the low nonlinearity value of these designs is a problem. In this study, a dataset consisting of twenty different substitution-box structures have been publicly presented to the researchers. The fact that the proposed dataset has high nonlinearity values will allow it to be used in many practical applications in the future studies. The proposed dataset provides a contribution to the literature as it can be used both as an input dataset for the new post-processing algorithm and as a countermeasure to prevent the success of side-channel analyzes.
Ibrahim, Hussein Abdumalik, Sundaram, B.Barani, Ahmed, Asedo Shektofik, Karthika, P..  2021.  Prevention of Rushing Attack in AOMDV using Random Route Selection Technique in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. 2021 5th International Conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). :626–633.
Ad Hoc Network is wireless networks that get more attention from past to present. Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is one of the types of ad hoc networks, it deployed rapidly because it infrastructure-less. A node in a mobile ad hoc network communicates through wireless links without wired channels. When source nodes want to communicate with the destination outside its transmission range it uses multi-hop mechanisms. The intermediate node forwards the data packet to the next node until the data packet reaches its destination. Due wireless links and lack of centralized administration device, mobile ad hoc network is more vulnerable for security attacks. The rushing attack is one of the most dangerous attacks in the on-demand routing protocol of mobile ad hoc networks. Rushing attack highly transmits route request with higher transmission power than the genuine nodes and become participate between source and destination nodes, after that, it delays or drop actual data pass through it. In this study, the researcher incorporates rushing attack in one of the most commonly used mobile ad hoc network routing protocols namely Ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector and provides a rushing attack prevention method based on the time threshold value and random route selection. Based on the time RREQ arrives a node takes a decision, if the RREQ packet arrives before threshold value, the RREQ packet consider as came from an attacker and discarded else RREQ packet received then randomly select RREQ to forward. In this study performance metrics like packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay and throughput have been evaluated using Network simulation (NS-2.35). As a result of simulation shows newly proposed prevention mechanism improves network performance in all cases than the network under attacker. For example, the average packet delivery ratio enhanced from 54.37% to 97.69%, throughput increased from 20.84bps to 33.06bpsand the average delay decreased from 1147.22ms to 908.04ms. It is concluded that the new proposed techniques show improvement in all evaluated performance metrics.
Ibrahim, M., Alsheikh, A..  2018.  Assessing Level of Resilience Using Attack Graphs. 2018 10th International Conference on Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence (ECAI). :1–6.
Cyber-Physical-Systems are subject to cyber-attacks due to existing vulnerabilities in the various components constituting them. System Resiliency is concerned with the extent the system is able to bounce back to a normal state under attacks. In this paper, two communication Networks are analyzed, formally described, and modeled using Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL), identifying their architecture, connections, vulnerabilities, resources, possible attack instances as well as their pre-and post-conditions. The generated network models are then verified against a security property using JKind model checker integrated tool. The union of the generated attack sequences/scenarios resulting in overall network compromise (given by its loss of stability) is the Attack graph. The generated Attack graph is visualized graphically using Unity software, and then used to assess the worst Level of Resilience for both networks.
Ibrahim, Mariam, Nabulsi, Intisar.  2021.  Security Analysis of Smart Home Systems Applying Attack Graph. 2021 Fifth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :230–234.
In this work, security analysis of a Smart Home System (SHS) is inspected. The paper focuses on describing common and likely cyber security threats against SHS. This includes both their influence on human privacy and safety. The SHS is properly presented and formed applying Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL), exhibiting the system layout, weaknesses, attack practices, besides their requirements and post settings. The obtained model is later inspected along with a security requirement with JKind model tester software for security endangerment. The overall attack graph causing system compromise is graphically given using Graphviz.
Ibrahim, Naseem.  2014.  Trustworthy Context-dependent Services. Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security. :20:1–20:2.

With the wide popularity of Cloud Computing, Service-oriented Computing is becoming the de-facto approach for the development of distributed systems. This has introduced the issue of trustworthiness with respect to the services being provided. Service Requesters are provided with a wide range of services that they can select from. Usually the service requester compare between these services according to their cost and quality. One essential part of the quality of a service is the trustworthiness properties of such services. Traditional service models focuses on service functionalities and cost when defining services. This paper introduces a new service model that extends traditional service models to support trustworthiness properties.

Ibrahim, Romani Farid.  2019.  Mobile Transaction Processing for a Distributed War Environment. 2019 14th International Conference on Computer Science Education (ICCSE). :856—862.

