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Kang, Hyunjoong, Hong, Sanghyun, Lee, Kookjin, Park, Noseong, Kwon, Soonhyun.  2018.  On Integrating Knowledge Graph Embedding into SPARQL Query Processing. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS). :371—374.
SPARQL is a standard query language for knowledge graphs (KGs). However, it is hard to find correct answer if KGs are incomplete or incorrect. Knowledge graph embedding (KGE) enables answering queries on such KGs by inferring unknown knowledge and removing incorrect knowledge. Hence, our long-term goal in this line of research is to propose a new framework that integrates KGE and SPARQL, which opens various research problems to be addressed. In this paper, we solve one of the most critical problems, that is, optimizing the performance of nearest neighbor (NN) search. In our evaluations, we demonstrate that the search time of state-of-the-art NN search algorithms is improved by 40% without sacrificing answer accuracy.
Kang, K., Baek, Y., Lee, S., Son, S. H..  2017.  An Attack-Resilient Source Authentication Protocol in Controller Area Network. 2017 ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ANCS). :109–118.

While vehicle to everything (V2X) communication enables safety-critical automotive control systems to better support various connected services to improve safety and convenience of drivers, they also allow automotive attack surfaces to increase dynamically in modern vehicles. Many researchers as well as hackers have already demonstrated that they can take remote control of the targeted car by exploiting the vulnerabilities of in-vehicle networks such as Controller Area Networks (CANs). For assuring CAN security, we focus on how to authenticate electronic control units (ECUs) in real-time by addressing the security challenges of in-vehicle networks. In this paper, we propose a novel and lightweight authentication protocol with an attack-resilient tree algorithm, which is based on one-way hash chain. The protocol can be easily deployed in CAN by performing a firmware update of ECU. We have shown analytically that the protocol achieves a high level of security. In addition, the performance of the proposed protocol is validated on CANoe simulator for virtual ECUs and Freescale S12XF used in real vehicles. The results show that our protocol is more efficient than other authentication protocol in terms of authentication time, response time, and service delay.

Kang, Lei, Feeney, Andrew, Somerset, Will, Dixon, Steve.  2019.  Wideband Electromagnetic Dynamic Acoustic Transducer as a Standard Acoustic Source for Air-coupled Ultrasonic Sensors. 2019 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS). :2481–2484.
To experimentally study the characteristics of ultrasonic sensors, a wideband air-coupled ultrasonic transducer, wideband electromagnetic dynamic acoustic transducer (WEMDAT), is designed and fabricated. Characterisation methods, including electrical impedance analysis, laser Doppler vibrometry and pressure-field microphone measurement, are used to examine the performance of the WEMDAT, which have shown that the transducer has a wide bandwidth ranging approximately from 47 kHz to 145 kHz and a good directivity with a beam angle of around 20˚ with no evident side lobes. A 40 kHz commercial flexural ultrasonic transducer (FUT) is then taken as an example to receive ultrasonic waves in a pitch-catch configuration to evaluate the performance of the WEMDAT as an acoustic source. Experiment results have demonstrated that the WEMDAT can maintain the most of the frequency content of a 5 cycle 40 kHz tone burst electric signal and convert it into an ultrasonic wave for studying the dynamic characteristic and the directivity pattern of the ultrasonic receiver. A comparison of the dynamic characteristics between the transmitting and the receiving processes of the same FUT reveals that the FUT has a wider bandwidth when operating as an ultrasonic receiver than operating as a transmitter, which indicates that it is necessary to quantitatively investigate the receiving process of an ultrasonic transducer, demonstrating a huge potential of the WEMDAT serving as a standard acoustic source for ultrasonic sensors for various air-coupled ultrasonic applications.
Kang, Qiao, Lee, Sunwoo, Hou, Kaiyuan, Ross, Robert, Agrawal, Ankit, Choudhary, Alok, Liao, Wei-keng.  2020.  Improving MPI Collective I/O for High Volume Non-Contiguous Requests With Intra-Node Aggregation. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems. 31:2682—2695.

