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Kainth, M., Krishnan, L., Narayana, C., Virupaksha, S. G., Tessier, R..  2015.  Hardware-assisted code obfuscation for FPGA soft microprocessors. 2015 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :127–132.

Soft microprocessors are vital components of many embedded FPGA systems. As the application domain for FPGAs expands, the security of the software used by soft processors increases in importance. Although software confidentiality approaches (e.g. encryption) are effective, code obfuscation is known to be an effective enhancement that further deters code understanding for attackers. The availability of specialization in FPGAs provides a unique opportunity for code obfuscation on a per-application basis with minimal hardware overhead. In this paper we describe a new technique to obfuscate soft microprocessor code which is located outside the FPGA chip in an unprotected area. Our approach provides customizable, data-dependent control flow modification to make it difficult for attackers to easily understand program behavior. The application of the approach to three benchmarks illustrates a control flow cyclomatic complexity increase of about 7× with a modest logic overhead for the soft processor.

Kaiya, Haruhiko, Muto, Ryoya, Nagano, Kaito, Yoshida, Mizuki.  2019.  Mutual Requirements Evolution by Combining Different Information Systems. Proceedings of the 23rd Pan-Hellenic Conference on Informatics. :159–162.
We propose a method of eliciting requirements for several different systems together. We focus on systems used by one user at the same time become such systems inherently give influences on with other. We expect such influences help a requirements analyst to be aware of unknown requirements of the user. Any modeling notations are used to explore the combination among systems causing such influences because the differences among the notations give diverse viewpoints to the analyst. To specify such mutual influences, we introduce semantic tags represented by stereo types. We also introduce other semantic tags so that the analyst can judge whether the combination brings advantages to the user. We apply our method to an example and we confirm the method works.
Kaizer, Andrew J., Gupta, Minaxi.  2016.  Towards Automatic Identification of JavaScript-oriented Machine-Based Tracking. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM on International Workshop on Security And Privacy Analytics. :33–40.

Machine-based tracking is a type of behavior that extracts information on a user's machine, which can then be used for fingerprinting, tracking, or profiling purposes. In this paper, we focus on JavaScript-oriented machine-based tracking as JavaScript is widely accessible in all browsers. We find that coarse features related to JavaScript access, cookie access, and URL length subdomain information can perform well in creating a classifier that can identify these machine-based trackers with 97.7% accuracy. We then use the classifier on real-world datasets based on 30-minute website crawls of different types of websites – including websites that target children and websites that target a popular audience – and find 85%+ of all websites utilize machine-based tracking, even when they target a regulated group (children) as their primary audience.

Kaji, Shugo, Kinugawa, Masahiro, Fujimoto, Daisuke, Hayashi, Yu-ichi.  2019.  Data Injection Attack Against Electronic Devices With Locally Weakened Immunity Using a Hardware Trojan. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility. 61:1115—1121.
Intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) of information and communication devices is based on high-power electromagnetic environments far exceeding the device immunity to electromagnetic interference. IEMI dramatically alters the electromagnetic environment throughout the device by interfering with the electromagnetic waves inside the device and destroying low-tolerance integrated circuits (ICs) and other elements, thereby reducing the availability of the device. In contrast, in this study, by using a hardware Trojan (HT) that is quickly mountable by physically accessing the devices, to locally weaken the immunity of devices, and then irradiating electromagnetic waves of a specific frequency, only the attack targets are intentionally altered electromagnetically. Therefore, we propose a method that uses these electromagnetic changes to rewrite or generate data and commands handled within devices. Specifically, targeting serial communication systems used inside and outside the devices, the installation of an HT on the communication channel weakens local immunity. This shows that it is possible to generate an electrical signal representing arbitrary data on the communication channel by applying electromagnetic waves of sufficiently small output compared with the conventional IEMI and letting the IC process the data. In addition, we explore methods for countering such attacks.
Kakadiya, Rutvik, Lemos, Reuel, Mangalan, Sebin, Pillai, Meghna, Nikam, Sneha.  2019.  AI Based Automatic Robbery/Theft Detection using Smart Surveillance in Banks. 2019 3rd International conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). :201—204.

