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2021-06-02
Bychkov, Igor, Feoktistov, Alexander, Gorsky, Sergey, Edelev, Alexei, Sidorov, Ivan, Kostromin, Roman, Fereferov, Evgeniy, Fedorov, Roman.  2020.  Supercomputer Engineering for Supporting Decision-making on Energy Systems Resilience. 2020 IEEE 14th International Conference on Application of Information and Communication Technologies (AICT). :1—6.
We propose a new approach to creating a subject-oriented distributed computing environment. Such an environment is used to support decision-making in solving relevant problems of ensuring energy systems resilience. The proposed approach is based on the idea of advancing and integrating the following important capabilities in supercomputer engineering: continuous integration, delivery, and deployment of the system and applied software, high-performance computing in heterogeneous environments, multi-agent intelligent computation planning and resource allocation, big data processing and geo-information servicing for subject information, including weakly structured data, and decision-making support. This combination of capabilities and their advancing are unique to the subject domain under consideration, which is related to combinatorial studying critical objects of energy systems. Evaluation of decision-making alternatives is carrying out through applying combinatorial modeling and multi-criteria selection rules. The Orlando Tools framework is used as the basis for an integrated software environment. It implements a flexible modular approach to the development of scientific applications (distributed applied software packages).
Guerrero-Bonilla, Luis, Saldaña, David, Kumar, Vijay.  2020.  Dense r-robust formations on lattices. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA). :6633—6639.
Robot networks are susceptible to fail under the presence of malicious or defective robots. Resilient networks in the literature require high connectivity and large communication ranges, leading to high energy consumption in the communication network. This paper presents robot formations with guaranteed resiliency that use smaller communication ranges than previous results in the literature. The formations can be built on triangular and square lattices in the plane, and cubic lattices in the three-dimensional space. We support our theoretical framework with simulations.
Shi, Jie, Foggo, Brandon, Kong, Xianghao, Cheng, Yuanbin, Yu, Nanpeng, Yamashita, Koji.  2020.  Online Event Detection in Synchrophasor Data with Graph Signal Processing. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1—7.
Online detection of anomalies is crucial to enhancing the reliability and resiliency of power systems. We propose a novel data-driven online event detection algorithm with synchrophasor data using graph signal processing. In addition to being extremely scalable, our proposed algorithm can accurately capture and leverage the spatio-temporal correlations of the streaming PMU data. This paper also develops a general technique to decouple spatial and temporal correlations in multiple time series. Finally, we develop a unique framework to construct a weighted adjacency matrix and graph Laplacian for product graph. Case studies with real-world, large-scale synchrophasor data demonstrate the scalability and accuracy of our proposed event detection algorithm. Compared to the state-of-the-art benchmark, the proposed method not only achieves higher detection accuracy but also yields higher computational efficiency.
Applebaum, Benny, Kachlon, Eliran, Patra, Arpita.  2020.  The Round Complexity of Perfect MPC with Active Security and Optimal Resiliency. 2020 IEEE 61st Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS). :1277—1284.
In STOC 1988, Ben-Or, Goldwasser, and Wigderson (BGW) established an important milestone in the fields of cryptography and distributed computing by showing that every functionality can be computed with perfect (information-theoretic and error-free) security at the presence of an active (aka Byzantine) rushing adversary that controls up to n/3 of the parties. We study the round complexity of general secure multiparty computation in the BGW model. Our main result shows that every functionality can be realized in only four rounds of interaction, and that some functionalities cannot be computed in three rounds. This completely settles the round-complexity of perfect actively-secure optimally-resilient MPC, resolving a long line of research. Our lower-bound is based on a novel round-reduction technique that allows us to lift existing three-round lower-bounds for verifiable secret sharing to four-round lower-bounds for general MPC. To prove the upper-bound, we develop new round-efficient protocols for computing degree-2 functionalities over large fields, and establish the completeness of such functionalities. The latter result extends the recent completeness theorem of Applebaum, Brakerski and Tsabary (TCC 2018, Eurocrypt 2019) that was limited to the binary field.