Two-phase I/O is a well-known strategy for implementing collective MPI-IO functions. It redistributes I/O requests among the calling processes into a form that minimizes the file access costs. As modern parallel computers continue to grow into the exascale era, the communication cost of such request redistribution can quickly overwhelm collective I/O performance. This effect has been observed from parallel jobs that run on multiple compute nodes with a high count of MPI processes on each node. To reduce the communication cost, we present a new design for collective I/O by adding an extra communication layer that performs request aggregation among processes within the same compute nodes. This approach can significantly reduce inter-node communication contention when redistributing the I/O requests. We evaluate the performance and compare it with the original two-phase I/O on Cray XC40 parallel computers (Theta and Cori) with Intel KNL and Haswell processors. Using I/O patterns from two large-scale production applications and an I/O benchmark, we show our proposed method effectively reduces the communication cost and hence maintains the scalability for a large number of processes.

Kania, Elsa B..  2016.  Cyber deterrence in times of cyber anarchy - evaluating the divergences in U.S. and Chinese strategic thinking. 2016 International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon U.S.). :1–17.
The advent of the cyber domain has introduced a new dimension into warfare and complicated existing strategic concepts, provoking divergent responses within different national contexts and strategic cultures. Although current theories regarding cyber deterrence remain relatively nascent, a comparison of U.S. and Chinese strategic thinking highlights notable asymmetries between their respective approaches. While U.S. debates on cyber deterrence have primarily focused on the deterrence of cyber threats, Chinese theorists have also emphasized the potential importance of cyber capabilities to enhance strategic deterrence. Whereas the U.S. government has maintained a consistent declaratory policy for response, Beijing has yet to progress toward transparency regarding its cyber strategy or capabilities. However, certain PLA strategists, informed by a conceptualization of deterrence as integrated with warfighting, have advocated for the actualization of deterrence through engaging in cyber attacks. Regardless of whether these major cyber powers' evolving strategic thinking on cyber deterrence will prove logically consistent or feasibly operational, their respective perspectives will certainly shape their attempts to achieve cyber deterrence. Ultimately, cyber deterrence may continue to be "what states make of it," given conditions of "cyber anarchy" and prevailing uncertainties regarding cyber conflict. Looking forward, future strategic stability in Sino-U.S. cyber interactions will require mitigation of the misperceptions and heightened risks of escalation that could be exacerbated by these divergent strategic approaches.
Kanimozhi, V., Jacob, T. Prem.  2019.  Artificial Intelligence based Network Intrusion Detection with Hyper-Parameter Optimization Tuning on the Realistic Cyber Dataset CSE-CIC-IDS2018 using Cloud Computing. 2019 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP). :0033–0036.

One of the latest emerging technologies is artificial intelligence, which makes the machine mimic human behavior. The most important component used to detect cyber attacks or malicious activities is the Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Artificial intelligence plays a vital role in detecting intrusions and widely considered as the better way in adapting and building IDS. In trendy days, artificial intelligence algorithms are rising as a brand new computing technique which will be applied to actual time issues. In modern days, neural network algorithms are emerging as a new artificial intelligence technique that can be applied to real-time problems. The proposed system is to detect a classification of botnet attack which poses a serious threat to financial sectors and banking services. The proposed system is created by applying artificial intelligence on a realistic cyber defense dataset (CSE-CIC-IDS2018), the very latest Intrusion Detection Dataset created in 2018 by Canadian Institute for Cybersecurity (CIC) on AWS (Amazon Web Services). The proposed system of Artificial Neural Networks provides an outstanding performance of Accuracy score is 99.97% and an average area under ROC (Receiver Operator Characteristic) curve is 0.999 and an average False Positive rate is a mere value of 0.001. The proposed system using artificial intelligence of botnet attack detection is powerful, more accurate and precise. The novel proposed system can be implemented in n machines to conventional network traffic analysis, cyber-physical system traffic data and also to the real-time network traffic analysis.