Deep learning is the segment of artificial intelligence which is involved with imitating the learning approach that human beings utilize to get some different types of knowledge. Analyzing videos, a part of deep learning is one of the most basic problems of computer vision and multi-media content analysis for at least 20 years. The job is very challenging as the video contains a lot of information with large differences and difficulties. Human supervision is still required in all surveillance systems. New advancement in computer vision which are observed as an important trend in video surveillance leads to dramatic efficiency gains. We propose a CCTV based theft detection along with tracking of thieves. We use image processing to detect theft and motion of thieves in CCTV footage, without the use of sensors. This system concentrates on object detection. The security personnel can be notified about the suspicious individual committing burglary using Real-time analysis of the movement of any human from CCTV footage and thus gives a chance to avert the same.

Kakanakov, N., Shopov, M..  2017.  Adaptive models for security and data protection in IoT with Cloud technologies. 2017 40th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO). :1001–1004.

The paper presents an example Sensor-cloud architecture that integrates security as its native ingredient. It is based on the multi-layer client-server model with separation of physical and virtual instances of sensors, gateways, application servers and data storage. It proposes the application of virtualised sensor nodes as a prerequisite for increasing security, privacy, reliability and data protection. All main concerns in Sensor-Cloud security are addressed: from secure association, authentication and authorization to privacy and data integrity and protection. The main concept is that securing the virtual instances is easier to implement, manage and audit and the only bottleneck is the physical interaction between real sensor and its virtual reflection.

Kala, Srikant Manas, Sathya, Vanlin, Reddy, M. Pavan Kumar, Tamma, Bheemarjuna Reddy.  2018.  iCALM: A Topology Agnostic Socio-inspired Channel Assignment Performance Prediction Metric for Mesh Networks. :702–704.

A multitude of Channel Assignment (CA) schemes have created a paradox of plenty, making CA selection for Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) an onerous task. CA performance prediction (CAPP) metrics are novel tools that address the problem of appropriate CA selection. However, most CAPP metrics depend upon a variety of factors such as the WMN topology, the type of CA scheme, and connectedness of the underlying graph. In this work, we propose an improved Channel Assignment Link-Weight Metric (iCALM) that is independent of these constraints. To the best of our knowledge, iCALM is the first universal CAPP metric for WMNs. To evaluate iCALM, we design two WMN topologies that conform to the attributes of real-world mesh network deployments, and run rigorous simulations in ns-3. We compare iCALM to four existing CAPP metrics, and demonstrate that it performs exceedingly well, regardless of the CA type, and the WMN layout.

Kala, T. Sree, Christy, A..  2019.  An Intrusion Detection System using Opposition based Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm and PNN. 2019 International Conference on Machine Learning, Big Data, Cloud and Parallel Computing (COMITCon). :184–188.
Network security became a viral topic nowadays, Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection Systems [1] (IDSs) plays an indispensable role in identifying the attacks from networks and the detection rate and accuracy are said to be high. The proposed work explore this topic and solve this issue by the IDS model developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). This model uses Feed - Forward Neural Net algorithms and Probabilistic Neural Network and oppositional based on Particle Swarm optimization Algorithm for lessen the computational overhead and boost the performance level. The whole computing overhead produced in its execution and training are get minimized by the various optimization techniques used in these developed ANN-based IDS system. The experimental study on the developed system tested using the standard NSL-KDD dataset performs well, while compare with other intrusion detection models, built using NN, RB and OPSO algorithms.
Kalaichelvi, T., Apuroop, P..  2020.  Image Steganography Method to Achieve Confidentiality Using CAPTCHA for Authentication. 2020 5th International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :495—499.

Steganography is a data hiding technique, which is generally used to hide the data within a file to avoid detection. It is used in the police department, detective investigation, and medical fields as well as in many more fields. Various techniques have been proposed over the years for Image Steganography and also attackers or hackers have developed many decoding tools to break these techniques to retrieve data. In this paper, CAPTCHA codes are used to ensure that the receiver is the intended receiver and not any machine. Here a randomized CAPTCHA code is created to provide additional security to communicate with the authenticated user and used Image Steganography to achieve confidentiality. For achieving secret and reliable communication, encryption and decryption mechanism is performed; hence a machine cannot decode it using any predefined algorithm. Once a secure connection has been established with the intended receiver, the original message is transmitted using the LSB algorithm, which uses the RGB color spectrum to hide the image data ensuring additional encryption.