The battlefield environment differs from the natural environment in terms of irregular communications and the possibility of destroying communication and medical units by enemy forces. Information that can be collected in a war environment by soldiers is important information and must reach top-level commanders in time for timely decisions making. Also, ambulance staff in the battlefield need to enter the data of injured soldiers after the first aid, so that the information is available for the field hospital staff to prepare the needs for incoming injured soldiers.In this research, we propose two transaction techniques to handle these issues and use different concurrency control protocols, depending on the nature of the transaction and not a one concurrency control protocol for all types of transactions. Message transaction technique is used to collect valuable data from the battlefield by soldiers and allows top-level commanders to view it according to their permissions by logging into the system, to help them make timely decisions. In addition, use the capabilities of DBMS tools to organize data and generate reports, as well as for future analysis. Medical service unit transactional workflow technique is used to provides medical information to the medical authorities about the injured soldiers and their status, which helps them to prepare the required needs before the wounded soldiers arrive at the hospitals. Both techniques handle the disconnection problem during transaction processing.In our approach, the transaction consists of four phases, reading, editing, validation, and writing phases, and its processing is based on the optimistic concurrency control protocol, and the rules of actionability that describe how a transaction behaves if a value-change is occurred on one or more of its attributes during its processing time by other transactions.

Ibrahim, Rosziati, Omotunde, Habeeb.  2017.  A Hybrid Threat Model for Software Security Requirement Specification - IEEE Conference Publication.

Security is often treated as secondary or a non- functional feature of software which influences the approach of vendors and developers when describing their products often in terms of what it can do (Use Cases) or offer customers. However, tides are beginning to change as more experienced customers are beginning to demand for more secure and reliable software giving priority to confidentiality, integrity and privacy while using these applications. This paper presents the MOTH (Modeling Threats with Hybrid Techniques) framework designed to help organizations secure their software assets from attackers in order to prevent any instance of SQL Injection Attacks (SQLIAs). By focusing on the attack vectors and vulnerabilities exploited by the attackers and brainstorming over possible attacks, developers and security experts can better strategize and specify security requirements required to create secure software impervious to SQLIAs. A live web application was considered in this research work as a case study and results obtained from the hybrid models extensively exposes the vulnerabilities deep within the application and proposed resolution plans for blocking those security holes exploited by SQLIAs.
 

IBRAHIMY, S., LAMAAZI, H., BENAMAR, N..  2020.  RPL Assessment using the Rank Attack in Static and Mobile Environments. 2020 International Conference on Innovation and Intelligence for Informatics, Computing and Technologies (3ICT). :1—6.
Routing protocol running over low power and lossy networks (RPL) is currently one of the main routing protocols for the Internet of Things (IoT). This protocol has some vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers to change its behavior and deteriorate its performance. In the RPL rank attack, a malicious node announces a wrong rank, which leads the neighboring’s nodes to choose this node as a preferred parent. In this study, we used different metrics to assess RPL protocol in the presence of misbehaving nodes, namely the overhead, convergence time, energy consumption, preferred parent changes, and network lifetime. Our simulations results show that a mobile environment is more damaged by the rank attack than a static environment.
Ibrokhimov, Sanjar, Hui, Kueh Lee, Abdulhakim Al-Absi, Ahmed, lee, hoon jae, Sain, Mangal.  2019.  Multi-Factor Authentication in Cyber Physical System: A State of Art Survey. 2019 21st International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :279–284.
Digital Multifactor authentication is one of the best ways to make secure authentication. It covers many different areas of a Cyber-connected world, including online payments, communications, access right management, etc. Most of the time, Multifactor authentication is little complex as it require extra step from users. With two-factor authentication, along with the user-ID and password, user also needs to enter a special code which they normally receive by short message service or some special code which they got in advance. This paper will discuss the evolution from single authentication to Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) starting from Single-Factor Authentication (SFA) and through Two-Factor Authentication (2FA). In addition, this paper presents five high-level categories of features of user authentication in the gadget-free world including security, privacy, and usability aspects. These are adapted and extended from earlier research on web authentication methods. In conclusion, this paper gives future research directions and open problems that stem from our observations.
Ichsani, Yuditha, Deyani, Resisca Audia, Bahaweres, Rizal Broer.  2019.  The Cryptocurrency Simulation using Elliptic Curve Cryptography Algorithm in Mining Process from Normal, Failed, and Fake Bitcoin Transactions. 2019 7th International Conference on Cyber and IT Service Management (CITSM). 7:1—8.
On each cryptocurrency transaction, a high-level security is needed to protect user data as well as data on the transaction. At this stage, it takes the appropriate algorithm in securing transactions with more efficient processing time. The Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is one of the cryptography algorithms which has high-level security, and ECC is often compared with the Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman (RSA) algorithm because it has a security level that is almost the same but has some differences that make ECC is superior compared to the RSA algorithm, so that the ECC algorithm can optimize cryptocurrency security in the transaction process. The purpose of this study is to simulate the bitcoin transactions using cryptography algorithms. This study uses the ECC algorithm as the algorithm ECDH and ECDSA key exchange as the algorithm for signing and verifying. The comparison results of ECC and RSA processing time is 1:25, so the ECC is more efficient. The total processing time of ECC is 0,006 seconds and RSA is 0,152 seconds. The researcher succeeded to implement the ECC algorithm as securing algorithms in mining process of 3 scenarios, normal, failed, and fake bitcoin transactions.
Idayanti, N., Dedi, Nanang, T. K., Sudrajat, Septiani, A., Mulyadi, D., Irasari, P..  2016.  The implementation of hybrid bonded permanent magnet on permanent magnet generator for renewable energy power plants. 2016 International Seminar on Intelligent Technology and Its Applications (ISITIA). :557–560.

