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Izurieta, Clemente, Prouty, Mary.  2019.  Leveraging SecDevOps to Tackle the Technical Debt Associated with Cybersecurity Attack Tactics. 2019 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Technical Debt (TechDebt). :33–37.
Context: Managing technical debt (TD) associated with external cybersecurity attacks on an organization can significantly improve decisions made when prioritizing which security weaknesses require attention. Whilst source code vulnerabilities can be found using static analysis techniques, malicious external attacks expose the vulnerabilities of a system at runtime and can sometimes remain hidden for long periods of time. By mapping malicious attack tactics to the consequences of weaknesses (i.e. exploitable source code vulnerabilities) we can begin to understand and prioritize the refactoring of the source code vulnerabilities that cause the greatest amount of technical debt on a system. Goal: To establish an approach that maps common external attack tactics to system weaknesses. The consequences of a weakness associated with a specific attack technique can then be used to determine the technical debt principal of said violation; which can be measured in terms of loss of business rather than source code maintenance. Method: We present a position study that uses Jaccard similarity scoring to examine how 11 malicious attack tactics can relate to Common Weakness Enumerations (CWEs). Results: We conduct a study to simulate attacks, and generate dependency graphs between external attacks and the technical consequences associated with CWEs. Conclusion: The mapping of cyber security attacks to weaknesses allows operational staff (SecDevOps) to focus on deploying appropriate countermeasures and allows developers to focus on refactoring the vulnerabilities with the greatest potential for technical debt.
Izurieta, C., Kimball, K., Rice, D., Valentien, T..  2018.  A Position Study to Investigate Technical Debt Associated with Security Weaknesses. 2018 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Technical Debt (TechDebt). :138–142.
Context: Managing technical debt (TD) associated with potential security breaches found during design can lead to catching vulnerabilities (i.e., exploitable weaknesses) earlier in the software lifecycle; thus, anticipating TD principal and interest that can have decidedly negative impacts on businesses. Goal: To establish an approach to help assess TD associated with security weaknesses by leveraging the Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) and its scoring mechanism, the Common Weakness Scoring System (CWSS). Method: We present a position study with a five-step approach employing the Quamoco quality model to operationalize the scoring of architectural CWEs. Results: We use static analysis to detect design level CWEs, calculate their CWSS scores, and provide a relative ranking of weaknesses that help practitioners identify the highest risks in an organization with a potential to impact TD. Conclusion: CWSS is a community agreed upon method that should be leveraged to help inform the ranking of security related TD items.
Izumida, Tomonori, Mori, Akira, Hashimoto, Masatomo.  2018.  Context-Sensitive Flow Graph and Projective Single Assignment Form for Resolving Context-Dependency of Binary Code. Proceedings of the 13th Workshop on Programming Languages and Analysis for Security. :48-53.

Program analysis on binary code is considered as difficult because one has to resolve destinations of indirect jumps. However, there is another difficulty of context-dependency that matters when one processes binary programs that are not compiler generated. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for tackling these difficulties and describe a way to reconstruct a control flow from a binary program with no extra assumptions than the operational meaning of machine instructions.

Izu, T., Sakemi, Y., Takenaka, M., Torii, N..  2014.  A Spoofing Attack against a Cancelable Biometric Authentication Scheme. Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA), 2014 IEEE 28th International Conference on. :234-239.

ID/password-based authentication is commonly used in network services. Some users set different ID/password pairs for different services, but other users reuse a pair of ID/password to other services. Such recycling allows the list attack in which an adversary tries to spoof a target user by using a list of IDs and passwords obtained from other system by some means (an insider attack, malwares, or even a DB leakage). As a countermeasure agains the list attack, biometric authentication attracts much attention than before. In 2012, Hattori et al. proposed a cancelable biometrics authentication scheme (fundamental scheme) based on homomorphic encryption algorithms. In the scheme, registered biometric information (template) and biometric information to compare are encrypted, and the similarity between these biometric information is computed with keeping encrypted. Only the privileged entity (a decryption center), who has a corresponding decryption key, can obtain the similarity by decrypting the encrypted similarity and judge whether they are same or not. Then, Hirano et al. showed the replay attack against this scheme, and, proposed two enhanced authentication schemes. In this paper, we propose a spoofing attack against the fundamental scheme when the feature vector, which is obtained by digitalizing the analogue biometric information, is represented as a binary coding such as Iris Code and Competitive Code. The proposed attack uses an unexpected vector as input, whose distance to all possible binary vectors is constant. Since the proposed attack is independent from the replay attack, the attack is also applicable to two revised schemes by Hirano et al. as well. Moreover, this paper also discusses possible countermeasures to the proposed spoofing attack. In fact, this paper proposes a countermeasure by detecting such unexpected vector.