Kalaivani, S., Vikram, A., Gopinath, G..  2019.  An Effective Swarm Optimization Based Intrusion Detection Classifier System for Cloud Computing. 2019 5th International Conference on Advanced Computing Communication Systems (ICACCS). :185–188.
Most of the swarm optimization techniques are inspired by the characteristics as well as behaviour of flock of birds whereas Artificial Bee Colony is based on the foraging characteristics of the bees. However, certain problems which are solved by ABC do not yield desired results in-terms of performance. ABC is a new devised swarm intelligence algorithm and predominately employed for optimization of numerical problems. The main reason for the success of ABC algorithm is that it consists of feature such as fathomable and flexibility when compared to other swarm optimization algorithms and there are many possible applications of ABC. Cloud computing has their limitation in their application and functionality. The cloud computing environment experiences several security issues such as Dos attack, replay attack, flooding attack. In this paper, an effective classifier is proposed based on Artificial Bee Colony for cloud computing. It is evident in the evaluation results that the proposed classifier achieved a higher accuracy rate.
Kalaiyarasi, G., Balaji, K., Narmadha, T., Naveen, V..  2020.  E-Voting System In Smart Phone Using Mobile Application. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :1466—1469.

The development in the web technologies given growth to the new application that will make the voting process very easy and proficient. The E-voting helps in providing convenient, capture and count the votes in an election. This project provides the description about e-voting using an Android platform. The proposed e-voting system helps the user to cast the vote without visiting the polling booth. The application provides authentication measures in order to avoid fraud voters using the OTP. Once the voting process is finished the results will be available within a fraction of seconds. All the casted vote count is encrypted using AES256 algorithm and stored in the database in order to avoid any outbreaks and revelation of results by third person other than the administrator.

Kalan, Reza Shokri, Sayit, Muge, Clayman, Stuart.  2019.  Optimal Cache Placement and Migration for Improving the Performance of Virtualized SAND. 2019 IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization (NetSoft). :78–83.

Nowadays, video streaming over HTTP is one of the most dominant Internet applications, using adaptive video techniques. Network assisted approaches have been proposed and are being standardized in order to provide high QoE for the end-users of such applications. SAND is a recent MPEG standard where DASH Aware Network Elements (DANEs) are introduced for this purpose. As web-caches are one of the main components of the SAND architecture, the location and the connectivity of these web-caches plays an important role in the user's QoE. The nature of SAND and DANE provides a good foundation for software controlled virtualized DASH environments, and in this paper, we propose a cache location algorithm and a cache migration algorithm for virtualized SAND deployments. The optimal locations for the virtualized DANEs is determined by an SDN controller and migrates it based on gathered statistics. The performance of the resulting system shows that, when SDN and NFV technologies are leveraged in such systems, software controlled virtualized approaches can provide an increase in QoE.

Kalash, M., Rochan, M., Mohammed, N., Bruce, N. D. B., Wang, Y., Iqbal, F..  2018.  Malware Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. 2018 9th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS). :1-5.

In this paper, we propose a deep learning framework for malware classification. There has been a huge increase in the volume of malware in recent years which poses a serious security threat to financial institutions, businesses and individuals. In order to combat the proliferation of malware, new strategies are essential to quickly identify and classify malware samples so that their behavior can be analyzed. Machine learning approaches are becoming popular for classifying malware, however, most of the existing machine learning methods for malware classification use shallow learning algorithms (e.g. SVM). Recently, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), a deep learning approach, have shown superior performance compared to traditional learning algorithms, especially in tasks such as image classification. Motivated by this success, we propose a CNN-based architecture to classify malware samples. We convert malware binaries to grayscale images and subsequently train a CNN for classification. Experiments on two challenging malware classification datasets, Malimg and Microsoft malware, demonstrate that our method achieves better than the state-of-the-art performance. The proposed method achieves 98.52% and 99.97% accuracy on the Malimg and Microsoft datasets respectively.