Kanizo, Y., Hay, D., Keslassy, I..  2015.  Maximizing the Throughput of Hash Tables in Network Devices with Combined SRAM/DRAM Memory. Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on. 26:796-809.

Hash tables form a core component of many algorithms as well as network devices. Because of their large size, they often require a combined memory model, in which some of the elements are stored in a fast memory (for example, cache or on-chip SRAM) while others are stored in much slower memory (namely, the main memory or off-chip DRAM). This makes the implementation of real-life hash tables particularly delicate, as a suboptimal choice of the hashing scheme parameters may result in a higher average query time, and therefore in a lower throughput. In this paper, we focus on multiple-choice hash tables. Given the number of choices, we study the tradeoff between the load of a hash table and its average lookup time. The problem is solved by analyzing an equivalent problem: the expected maximum matching size of a random bipartite graph with a fixed left-side vertex degree. Given two choices, we provide exact results for any finite system, and also deduce asymptotic results as the fast memory size increases. In addition, we further consider other variants of this problem and model the impact of several parameters. Finally, we evaluate the performance of our models on Internet backbone traces, and illustrate the impact of the memories speed difference on the choice of parameters. In particular, we show that the common intuition of entirely avoiding slow memory accesses by using highly efficient schemes (namely, with many fast-memory choices) is not always optimal.

Kanna, J. S. Vignesh, Raj, S. M. Ebenezer, Meena, M., Meghana, S., Roomi, S. Mansoor.  2020.  Deep Learning Based Video Analytics For Person Tracking. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Engineering (ic-ETITE). :1—6.

As the assets of people are growing, security and surveillance have become a matter of great concern today. When a criminal activity takes place, the role of the witness plays a major role in nabbing the criminal. The witness usually states the gender of the criminal, the pattern of the criminal's dress, facial features of the criminal, etc. Based on the identification marks provided by the witness, the criminal is searched for in the surveillance cameras. Surveillance cameras are ubiquitous and finding criminals from a huge volume of surveillance video frames is a tedious process. In order to automate the search process, proposed a novel smart methodology using deep learning. This method takes gender, shirt pattern, and spectacle status as input to find out the object as person from the video log. The performance of this method achieves an accuracy of 87% in identifying the person in the video frame.

Kannan, S., Karimi, N., Karri, R., Sinanoglu, O..  2014.  Detection, diagnosis, and repair of faults in memristor-based memories. VLSI Test Symposium (VTS), 2014 IEEE 32nd. :1-6.

Memristors are an attractive option for use in future memory architectures due to their non-volatility, high density and low power operation. Notwithstanding these advantages, memristors and memristor-based memories are prone to high defect densities due to the non-deterministic nature of nanoscale fabrication. The typical approach to fault detection and diagnosis in memories entails testing one memory cell at a time. This is time consuming and does not scale for the dense, memristor-based memories. In this paper, we integrate solutions for detecting and locating faults in memristors, and ensure post-silicon recovery from memristor failures. We propose a hybrid diagnosis scheme that exploits sneak-paths inherent in crossbar memories, and uses March testing to test and diagnose multiple memory cells simultaneously, thereby reducing test time. We also provide a repair mechanism that prevents faults in the memory from being activated. The proposed schemes enable and leverage sneak paths during fault detection and diagnosis modes, while still maintaining a sneak-path free crossbar during normal operation. The proposed hybrid scheme reduces fault detection and diagnosis time by ~44%, compared to traditional March tests, and repairs the faulty cell with minimal overhead.

Kannan, Uma, Swamidurai, Rajendran.  2019.  Empirical Validation of System Dynamics Cyber Security Models. 2019 SoutheastCon. :1–6.