{This paper describes application of permanent magnet on permanent magnet generator (PMG) for renewable energy power plants. Permanent magnet used are bonded hybrid magnet that was a mixture of barium ferrite magnetic powders 50 wt % and NdFeB magnetic powders 50 wt % with 15 wt % of adhesive polymer as a binder. Preparation of bonded hybrid magnets by hot press method at a pressure of 2 tons and temperature of 200°C for 15 minutes. The magnetic properties obtained were remanence induction (Br) =1.54 kG, coercivity (Hc) = 1.290 kOe, product energy maximum (BHmax) = 0.28 MGOe, surface remanence induction (Br) = 1200 gauss

Idhom, M., Wahanani, H. E., Fauzi, A..  2020.  Network Security System on Multiple Servers Against Brute Force Attacks. 2020 6th Information Technology International Seminar (ITIS). :258—262.
Network security is critical to be able to maintain the information, especially on servers that store a lot of information; several types of attacks can occur on servers, including brute force and DDoS attacks; in the case study in this research, there are four servers used so that a network security system that can synchronize with each other so that when one server detects an attack, another server can take precautions before the same attack occurs on another server.fail2ban is a network security tool that uses the IDPS (Intrusion Detection and Prevention System) method which is an extension of the IDS (Intrusion Detection System) combined with IP tables so that it can detect and prevent suspicious activities on a network, fail2ban automatically default can only run on one server without being able to synchronize on other servers. With a network security system that can run on multiple servers, the attack prevention process can be done faster because when one server detects an attack, another server will take precautions by retrieving the information that has entered the collector database synchronizing all servers other servers can prevent attacks before an attack occurs on that server.
Idriss, H., Idriss, T., Bayoumi, M..  2017.  A highly reliable dual-arbiter PUF for lightweight authentication protocols. 2017 IEEE International Conference on RFID Technology Application (RFID-TA). :248–253.

PUFs are an emerging security primitive that offers a lightweight security alternative to highly constrained devices like RFIDs. PUFs used in authentication protocols however suffer from unreliable outputs. This hinders their scaling, which is necessary for increased security, and makes them also problematic to use with cryptographic functions. We introduce a new Dual Arbiter PUF design that reveals additional information concerning the stability of the outputs. We then employ a novel filtering scheme that discards unreliable outputs with a minimum number of evaluations, greatly reducing the BER of the PUF.

Idrus, S. Z. Syed, Cherrier, E., Rosenberger, C., Mondal, S., Bours, P..  2015.  Keystroke dynamics performance enhancement with soft biometrics. IEEE International Conference on Identity, Security and Behavior Analysis (ISBA 2015). :1–7.

It is accepted that the way a person types on a keyboard contains timing patterns, which can be used to classify him/her, is known as keystroke dynamics. Keystroke dynamics is a behavioural biometric modality, whose performances, however, are worse than morphological modalities such as fingerprint, iris recognition or face recognition. To cope with this, we propose to combine keystroke dynamics with soft biometrics. Soft biometrics refers to biometric characteristics that are not sufficient to authenticate a user (e.g. height, gender, skin/eye/hair colour). Concerning keystroke dynamics, three soft categories are considered: gender, age and handedness. We present different methods to combine the results of a classical keystroke dynamics system with such soft criteria. By applying simple sum and multiply rules, our experiments suggest that the combination approach performs better than the classification approach with best result of 5.41% of equal error rate. The efficiency of our approaches is illustrated on a public database.