Izem, Acia, Wakrim, Mohamed, Ghadi, Abderrahim.  2019.  Logical Topology of Networks Implementing IPv6 Addressing. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Smart City Applications. :1–10.
The massive growth of the global routing tables is one of the biggest problems that still face internet nowadays. This problem is mainly caused by the random distribution of IPv4 addresses. With the immigration to IPv6 and the large ranges of addresses provided by this protocol, it is crucial to wisely manage the assignment of IPv6 prefixes. In this paper, we propose a process to generate a logical topology of IPv6 networks. This topology uses perfectly the summarization technique and consists in representing the summary routes in hierarchical manner such that large range of addresses represents several smaller ranges. The proposed aggregation process optimizes and divides up the routing tables which may help resolve the problem of the explosive growth of internet routing tables. Furthermore, the logical topology can be easly customized to fit the features of the routers that are used in the network.
Iyer, Jagathshree, Polys, Nicholas F., Arsenault, Lance.  2017.  Text Density and Display Bandwidth: Evaluating Scalability by Model and Experiment. Proceedings of the 22Nd International Conference on 3D Web Technology. :12:1–12:7.

The applications of 3D Virtual Environments are taking giant leaps with more sophisticated 3D user interfaces and immersive technologies. Interactive 3D and Virtual Reality platforms present a great opportunity for data analytics and can represent large amounts of data to help humans in decision making and insight. For any of the above to be effective, it is essential to understand the characteristics of these interfaces in displaying different types of content. Text is an essential and widespread content and legibility acts as an important criterion to determine the style, size and quantity of the text to be displayed. This study evaluates the maximum amount of text per visual angle, that is, the maximum density of text that will be legible in a virtual environment displayed on different platforms. We used Extensible 3D (X3D) to provide the portable (cross-platform) stimuli. The results presented here are based on a user study conducted in DeepSix (a tiled LCD display with 5750×2400 resolution) and the Hypercube (an immersive CAVE-style active stereo projection system with three walls and floor at 2560×2560 pixels active stereo per wall). We found that more legible text can be displayed on an immersive projection due to its larger Field of Regard; in the immersive case, stereo versus monoscopic rendering did not have a significant effect on legibility.

Iyengar, Varsha, Coleman, Grisha, Tinapple, David, Turaga, Pavan.  2016.  Motion, Captured: An Open Repository for Comparative Movement Studies. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Movement and Computing. :17:1–17:6.

This paper begins to describe a new kind of database, one that explores a diverse range of movement in the field of dance through capture of different bodies and different backgrounds - or what we are terming movement vernaculars. We re-purpose Ivan Illich's concept of 'vernacular work' [11] here to refer to those everyday forms of dance and organized movement that are informal, refractory (resistant to formal analysis), yet are socially reproduced and derived from a commons. The project investigates the notion of vernaculars in movement that is intentional and aesthetic through the development of a computational approach that highlights both similarities and differences, thereby revealing the specificities of each individual mover. This paper presents an example of how this movement database is used as a research tool, and how the fruits of that research can be added back to the database, thus adding a novel layer of annotation and further enriching the collection. Future researchers can then benefit from this layer, further refining and building upon these techniques. The creation of a robust, open source, movement lexicon repository will allow for observation, speculation, and contextualization - along with the provision of clean and complex data sets for new forms of creative expression.

Iyengar, Anirudh S., Vontela, Deepak, Reddy, Ithihasa, Ghosh, Swaroop, Motaman, Syedhamidreza, Jang, Jae-Won.  2018.  Threshold Defined Camouflaged Gates in 65Nm Technology for Reverse Engineering Protection. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design. :6:1-6:6.