Model validation, though a process that's continuous and complex, establishes confidence in the soundness and usefulness of a model. Making sure that the model behaves similar to the modes of behavior seen in real systems, allows the builder of said model to assure accumulation of confidence in the model and thus validating the model. While doing this, the model builder is also required to build confidence from a target audience in the model through communicating to the bases. The basis of the system dynamics model validation, both in general and in the field of cyber security, relies on a casual loop diagram of the system being agreed upon by a group of experts. Model validation also uses formal quantitative and informal qualitative tools in addition to the validation techniques used by system dynamics. Amongst others, the usefulness of a model, in a user's eyes, is a valid standard by which we can evaluate them. To validate our system dynamics cyber security model, we used empirical structural and behavior tests. This paper describes tests of model structure and model behavior, which includes each test's purpose, the ways the tests were conducted, and empirical validation results using a proof-of-concept cyber security model.

Kannao, Raghvendra, Guha, Prithwijit.  2016.  Generic TV Advertisement Detection Using Progressively Balanced Perceptron Trees. Proceedings of the Tenth Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing. :8:1–8:8.

Automatic detection of TV advertisements is of paramount importance for various media monitoring agencies. Existing works in this domain have mostly focused on news channels using news specific features. Most commercial products use near copy detection algorithms instead of generic advertisement classification. A generic detector needs to handle inter-class and intra-class imbalances present in data due to variability in content aired across channels and frequent repetition of advertisements. Imbalances present in data make classifiers biased towards one of the classes and thus require special treatment. We propose to use tree of perceptrons to solve this problem. The training data available for each perceptron node is balanced using cluster based over-sampling and TOMEK link cleaning as we traverse the tree downwards. The trained perceptron node then passes the original unbalanced data to its children. This process is repeated recursively till we reach the leaf nodes. We call this new algorithm as "Progressively Balanced Perceptron Tree". We have also contributed a TV advertisements dataset consisting of 250 hours of videos recorded from five non-news TV channels of different genres. Experimentations on this dataset have shown that the proposed approach has comparatively superior and balanced performance with respect to six baseline methods. Our proposal generalizes well across channels, with varying training data sizes and achieved a top F1-score of 97% in detecting advertisements.

Kannavara, R., Vangore, J., Roberts, W., Lindholm, M., Shrivastav, P..  2018.  Automating Threat Intelligence for SDL. 2018 IEEE Cybersecurity Development (SecDev). :137–137.
Threat intelligence is very important in order to execute a well-informed Security Development Lifecycle (SDL). Although there are many readily available solutions supporting tactical threat intelligence focusing on enterprise Information Technology (IT) infrastructure, the lack of threat intelligence solutions focusing on SDL is a known gap which is acknowledged by the security community. To address this shortcoming, we present a solution to automate the process of mining open source threat information sources to deliver product specific threat indicators designed to strategically inform the SDL while continuously monitoring for disclosures of relevant potential vulnerabilities during product design, development, and beyond deployment.
Kannouf, N., Douzi, Y., Benabdellah, M., Azizi, A..  2015.  Security on RFID technology. 2015 International Conference on Cloud Technologies and Applications (CloudTech). :1–5.

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) systems are emerging as one of the most pervasive computing technologies in history due to their low cost and their broad applicability. Latest technologies have brought costs down and standards are being developed. Actually, RFID is mostly used as a medium for numerous tasks including managing supply chains, tracking livestock, preventing counterfeiting, controlling building access, and supporting automated checkout. The use of RFID is limited by security concerns and delays in standardization. This paper presents some research done on RFID, the RFID applications and RFID data security.

Kanokbannakorn, W., Penthong, T..  2019.  Improvement of a Current Transformer Model based on the Jiles-Atherton Theory. 2019 IEEE PES GTD Grand International Conference and Exposition Asia (GTD Asia). :495–499.
An improved current transformer model (CT) developed in DIgSILENT™ is presented in this paper. The hysteresis characteristics of magnetic material described by Jiles-Atheron theory are included. The results show that model can represent the saturation and remanence characteristics of CT core accurately. The model accuracy is verified by comparing the simulation results with PSCAD/EMTDC™.
Kansal, V., Dave, M..  2017.  Proactive DDoS attack detection and isolation. 2017 International Conference on Computer, Communications and Electronics (Comptelix). :334–338.