Kalashnikov, A.O., Anikina, E.V..  2019.  Complex Network Cybersecurity Monitoring Method. 2019 Twelfth International Conference "Management of large-scale system development" (MLSD). :1–3.
This paper considers one of the methods of efficient allocation of limited resources in special-purpose devices (sensors) to monitor complex network unit cybersecurity.
Kalbarczyk, Tomasz, Julien, Christine.  2016.  XD (Exchange-deliver): \#a Middleware for Developing Device-to-device Mobile Applications. Proceedings of the International Conference on Mobile Software Engineering and Systems. :271–274.

In this demonstration, we showcase the XD middleware, a framework for expressive multiplexing of application communication streams onto underlying device-to-device communication links. XD allows applications to remain agnostic about which low-level networking stack is actually delivering messages and instead focus on the application-level content and delivery parameters. The IoT space has been flooded with new communication technologies (e.g., BLE, ZigBee, 6LoWPAN) to add to those already available on modern mobile devices (e.g., BLE, WiFi-Direct), substantially increasing the barrier to entry for developing innovative IoT applications. XD presents application developers with a simple publish-subscribe API for sending and receiving data streams, unburdening them from the task of selecting and coordinating communication channels. Our demonstration shows two Android applications, Disseminate and Prophet, running using our XD middleware for communication. We implemented BLE, WiFi Direct with TCP, and WiFi Direct with UDP communication stacks underneath XD.

Kalin, J., Ciolino, M., Noever, D., Dozier, G..  2020.  Black Box to White Box: Discover Model Characteristics Based on Strategic Probing. 2020 Third International Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Industries (AI4I). :60—63.

In Machine Learning, White Box Adversarial Attacks rely on knowing underlying knowledge about the model attributes. This works focuses on discovering to distrinct pieces of model information: the underlying architecture and primary training dataset. With the process in this paper, a structured set of input probes and the output of the model become the training data for a deep classifier. Two subdomains in Machine Learning are explored - image based classifiers and text transformers with GPT-2. With image classification, the focus is on exploring commonly deployed architectures and datasets available in popular public libraries. Using a single transformer architecture with multiple levels of parameters, text generation is explored by fine tuning off different datasets. Each dataset explored in image and text are distinguishable from one another. Diversity in text transformer outputs implies further research is needed to successfully classify architecture attribution in text domain.

Kalina, J., Schlenker, A., Kutílek, P..  2015.  Highly robust analysis of keystroke dynamics measurements. 2015 IEEE 13th International Symposium on Applied Machine Intelligence and Informatics (SAMI). :133–138.

Standard classification procedures of both data mining and multivariate statistics are sensitive to the presence of outlying values. In this paper, we propose new algorithms for computing regularized versions of linear discriminant analysis for data with small sample sizes in each group. Further, we propose a highly robust version of a regularized linear discriminant analysis. The new method denoted as MWCD-L2-LDA is based on the idea of implicit weights assigned to individual observations, inspired by the minimum weighted covariance determinant estimator. Classification performance of the new method is illustrated on a detailed analysis of our pilot study of authentication methods on computers, using individual typing characteristics by means of keystroke dynamics.