Due to the ever-increasing threat of Reverse Engineering (RE) of Intellectual Property (IP) for malicious gains, camouflaging of logic gates is becoming very important. In this paper, we present experimental demonstration of transistor threshold voltage-defined switch [2] based camouflaged logic gates that can hide six logic functionalities i.e. NAND, AND, NOR, OR, XOR and XNOR. The proposed gates can be used to design the IP, forcing an adversary to perform brute-force guess-and-verify of the underlying functionality–-increasing the RE effort. We propose two flavors of camouflaging, one employing only a pass transistor (NMOS-switch) and the other utilizing a full pass transistor (CMOS-switch). The camouflaged gates are used to design Ring-Oscillators (RO) in ST 65nm technology, one for each functionality, on which we have performed temperature, voltage, and process-variation analysis. We observe that CMOS-switch based camouflaged gate offers a higher performance (\textasciitilde1.5-8X better) than NMOS-switch based gate at an added area cost of only 5%. The proposed gates show functionality till 0.65V. We are also able to reclaim lost performance by dynamically changing the switch gate voltage and show that robust operation can be achieved at lower voltage and under temperature fluctuation.

Iwendi, C., Uddin, M., Ansere, J. A., Nkurunziza, P., Anajemba, J. H., Bashir, A. K..  2018.  On Detection of Sybil Attack in Large-Scale VANETs Using Spider-Monkey Technique. IEEE Access. 6:47258–47267.
Sybil security threat in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) has attracted much attention in recent times. The attacker introduces malicious nodes with multiple identities. As the roadside unit fails to synchronize its clock with legitimate vehicles, unintended vehicles are identified, and therefore erroneous messages will be sent to them. This paper proposes a novel biologically inspired spider-monkey time synchronization technique for large-scale VANETs to boost packet delivery time synchronization at minimized energy consumption. The proposed technique is based on the metaheuristic stimulated framework approach by the natural spider-monkey behavior. An artificial spider-monkey technique is used to examine the Sybil attacking strategies on VANETs to predict the number of vehicular collisions in a densely deployed challenge zone. Furthermore, this paper proposes the pseudocode algorithm randomly distributed for energy-efficient time synchronization in two-way packet delivery scenarios to evaluate the clock offset and the propagation delay in transmitting the packet beacon message to destination vehicles correctly. The performances of the proposed technique are compared with existing protocols. It performs better over long transmission distances for the detection of Sybil in dynamic VANETs' system in terms of measurement precision, intrusion detection rate, and energy efficiency.
Iwaya, L. H., Fischer-Hübner, S., \AAhlfeldt, R., Martucci, L. A..  2018.  mHealth: A Privacy Threat Analysis for Public Health Surveillance Systems. 2018 IEEE 31st International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS). :42–47.

Community Health Workers (CHWs) have been using Mobile Health Data Collection Systems (MDCSs) for supporting the delivery of primary healthcare and carrying out public health surveys, feeding national-level databases with families' personal data. Such systems are used for public surveillance and to manage sensitive data (i.e., health data), so addressing the privacy issues is crucial for successfully deploying MDCSs. In this paper we present a comprehensive privacy threat analysis for MDCSs, discuss the privacy challenges and provide recommendations that are specially useful to health managers and developers. We ground our analysis on a large-scale MDCS used for primary care (GeoHealth) and a well-known Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) methodology. The threat analysis is based on a compilation of relevant privacy threats from the literature as well as brain-storming sessions with privacy and security experts. Among the main findings, we observe that existing MDCSs do not employ adequate controls for achieving transparency and interveinability. Thus, threatening fundamental privacy principles regarded as data quality, right to access and right to object. Furthermore, it is noticeable that although there has been significant research to deal with data security issues, the attention with privacy in its multiple dimensions is prominently lacking.