The increased number of cyber attacks makes the availability of services a major security concern. One common type of cyber threat is distributed denial of service (DDoS). A DDoS attack is aimed at disrupting the legitimate users from accessing the services. It is easier for an insider having legitimate access to the system to deceive any security controls resulting in insider attack. This paper proposes an Early Detection and Isolation Policy (EDIP)to mitigate insider-assisted DDoS attacks. EDIP detects insider among all legitimate clients present in the system at proxy level and isolate it from innocent clients by migrating it to attack proxy. Further an effective algorithm for detection and isolation of insider is developed with the aim of maximizing attack isolation while minimizing disruption to benign clients. In addition, concept of load balancing is used to prevent proxies from getting overloaded.

Kansal, V., Dave, M..  2017.  DDoS attack isolation using moving target defense. 2017 International Conference on Computing, Communication and Automation (ICCCA). :511–514.

Among the several threats to cyber services Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is most prevailing nowadays. DDoS involves making an online service unavailable by flooding the bandwidth or resources of a targeted system. It is easier for an insider having legitimate access to the system to circumvent any security controls thus resulting in insider attack. To mitigate insider assisted DDoS attacks, this paper proposes a moving target defense mechanism that involves isolation of insiders from innocent clients by using attack proxies. Further using the concept of load balancing an effective algorithm to detect and handle insider attack is developed with the aim of maximizing attack isolation while minimizing the total number of proxies used.

Kansuwan, Thivanon, Chomsiri, Thawatchai.  2019.  Authentication Model using the Bundled CAPTCHA OTP Instead of Traditional Password. 2019 Joint International Conference on Digital Arts, Media and Technology with ECTI Northern Section Conference on Electrical, Electronics, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering (ECTI DAMT-NCON). :5—8.
In this research, we present identity verification using the “Bundled CAPTCHA OTP” instead of using the traditional password. This includes a combination of CAPTCHA and One Time Password (OTP) to reduce processing steps. Moreover, a user does not have to remember any password. The Bundled CAPTCHA OTP which is the unique random parameter for any login will be used instead of a traditional password. We use an e-mail as the way to receive client-side the Bundled CAPTCHA OTP because it is easier to apply without any problems compare to using mobile phones. Since mobile phones may be crashing, lost, change frequently, and easier violent access than e-mail. In this paper, we present a processing model of the proposed system and discuss advantages and disadvantages of the model.
Kantarcioglu, Murat, Shaon, Fahad.  2019.  Securing Big Data in the Age of AI. 2019 First IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :218—220.

Increasingly organizations are collecting ever larger amounts of data to build complex data analytics, machine learning and AI models. Furthermore, the data needed for building such models may be unstructured (e.g., text, image, and video). Hence such data may be stored in different data management systems ranging from relational databases to newer NoSQL databases tailored for storing unstructured data. Furthermore, data scientists are increasingly using programming languages such as Python, R etc. to process data using many existing libraries. In some cases, the developed code will be automatically executed by the NoSQL system on the stored data. These developments indicate the need for a data security and privacy solution that can uniformly protect data stored in many different data management systems and enforce security policies even if sensitive data is processed using a data scientist submitted complex program. In this paper, we introduce our vision for building such a solution for protecting big data. Specifically, our proposed system system allows organizations to 1) enforce policies that control access to sensitive data, 2) keep necessary audit logs automatically for data governance and regulatory compliance, 3) sanitize and redact sensitive data on-the-fly based on the data sensitivity and AI model needs, 4) detect potentially unauthorized or anomalous access to sensitive data, 5) automatically create attribute-based access control policies based on data sensitivity and data type.