2021-06-01
Pandey, Pragya, Kaur, Inderjeet.  2020.  Improved MODLEACH with Effective Energy Utilization Technique for WSN. 2020 8th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) (ICRITO). :987—992.
Wireless sensor network (WSNs) formed from an enormous number of sensor hub with the capacity to detect and process information in the physical world in a convenient way. The sensor nodes contain a battery imperative, which point of confinement the system lifetime. Because of vitality limitations, the arrangement of WSNs will required development methods to keep up the system lifetime. The vitality productive steering is the need of the innovative WSN systems to build the process time of system. The WSN system is for the most part battery worked which should be ration as conceivable as to cause system to continue longer and more. WSN has developed as a significant figuring stage in the ongoing couple of years. WSN comprises of countless sensor points, which are worked by a little battery. The vitality of the battery worked nodes is the defenseless asset of the WSN, which is exhausted at a high rate when data is transmitted, because transmission vitality is subject to the separation of transmission. Sensor nodes can be sent in the cruel condition. When they are conveyed, it ends up difficult to supplant or energize its battery. Therefore, the battery intensity of sensor hub ought to be utilized proficiently. Many steering conventions have been proposed so far to boost the system lifetime and abatement the utilization vitality, the fundamental point of the sensor hubs is information correspondence, implies move of information packs from one hub to other inside the system. This correspondence is finished utilizing grouping and normal vitality of a hub. Each bunch chooses a pioneer called group head. The group heads CHs are chosen based by and large vitality and the likelihood. There are number of bunching conventions utilized for the group Head determination, the principle idea is the existence time of a system which relies on the normal vitality of the hub. In this work we proposed a model, which utilizes the leftover vitality for group head choice and LZW pressure Technique during the transmission of information bundles from CHs to base station. Work enhanced the throughput and life time of system and recoveries the vitality of hub during transmission and moves more information in less vitality utilization. The Proposed convention is called COMPRESSED MODLEACH.
Akand, Tawhida, Islam, Md Jahirul, Kaysir, Md Rejvi.  2020.  Low loss hollow core optical fibers combining lattice and negative curvature structures. 2020 IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP). :698—701.
Negative curvature hollow core fibers (NC-HCFs) realize great research attention due to their comparatively low losses with simplified design and fabrication simplicity. Recently, revolver type fibers that combine the NC-HCF and conventional lattice structured photonic crystal fiber (PCF) have opened up a new era in communications due to their low loss, power confinement capacity, and multi-bandwidth applications. In this study, we present a customized optical fiber design that comprises the PCF with the NC-HCF to get lowest confinement loss. Extensive numerical simulations are performed and a noteworthy low loss of 4.47×10-05dB/m at a wavelength of 0.85 μm has been recorded for the designed fiber, which is almost 4600 times lower than annular revolver type fibers. In addition, a conspicuous low loss transmission bandwidth ranging from 0.6 μm to 1.8 μm has found in this study. This may have potential applications in spectroscopy, material processing, chemical and bio-molecular sensing, security, and industry applications.
Xu, Meng, Kashyap, Sanidhya, Zhao, Hanqing, Kim, Taesoo.  2020.  Krace: Data Race Fuzzing for Kernel File Systems. 2020 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1643—1660.