Iwamoto, M., Ohta, K., Shikata, J..  2018.  Security Formalizations and Their Relationships for Encryption and Key Agreement in Information-Theoretic Cryptography. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 64:654–685.
This paper analyzes the formalizations of information-theoretic security for the fundamental primitives in cryptography: symmetric-key encryption and key agreement. Revisiting the previous results, we can formalize information-theoretic security using different methods, by extending Shannon's perfect secrecy, by information-theoretic analogues of indistinguishability and semantic security, and by the frameworks for composability of protocols. We show the relationships among the security formalizations and obtain the following results. First, in the case of encryption, there are significant gaps among the formalizations, and a certain type of relaxed perfect secrecy or a variant of information-theoretic indistinguishability is the strongest notion. Second, in the case of key agreement, there are significant gaps among the formalizations, and a certain type of relaxed perfect secrecy is the strongest notion. In particular, in both encryption and key agreement, the formalization of composable security is not stronger than any other formalizations. Furthermore, as an application of the relationships in encryption and key agreement, we simultaneously derive a family of lower bounds on the size of secret keys and security quantities required under the above formalizations, which also implies the importance and usefulness of the relationships.
Ivkic, Igor, Mauthe, Andreas, Tauber, Markus.  2019.  Towards a Security Cost Model for Cyber-Physical Systems. 2019 16th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–7.
In times of Industry 4.0 and cyber-physical systems (CPS) providing security is one of the biggest challenges. A cyber attack launched at a CPS poses a huge threat, since a security incident may affect both the cyber and the physical world. Since CPS are very flexible systems, which are capable of adapting to environmental changes, it is important to keep an overview of the resulting costs of providing security. However, research regarding CPS currently focuses more on engineering secure systems and does not satisfactorily provide approaches for evaluating the resulting costs. This paper presents an interaction-based model for evaluating security costs in a CPS. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates in a use case driven study, how this approach could be used to model the resulting costs for guaranteeing security.
Ivars, Eugene, Armands, Vadim.  2013.  Alias-free compressed signal digitizing and recording on the basis of Event Timer. 2013 21st Telecommunications Forum Telfor (℡FOR). :443–446.

Specifics of an alias-free digitizer application for compressed digitizing and recording of wideband signals are considered. Signal sampling in this case is performed on the basis of picosecond resolution event timing, the digitizer actually is a subsystem of Event Timer A033-ET and specific events that are detected and then timed are the signal and reference sine-wave crossings. The used approach to development of this subsystem is described and some results of experimental studies are given.

Ivanova, M., Durcheva, M., Baneres, D., Rodríguez, M. E..  2018.  eAssessment by Using a Trustworthy System in Blended and Online Institutions. 2018 17th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET). :1-7.

eAssessment uses technology to support online evaluation of students' knowledge and skills. However, challenging problems must be addressed such as trustworthiness among students and teachers in blended and online settings. The TeSLA system proposes an innovative solution to guarantee correct authentication of students and to prove the authorship of their assessment tasks. Technologically, the system is based on the integration of five instruments: face recognition, voice recognition, keystroke dynamics, forensic analysis, and plagiarism. The paper aims to analyze and compare the results achieved after the second pilot performed in an online and a blended university revealing the realization of trust-driven solutions for eAssessment.

Ivanov, Radoslav, Pajic, Miroslav, Lee, Insup.  2016.  Attack-Resilient Sensor Fusion for Safety-Critical Cyber-Physical Systems. ACM Trans. Embed. Comput. Syst.. 15:21:1–21:24.

This article focuses on the design of safe and attack-resilient Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) equipped with multiple sensors measuring the same physical variable. A malicious attacker may be able to disrupt system performance through compromising a subset of these sensors. Consequently, we develop a precise and resilient sensor fusion algorithm that combines the data received from all sensors by taking into account their specified precisions. In particular, we note that in the presence of a shared bus, in which messages are broadcast to all nodes in the network, the attacker’s impact depends on what sensors he has seen before sending the corrupted measurements. Therefore, we explore the effects of communication schedules on the performance of sensor fusion and provide theoretical and experimental results advocating for the use of the Ascending schedule, which orders sensor transmissions according to their precision starting from the most precise. In addition, to improve the accuracy of the sensor fusion algorithm, we consider the dynamics of the system in order to incorporate past measurements at the current time. Possible ways of mapping sensor measurement history are investigated in the article and are compared in terms of the confidence in the final output of the sensor fusion. We show that the precision of the algorithm using history is never worse than the no-history one, while the benefits may be significant. Furthermore, we utilize the complementary properties of the two methods and show that their combination results in a more precise and resilient algorithm. Finally, we validate our approach in simulation and experiments on a real unmanned ground robot.