Kantarcioglu, Murat, Xi, Bowei.  2016.  Adversarial Data Mining: Big Data Meets Cyber Security. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1866–1867.

As more and more cyber security incident data ranging from systems logs to vulnerability scan results are collected, manually analyzing these collected data to detect important cyber security events become impossible. Hence, data mining techniques are becoming an essential tool for real-world cyber security applications. For example, a report from Gartner [gartner12] claims that "Information security is becoming a big data analytics problem, where massive amounts of data will be correlated, analyzed and mined for meaningful patterns". Of course, data mining/analytics is a means to an end where the ultimate goal is to provide cyber security analysts with prioritized actionable insights derived from big data. This raises the question, can we directly apply existing techniques to cyber security applications? One of the most important differences between data mining for cyber security and many other data mining applications is the existence of malicious adversaries that continuously adapt their behavior to hide their actions and to make the data mining models ineffective. Unfortunately, traditional data mining techniques are insufficient to handle such adversarial problems directly. The adversaries adapt to the data miner's reactions, and data mining algorithms constructed based on a training dataset degrades quickly. To address these concerns, over the last couple of years new and novel data mining techniques which is more resilient to such adversarial behavior are being developed in machine learning and data mining community. We believe that lessons learned as a part of this research direction would be beneficial for cyber security researchers who are increasingly applying machine learning and data mining techniques in practice. To give an overview of recent developments in adversarial data mining, in this three hour long tutorial, we introduce the foundations, the techniques, and the applications of adversarial data mining to cyber security applications. We first introduce various approaches proposed in the past to defend against active adversaries, such as a minimax approach to minimize the worst case error through a zero-sum game. We then discuss a game theoretic framework to model the sequential actions of the adversary and the data miner, while both parties try to maximize their utilities. We also introduce a modified support vector machine method and a relevance vector machine method to defend against active adversaries. Intrusion detection and malware detection are two important application areas for adversarial data mining models that will be discussed in details during the tutorial. Finally, we discuss some practical guidelines on how to use adversarial data mining ideas in generic cyber security applications and how to leverage existing big data management tools for building data mining algorithms for cyber security.

Kantchelian, Alex, Tschantz, Michael Carl, Afroz, Sadia, Miller, Brad, Shankar, Vaishaal, Bachwani, Rekha, Joseph, Anthony D., Tygar, J. D..  2015.  Better Malware Ground Truth: Techniques for Weighting Anti-Virus Vendor Labels. Proceedings of the 8th ACM Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Security. :45–56.

We examine the problem of aggregating the results of multiple anti-virus (AV) vendors' detectors into a single authoritative ground-truth label for every binary. To do so, we adapt a well-known generative Bayesian model that postulates the existence of a hidden ground truth upon which the AV labels depend. We use training based on Expectation Maximization for this fully unsupervised technique. We evaluate our method using 279,327 distinct binaries from VirusTotal, each of which appeared for the rst time between January 2012 and June 2014.

Our evaluation shows that our statistical model is consistently more accurate at predicting the future-derived ground truth than all unweighted rules of the form \k out of n" AV detections. In addition, we evaluate the scenario where partial ground truth is available for model building. We train a logistic regression predictor on the partial label information. Our results show that as few as a 100 randomly selected training instances with ground truth are enough to achieve 80% true positive rate for 0.1% false positive rate. In comparison, the best unweighted threshold rule provides only 60% true positive rate at the same false positive rate.

Kanwal, Ayesha, Masood, Rahat, Shibli, Muhammad Awais.  2014.  Evaluation and Establishment of Trust in Cloud Federation. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication. :12:1–12:8.