Kalinin, Maxim, Krundyshev, Vasiliy, Zegzhda, Peter, Belenko, Viacheslav.  2017.  Network Security Architectures for VANET. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Security of Information and Networks. :73–79.
In recent years, cyber security oriented research is paying much close attention on Vehicular Adhoc NETworks (VANETs). However, existing vehicular networks do not meet current security requirements. Typically for dynamic networks, maximal decentralization and rapidly changing topology of moving hosts form a number of security issues associated with ensuring access control of hosts, security policy enforcement, and resistance of the routing methods. To solve these problems generally, the paper reviews SDN (software defined networks) based network security architectures of VANET. The following tasks are solved in our work: composing of network security architectures for SDN-VANET (architecture with the central control and shared security servers, decentralized (zoned) architecture, hierarchical architecture); implementation of these architectures in virtual modeling environment; and experimental study of effectiveness of the suggested architectures. With large-scale vehicular networks, architectures with multiple SDN controllers are most effective. In small networks, the architecture with the central control also significantly outperforms the traditional VANET architecture. For the suggested architectures, three control modes are discussed in the paper: central, distributed and hybrid modes. Unlike common architectures, all of the proposed security architectures allow us to establish a security policy in m2m-networks and increase resistance capabilities of self-organizing networks.
Kaljic, Enio, Maric, Almir, Njemcevic, Pamela.  2019.  DoS attack mitigation in SDN networks using a deeply programmable packet-switching node based on a hybrid FPGA/CPU data plane architecture. 2019 XXVII International Conference on Information, Communication and Automation Technologies (ICAT). :1–6.
The application of the concept of software-defined networks (SDN) has, on the one hand, led to the simplification and reduction of switches price, and on the other hand, has created a significant number of problems related to the security of the SDN network. In several studies was noted that these problems are related to the lack of flexibility and programmability of the data plane, which is likely first to suffer potential denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. One possible way to overcome this problem is to increase the flexibility of the data plane by increasing the depth of programmability of the packet-switching nodes below the level of flow table management. Therefore, this paper investigates the opportunity of using the architecture of deeply programmable packet-switching nodes (DPPSN) in the implementation of a firewall. Then, an architectural model of the firewall based on a hybrid FPGA/CPU data plane architecture has been proposed and implemented. Realized firewall supports three models of DoS attacks mitigation: DoS traffic filtering on the output interface, DoS traffic filtering on the input interface, and DoS attack redirection to the honeypot. Experimental evaluation of the implemented firewall has shown that DoS traffic filtering at the input interface is the best strategy for DoS attack mitigation, which justified the application of the concept of deep network programmability.
Kalliola, A., Lal, S., Ahola, K., Oliver, I., Miche, Y., Holtmanns, S..  2017.  Testbed for security orchestration in a network function virtualization environment. 2017 IEEE Conference on Network Function Virtualization and Software Defined Networks (NFV-SDN). :1–4.

We present a testbed implementation for the development, evaluation and demonstration of security orchestration in a network function virtualization environment. As a specific scenario, we demonstrate how an intelligent response to DDoS and various other kinds of targeted attacks can be formulated such that these attacks and future variations can be mitigated. We utilise machine learning to characterise normal network traffic, attacks and responses, then utilise this information to orchestrate virtualized network functions around affected components to isolate these components and to capture, redirect and filter traffic (e.g. honeypotting) for additional analysis. This allows us to maintain a high level of network quality of service to given network functions and components despite adverse network conditions.

Kalokyri, Varvara, Borgida, Alexander, Marian, Amélie.  2018.  YourDigitalSelf: A Personal Digital Trace Integration Tool. Proceedings of the 27th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management. :1963–1966.
Personal information is typically fragmented across multiple, heterogeneous, distributed sources and saved as small, heterogeneous data objects, or traces. The DigitalSelf project at Rutgers University focuses on developing tools and techniques to manage (organize, search, summarize, make inferences on and personalize) such heterogeneous collections of personal digital traces. We propose to demonstrate YourDigitalSelf, a mobile phone-based personal information organization application developed as part of the DigitalSelf project. The demonstration will use a sample user data set to show how several disparate data traces can be integrated and combined to create personal narratives, or coherent episodes, of the user's activities. Conference attendees will be given the option to install YourDigitalSelf on their own devices to interact with their own data.
Kalwar, Abhishek, Bhuyan, Monowar H., Bhattacharyya, Dhruba K., Kadobayashi, Youki, Elmroth, Erik, Kalita, Jugal K..  2019.  TVis: A Light-weight Traffic Visualization System for DDoS Detection. 2019 14th International Joint Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Natural Language Processing (iSAI-NLP). :1—6.

With rapid growth of network size and complexity, network defenders are facing more challenges in protecting networked computers and other devices from acute attacks. Traffic visualization is an essential element in an anomaly detection system for visual observations and detection of distributed DoS attacks. This paper presents an interactive visualization system called TVis, proposed to detect both low-rate and highrate DDoS attacks using Heron's triangle-area mapping. TVis allows network defenders to identify and investigate anomalies in internal and external network traffic at both online and offline modes. We model the network traffic as an undirected graph and compute triangle-area map based on incidences at each vertex for each 5 seconds time window. The system triggers an alarm iff the system finds an area of the mapped triangle beyond the dynamic threshold. TVis performs well for both low-rate and high-rate DDoS detection in comparison to its competitors.