Ivanov, P., Baklanov, V., Dymova, E..  2020.  Covert Channels of Data Communication. 2020 Ural Symposium on Biomedical Engineering, Radioelectronics and Information Technology (USBEREIT). :0557—0558.
The article is dedicated to covert channels of data communication in the protected operating system based on the Linux kernel with mandatory access control. The channel which is not intended by developers violates security policy and can lead to disclosure of confidential information. In this paper the covert storage channels are considered. Authors show opportunities to violate the secrecy policy in the protected operating system based on the Linux kernel experimentally. The first scenario uses time stamps of the last access to the files (“atime” stamp), the second scenario uses unreliable mechanism of the automatic login to the user session with another level of secrecy. Then, there are some recommendations to prevent these violations. The goal of this work is to analyze the methods of using covert channels, both previously known and new. The result of the article is recommendations allowing to eliminate security threats which can be embodied through covert channels.
Ivanov, I, Maple, C, Watson, T, Lee, S.  2018.  Cyber security standards and issues in V2X communications for Internet of Vehicles. Living in the Internet of Things: Cybersecurity of the IoT – 2018. :1—6.

Significant developments have taken place over the past few years in the area of vehicular communication systems in the ITS environment. It is vital that, in these environments, security is considered in design and implementation since compromised vulnerabilities in one vehicle can be propagated to other vehicles, especially given that V2X communication is through an ad-hoc type network. Recently, many standardisation organisations have been working on creating international standards related to vehicular communication security and the so-called Internet of Vehicles (IoV). This paper presents a discussion of current V2X communications cyber security issues and standardisation approaches being considered by standardisation bodies such as the ISO, the ITU, the IEEE, and the ETSI.

Ivanov, A. V., Sklyarov, V. A..  2018.  The Urgency of the Threats of Attacks on Interfaces and Field-Layer Protocols in Industrial Control Systems. 2018 XIV International Scientific-Technical Conference on Actual Problems of Electronics Instrument Engineering (APEIE). :162-165.

The paper is devoted to analysis of condition of executing devices and sensors of Industrial Control Systems information security. The work contains structures of industrial control systems divided into groups depending on system's layer. The article contains the analysis of analog interfaces work and work features of data transmission protocols in industrial control system field layer. Questions about relevance of industrial control systems information security, both from the point of view of the information security occurring incidents, and from the point of view of regulators' reaction in the form of normative legal acts, are described. During the analysis of the information security systems of industrial control systems a possibility of leakage through technical channels of information leakage at the field layer was found. Potential vectors of the attacks on devices of field layer and data transmission network of an industrial control system are outlined in the article. The relevance analysis of the threats connected with the attacks at the field layer of an industrial control system is carried out, feature of this layer and attractiveness of this kind of attacks is observed.

Ivaki, Naghmeh, Antunes, Nuno.  2020.  SIDE: Security-Aware Integrated Development Environment. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW). :149–150.
An effective way for building secure software is to embed security into software in the early stages of software development. Thus, we aim to study several evidences of code anomalies introduced during the software development phase, that may be indicators of security issues in software, such as code smells, structural complexity represented by diverse software metrics, the issues detected by static code analysers, and finally missing security best practices. To use such evidences for vulnerability prediction and removal, we first need to understand how they are correlated with security issues. Then, we need to discover how these imperfect raw data can be integrated to achieve a reliable, accurate and valuable decision about a portion of code. Finally, we need to construct a security actuator providing suggestions to the developers to remove or fix the detected issues from the code. All of these will lead to the construction of a framework, including security monitoring, security analyzer, and security actuator platforms, that are necessary for a security-aware integrated development environment (SIDE).
Iula, Antonio, Micucci, Monica.  2019.  Palmprint recognition based on ultrasound imaging. 2019 42nd International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). :621–624.
Biometric recognition systems based on ultrasound images have been investigated for several decades, and nowadays ultrasonic fingerprint sensors are fully integrated in portable devices. Main advantage of the Ultrasound over other technologies are the possibility to collect 3D images, allowing to gain information on under-skin features, which improve recognition accuracy and resistance to spoofing. Also, ultrasound images are not sensible to several skin contaminations, humidity and not uniform ambient illumination. An ultrasound system, able to acquire 3D images of the human palm has been recently proposed. In this work, a recognition procedure based on 2D palmprint images collected with this system is proposed and evaluated through verification experiments carried out on a home made database composed of 141 samples collected from 24 users. Perspective of the proposed method by upgrading the recognition procedure to provide a 3D template able to accounts for palm lines' depth are finally highlighted and discussed.
Iuhasz, Gabriel, Petcu, Dana.  2019.  Perspectives on Anomaly and Event Detection in Exascale Systems. 2019 IEEE 5th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :225–229.
The design and implementation of exascale system is nowadays an important challenge. Such a system is expected to combine HPC with Big Data methods and technologies to allow the execution of scientific workloads which are not tractable at this present time. In this paper we focus on an event and anomaly detection framework which is crucial in giving a global overview of a exascale system (which in turn is necessary for the successful implementation and exploitation of the system). We propose an architecture for such a framework and show how it can be used to handle failures during job execution.
Ito, Toshitaka, Itotani, Yuri, Wakabayashi, Shin'ichi, Nagayama, Shinobu, Inagi, Masato.  2018.  A Nearest Neighbor Search Engine Using Distance-Based Hashing. 2018 International Conference on Field-Programmable Technology (FPT). :150—157.
This paper proposes an FPGA-based nearest neighbor search engine for high-dimensional data, in which nearest neighbor search is performed based on distance-based hashing. The proposed hardware search engine implements a nearest neighbor search algorithm based on an extension of flexible distance-based hashing (FDH, for short), which finds an exact solution with high probability. The proposed engine is a parallel processing and pipelined circuit so that search results can be obtained in a short execution time. Experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed engine.
Ito, Keita, Masuda, Yoshihiro, Okamoto, Eiji.  2019.  A Chaos MIMO-Based Polar Concatenation Code for Secure Channel Coding. 2019 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :262—267.