Cloud federation is a future evolution of Cloud computing, where Cloud Service Providers (CSP) collaborate dynamically to share their virtual infrastructure for load balancing and meeting the Quality of Service during the demand spikes. Today, one of the major obstacles in adoption of federation is the lack of trust between Cloud providers participating in federation. In order to ensure the security of critical and sensitive data of customers, it is important to evaluate and establish the trust between Cloud providers, before redirecting the customer's requests from one provider to other provider. We are proposing a trust evaluation model and underlying protocol that will facilitate the cloud providers to evaluate the trustworthiness of each other and hence participate in federation to share their infrastructure in a trusted and reliable way.

Kao, D. Y., Wu, G. J..  2015.  A Digital Triage Forensics framework of Window malware forensic toolkit: Based on ISO}/IEC 27037:2012. 2015 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). :217–222.

The rise of malware attack and data leakage is putting the Internet at a higher risk. Digital forensic examiners responsible for cyber security incident need to continually update their processes, knowledge and tools due to changing technology. These attack activities can be investigated by means of Digital Triage Forensics (DTF) methodologies. DTF is a procedural model for the crime scene investigation of digital forensic applications. It takes place as a way of gathering quick intelligence, and presents methods of conducting pre/post-blast investigations. A DTF framework of Window malware forensic toolkit is further proposed. It is also based on ISO/IEC 27037: 2012 - guidelines for specific activities in the handling of digital evidence. The argument is made for a careful use of digital forensic investigations to improve the overall quality of expert examiners. This solution may improve the speed and quality of pre/post-blast investigations. By considering how triage solutions are being implemented into digital investigations, this study presents a critical analysis of malware forensics. The analysis serves as feedback for integrating digital forensic considerations, and specifies directions for further standardization efforts.

Kao, D. Y..  2015.  Performing an APT Investigation: Using People-Process-Technology-Strategy Model in Digital Triage Forensics. 2015 IEEE 39th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference. 3:47–52.

Taiwan has become the frontline in an emerging cyberspace battle. Cyberattacks from different countries are constantly reported during past decades. The incident of Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) is analyzed from the golden triangle components (people, process and technology) to ensure the application of digital forensics. This study presents a novel People-Process-Technology-Strategy (PPTS) model by implementing a triage investigative step to identify evidence dynamics in digital data and essential information in auditing logs. The result of this study is expected to improve APT investigation. The investigation scenario of this proposed methodology is illustrated by applying to some APT incidents in Taiwan.

KAO, Da-Yu.  2019.  Cybercrime Countermeasure of Insider Threat Investigation. 2019 21st International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :413—418.

The threat of cybercrime is becoming increasingly complex and diverse on putting citizen's data or money in danger. Cybercrime threats are often originating from trusted, malicious, or negligent insiders, who have excessive access privileges to sensitive data. The analysis of cybercrime insider investigation presents many opportunities for actionable intelligence on improving the quality and value of digital evidence. There are several advantages of applying Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) methods in cybercrime insider investigation. This paper introduces DPI method that can help investigators in developing new techniques and performing digital investigation process in forensically sound and timely fashion manner. This paper provides a survey of the packet inspection, which can be applied to cybercrime insider investigation.

Kapoor, Chavi.  2019.  Routing Table Management using Dynamic Information with Routing Around Connectivity Holes (RACH) for IoT Networks. 2019 International Conference on Automation, Computational and Technology Management (ICACTM). :174—177.

The internet of things (IoT) is the popular wireless network for data collection applications. The IoT networks are deployed in dense or sparse architectures, out of which the dense networks are vastly popular as these are capable of gathering the huge volumes of data. The collected data is analyzed using the historical or continuous analytical systems, which uses the back testing or time-series analytics to observe the desired patterns from the target data. The lost or bad interval data always carries the high probability to misguide the analysis reports. The data is lost due to a variety of reasons, out of which the most popular ones are associated with the node failures and connectivity holes, which occurs due to physical damage, software malfunctioning, blackhole/wormhole attacks, route poisoning, etc. In this paper, the work is carried on the new routing scheme for the IoTs to avoid the connectivity holes, which analyzes the activity of wireless nodes and takes the appropriate actions when required.