Data races occur when two threads fail to use proper synchronization when accessing shared data. In kernel file systems, which are highly concurrent by design, data races are common mistakes and often wreak havoc on the users, causing inconsistent states or data losses. Prior fuzzing practices on file systems have been effective in uncovering hundreds of bugs, but they mostly focus on the sequential aspect of file system execution and do not comprehensively explore the concurrency dimension and hence, forgo the opportunity to catch data races.In this paper, we bring coverage-guided fuzzing to the concurrency dimension with three new constructs: 1) a new coverage tracking metric, alias coverage, specially designed to capture the exploration progress in the concurrency dimension; 2) an evolution algorithm for generating, mutating, and merging multi-threaded syscall sequences as inputs for concurrency fuzzing; and 3) a comprehensive lockset and happens-before modeling for kernel synchronization primitives for precise data race detection. These components are integrated into Krace, an end-to-end fuzzing framework that has discovered 23 data races in ext4, btrfs, and the VFS layer so far, and 9 are confirmed to be harmful.
Junchao, CHEN, Baorong, ZHAI, Yibing, DONG, Tao, WU, Kai, YOU.  2020.  Design Of TT C Resource Automatic Scheduling Interface Middleware With High Concurrency and Security. 2020 International Conference on Information Science, Parallel and Distributed Systems (ISPDS). :171—176.
In order to significantly improve the reliable interaction and fast processing when TT&C(Tracking, Telemetry and Command) Resource Scheduling and Management System (TRSMS) communicate with external systems which are diverse, multiple directional and high concurrent, this paper designs and implements a highly concurrent and secure middleware for TT&C Resource Automatic Scheduling Interface (TRASI). The middleware designs memory pool, data pool, thread pool and task pool to improve the efficiency of concurrent processing, uses the rule dictionary, communication handshake and wait retransmission mechanism to ensure the data interaction security and reliability. This middleware can effectively meet the requirements of TRASI for data exchange with external users and system, significantly improve the data processing speed and efficiency, and promote the information technology and automation level of Aerospace TT&C Network Management Center (TNMC).
Xu, Lei, Gao, Zhimin, Fan, Xinxin, Chen, Lin, Kim, Hanyee, Suh, Taeweon, Shi, Weidong.  2020.  Blockchain Based End-to-End Tracking System for Distributed IoT Intelligence Application Security Enhancement. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1028–1035.
IoT devices provide a rich data source that is not available in the past, which is valuable for a wide range of intelligence applications, especially deep neural network (DNN) applications that are data-thirsty. An established DNN model provides useful analysis results that can improve the operation of IoT systems in turn. The progress in distributed/federated DNN training further unleashes the potential of integration of IoT and intelligence applications. When a large number of IoT devices are deployed in different physical locations, distributed training allows training modules to be deployed to multiple edge data centers that are close to the IoT devices to reduce the latency and movement of large amounts of data. In practice, these IoT devices and edge data centers are usually owned and managed by different parties, who do not fully trust each other or have conflicting interests. It is hard to coordinate them to provide end-to-end integrity protection of the DNN construction and application with classical security enhancement tools. For example, one party may share an incomplete data set with others, or contribute a modified sub DNN model to manipulate the aggregated model and affect the decision-making process. To mitigate this risk, we propose a novel blockchain based end-to-end integrity protection scheme for DNN applications integrated with an IoT system in the edge computing environment. The protection system leverages a set of cryptography primitives to build a blockchain adapted for edge computing that is scalable to handle a large number of IoT devices. The customized blockchain is integrated with a distributed/federated DNN to offer integrity and authenticity protection services.
2021-05-26
Boursinos, Dimitrios, Koutsoukos, Xenofon.  2020.  Trusted Confidence Bounds for Learning Enabled Cyber-Physical Systems. 2020 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :228—233.