For secure and high-quality wireless transmission, we propose a chaos multiple-input multiple-output (C-MIMO) transmission scheme, in which physical layer security and a channel coding effect with a coding rate of 1 are obtained by chaotic MIMO block modulation. In previous studies, we introduced a log-likelihood ratio (LLR) to C-MIMO to exploit LLR-based outer channel coding and turbo decoding, and obtained further coding gain. However, we only studied the concatenation of turbo code, low-density parity check (LDPC) code, and convolutional code which were relatively high-complexity or weak codes; thus, outer code having further low-complexity and strong error correction ability were expected. In particular, a transmission system with short and good code is required for control signaling, such as in 5G networks. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a polar code concatenation to C-MIMO, and introduce soft successive decoding (SCAD) and soft successive cancellation list decoding (SSCLD) as LLR-based turbo decoding for polar code. We numerically evaluate the bit error rate performance of the proposed scheme, and compare it to the conventional LDPC-concatenated transmission.

Itakura, Keisuke, Mori, Yojiro, Hasegawa, Hiroshi, Sato, Ken-ichi.  2019.  Design of and Resiliency Enhancement in Coarse/Fine Hybrid Granular Routing Optical Networks Based on Iterative Path-Pair-Loop Inflation. 2019 15th International Conference on the Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN). :11–15.

A spectral-resource-utilization-efficient and highly resilient coarse granular routing optical network architecture is proposed. The improvement in network resiliency is realized by a novel concept named loop inflation that aims to enhance the geographical diversity of a working path and its redundant path. The trade-off between the inflation and the growth in circumference length of loops is controlled by the Simulated Annealing technique. Coarse granular routing is combined with resilient path design to realize higher spectral resource utilization. The routing scheme defines virtual direct links (VDLs) bridging distant nodes to alleviate the spectrum narrowing effect at the nodes traversed, allowing optical channels to be more densely accommodated by the fibers installed. Numerical experiments elucidate that the proposed networks successfully achieve a 30+0/0 route diversity improvement and a 12% fiber number reduction over conventional networks.

Issa, H., Tar, J. K..  2020.  Tackling Actuator Saturation in Fixed Point Iteration-based Adaptive Control. 2020 IEEE 14th International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics (SACI). :000221–000226.
The limited output of various drives means a challenge in controller design whenever the acceleration need of the "nominal trajectory to be tracked" temporarily exceeds the abilities of the saturated control system. The prevailing control design methods can tackle this problem either in a single theoretical step or in two consecutive steps. In this latter case in the first step the design happens without taking into account the actuator constraints, then apply a saturation compensator if the phenomenon of windup is observed. In the Fixed Point Iteration- based Adaptive Control (FPIAC) that has been developed as an alternative of the Lyapunov function-based approach the actuator saturation causes problems in its both elementary levels: in the kinematic/kinetic level where the desired acceleration is calculated, and in the iterative process that compensates the effects of modeling errors of the dynamic system under control and that of the external disturbances. The here presented approach tackles this problem in both levels by relatively simple considerations. To illustrate the method's efficiency simulation investigations were done in the FPIAC control of a modification of the van der Pol oscillator to which an additional strongly nonlinear term was added.