Kalyanaraman, A., Halappanavar, M..  2018.  Guest Editorial: Advances in Parallel Graph Processing: Algorithms, Architectures, and Application Frameworks. IEEE Transactions on Multi-Scale Computing Systems. 4:188—189.

The papers in this special section explore recent advancements in parallel graph processing. In the sphere of modern data science and data-driven applications, graph algorithms have achieved a pivotal place in advancing the state of scientific discovery and knowledge. Nearly three centuries of ideas have made graph theory and its applications a mature area in computational sciences. Yet, today we find ourselves at a crossroads between theory and application. Spurred by the digital revolution, data from a diverse range of high throughput channels and devices, from across internet-scale applications, are starting to mark a new era in data-driven computing and discovery. Building robust graph models and implementing scalable graph application frameworks in the context of this new era are proving to be significant challenges. Concomitant to the digital revolution, we have also experienced an explosion in computing architectures, with a broad range of multicores, manycores, heterogeneous platforms, and hardware accelerators (CPUs, GPUs) being actively developed and deployed within servers and multinode clusters. Recent advances have started to show that in more than one way, these two fields—graph theory and architectures–are capable of benefiting and in fact spurring new research directions in one another. This special section is aimed at introducing some of the new avenues of cutting-edge research happening at the intersection of graph algorithm design and their implementation on advanced parallel architectures.

Kamal, A., Dahshan, H., Elbayoumy, A. D..  2020.  A New Homomorphic Message Authentication Code Scheme for Network Coding. 2020 3rd International Conference on Information and Computer Technologies (ICICT). :520—524.
Network coding (NC) can significantly increase network performance and make lossy networks more reliable. Since the middle nodes modify the packets during their path to destination, integrity of the original packets cannot be checked using classical methods (MACs, Signatures, etc). Though, pollution attacks are the most common threat to network coded systems, where an infected node can inject the data flow of a network with a number of false packets and ban the receiver from properly decoding the packets. A lot of work in the security of NC in resisting pollution attacks has been investigated in recent years, majority have the same security parameter 1/q. A Homomorphic MAC scheme is presented earlier to resist pollution attacks with a security level 1/qˆl, In this paper, we will show that the mentioned scheme is subject to known-plaintext attacks. This is due to that part of the key can be revealed in an initial process. Also, the whole key could be revealed if the key is used more than once. Then, a modification to the mentioned scheme is proposed to overcome this issue. Besides, the MAC length is adjustable according to the required security level and not variable according to the vector's length which will accordingly increase the performance and efficiency of the scheme.
Kamaldeep, Malik, M., Dutta, M..  2017.  Contiki-based mitigation of UDP flooding attacks in the Internet of things. 2017 International Conference on Computing, Communication and Automation (ICCCA). :1296–1300.

As Internet of things (IoT) continue to ensconce into our homes, offices, hospitals, electricity grids and other walks of life, the stakes are too high to leave security to chance. IoT devices are resource constrained devices and hence it is very easy to exhaust them of their resources or deny availability. One of the most prominent attacks on the availability is the Distributed Denial of service (DDoS) attack. Although, DDoS is not a new Internet attack but a large number of new, constrained and globally accessible IoT devices have escalated the attack surface beyond imagination. This paper provides a broad anatomy of IoT protocols and their inherent weaknesses that can enable attackers to launch successful DDoS attacks. One of the major contributions of this paper is the implementation and demonstration of UDP (User Datagram Protocol) flood attack in the Contiki operating system, an open-source operating system for the IoT. This attack has been implemented and demonstrated in Cooja simulator, an inherent feature of the Contiki operating system. Furthermore, in this paper, a rate limiting mechanism is proposed that must be incorporated in the Contiki OS to mitigate UDP flood attacks. This proposed scheme reduces CPU power consumption of the victim by 9% and saves the total transmission power of the victim by 55%.