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) can benefit by the use of learning enabled components (LECs) such as deep neural networks (DNNs) for perception and decision making tasks. However, DNNs are typically non-transparent making reasoning about their predictions very difficult, and hence their application to safety-critical systems is very challenging. LECs could be integrated easier into CPS if their predictions could be complemented with a confidence measure that quantifies how much we trust their output. The paper presents an approach for computing confidence bounds based on Inductive Conformal Prediction (ICP). We train a Triplet Network architecture to learn representations of the input data that can be used to estimate the similarity between test examples and examples in the training data set. Then, these representations are used to estimate the confidence of set predictions from a classifier that is based on the neural network architecture used in the triplet. The approach is evaluated using a robotic navigation benchmark and the results show that we can computed trusted confidence bounds efficiently in real-time.

2021-05-25
Hopkins, Stephen, Kalaimannan, Ezhil, John, Caroline Sangeetha.  2020.  Cyber Resilience using State Estimation Updates Based on Cyber Attack Matrix Classification. 2020 IEEE Kansas Power and Energy Conference (KPEC). :1—6.
Cyber-physical systems (CPS) maintain operation, reliability, and safety performance using state estimation and control methods. Internet connectivity and Internet of Things (IoT) devices are integrated with CPS, such as in smart grids. This integration of Operational Technology (OT) and Information Technology (IT) brings with it challenges for state estimation and exposure to cyber-threats. This research establishes a state estimation baseline, details the integration of IT, evaluates the vulnerabilities, and develops an approach for detecting and responding to cyber-attack data injections. Where other approaches focus on integration of IT cyber-controls, this research focuses on development of classification tools using data currently available in state estimation methods to quantitatively determine the presence of cyber-attack data. The tools may increase computational requirements but provide methods which can be integrated with existing state estimation methods and provide for future research in state estimation based cyber-attack incident response. A robust cyber-resilient CPS includes the ability to detect and classify a cyber-attack, determine the true system state, and respond to the cyber-attack. The purpose of this paper is to establish a means for a cyber aware state estimator given the existence of sub-erroneous outlier detection, cyber-attack data weighting, cyber-attack data classification, and state estimation cyber detection.
Ouchani, Samir, Khebbeb, Khaled, Hafsi, Meriem.  2020.  Towards Enhancing Security and Resilience in CPS: A Coq-Maude based Approach. 2020 IEEE/ACS 17th International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA). :1—6.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) have gained considerable interest in the last decade from both industry and academia. Such systems have proven particularly complex and provide considerable challenges to master their design and ensure their functionalities. In this paper, we intend to tackle some of these challenges related to the security and the resilience of CPS at the design level. We initiate a CPS modeling approach to specify such systems structure and behaviors, analyze their inherent properties and to overcome threats in terms of security and correctness. In this initiative, we consider a CPS as a network of entities that communicate through physical and logical channels, and which purpose is to achieve a set of tasks expressed as an ordered tree. Our modeling approach proposes a combination of the Coq theorem prover and the Maude rewriting system to ensure the soundness and correctness of CPS design. The introduced solution is illustrated through an automobile manufacturing case study.
Karimov, Madjit, Tashev, Komil, Rustamova, Sanobar.  2020.  Application of the Aho-Corasick algorithm to create a network intrusion detection system. 2020 International Conference on Information Science and Communications Technologies (ICISCT). :1—5.
One of the main goals of studying pattern matching techniques is their significant role in real-world applications, such as the intrusion detection systems branch. The purpose of the network attack detection systems NIDS is to protect the infocommunication network from unauthorized access. This article provides an analysis of the exact match and fuzzy matching methods, and discusses a new implementation of the classic Aho-Korasik pattern matching algorithm at the hardware level. The proposed approach to the implementation of the Aho-Korasik algorithm can make it possible to ensure the efficient use of resources, such as memory and energy.
Anubi, Olugbenga Moses, Konstantinou, Charalambos, Wong, Carlos A., Vedula, Satish.  2020.  Multi-Model Resilient Observer under False Data Injection Attacks. 2020 IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications (CCTA). :1–8.

In this paper, we present the concept of boosting the resiliency of optimization-based observers for cyber-physical systems (CPS) using auxiliary sources of information. Due to the tight coupling of physics, communication and computation, a malicious agent can exploit multiple inherent vulnerabilities in order to inject stealthy signals into the measurement process. The problem setting considers the scenario in which an attacker strategically corrupts portions of the data in order to force wrong state estimates which could have catastrophic consequences. The goal of the proposed observer is to compute the true states in-spite of the adversarial corruption. In the formulation, we use a measurement prior distribution generated by the auxiliary model to refine the feasible region of a traditional compressive sensing-based regression problem. A constrained optimization-based observer is developed using l1-minimization scheme. Numerical experiments show that the solution of the resulting problem recovers the true states of the system. The developed algorithm is evaluated through a numerical simulation example of the IEEE 14-bus system.

Cai, Feiyang, Li, Jiani, Koutsoukos, Xenofon.  2020.  Detecting Adversarial Examples in Learning-Enabled Cyber-Physical Systems using Variational Autoencoder for Regression. 2020 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :208–214.

Learning-enabled components (LECs) are widely used in cyber-physical systems (CPS) since they can handle the uncertainty and variability of the environment and increase the level of autonomy. However, it has been shown that LECs such as deep neural networks (DNN) are not robust and adversarial examples can cause the model to make a false prediction. The paper considers the problem of efficiently detecting adversarial examples in LECs used for regression in CPS. The proposed approach is based on inductive conformal prediction and uses a regression model based on variational autoencoder. The architecture allows to take into consideration both the input and the neural network prediction for detecting adversarial, and more generally, out-of-distribution examples. We demonstrate the method using an advanced emergency braking system implemented in an open source simulator for self-driving cars where a DNN is used to estimate the distance to an obstacle. The simulation results show that the method can effectively detect adversarial examples with a short detection delay.

AKCENGİZ, Ziya, Aslan, Melis, Karabayır, Özgür, Doğanaksoy, Ali, Uğuz, Muhiddin, Sulak, Fatih.  2020.  Statistical Randomness Tests of Long Sequences by Dynamic Partitioning. 2020 International Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCTURKEY). :68—74.
Random numbers have a wide usage in the area of cryptography. In practice, pseudo random number generators are used in place of true random number generators, as regeneration of them may be required. Therefore because of generation methods of pseudo random number sequences, statistical randomness tests have a vital importance. In this paper, a randomness test suite is specified for long binary sequences. In literature, there are many randomness tests and test suites. However, in most of them, to apply randomness test, long sequences are partitioned into a certain fixed length and the collection of short sequences obtained is evaluated instead. In this paper, instead of partitioning a long sequence into fixed length subsequences, a concept of dynamic partitioning is introduced in accordance with the random variable in consideration. Then statistical methods are applied. The suggested suite, containing four statistical tests: Collision Tests, Weight Test, Linear Complexity Test and Index Coincidence Test, all of them work with the idea of dynamic partitioning. Besides the adaptation of this approach to randomness tests, the index coincidence test is another contribution of this work. The distribution function and the application of all tests are given in the paper.
Kore, Ashwini, Patil, Shailaja.  2020.  Robust Cross-Layer Security Framework For Internet of Things Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Smart Computing and Informatics (ESCI). :142—147.

The significant development of Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm for monitoring the real-time applications using the wireless communication technologies leads to various challenges. The secure data transmission and privacy is one of the key challenges of IoT enabled Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) communications. Due to heterogeneity of attackers like Man-in-Middle Attack (MIMA), the present single layered security solutions are not sufficient. In this paper, the robust cross-layer trust computation algorithm for MIMA attacker detection proposed for IoT enabled WSNs called IoT enabled Cross-Layer Man-in-Middle Attack Detection System (IC-MADS). In IC-MADS, first robust clustering method proposed to form the clusters and cluster head (CH) preference. After clustering, for every sensor node, its trust value computed using the parameters of three layers such as MAC, Physical, and Network layers to protect the network communications in presence of security threats. The simulation results prove that IC-MADS achieves better protection against MIMA attacks with minimum overhead and energy consumption.

2021-05-20
Dua, Amit, Barpanda, Siddharth Sekhar, Kumar, Neeraj, Tanwar, Sudeep.  2020.  Trustful: A Decentralized Public Key Infrastructure and Identity Management System. 2020 IEEE Globecom Workshops GC Wkshps. :1—6.

Modern Internet TCP uses Secure Sockets Layers (SSL)/Transport Layer Security (TLS) for secure communication, which relies on Public Key Infrastructure (PKIs) to authenticate public keys. Conventional PKI is done by Certification Authorities (CAs), issuing and storing Digital Certificates, which are public keys of users with the users identity. This leads to centralization of authority with the CAs and the storage of CAs being vulnerable and imposes a security concern. There have been instances in the past where CAs have issued rogue certificates or the CAs have been hacked to issue malicious certificates. Motivated from these facts, in this paper, we propose a method (named as Trustful), which aims to build a decentralized PKI using blockchain. Blockchains provide immutable storage in a decentralized manner and allows us to write smart contracts. Ethereum blockchain can be used to build a web of trust model where users can publish attributes, validate attributes about other users by signing them and creating a trust store of users that they trust. Trustful works on the Web-of-Trust (WoT) model and allows for any entity on the network to verify attributes about any other entity through a trusted network. This provides an alternative to the conventional CA-based identity verification model. The proposed model has been implemented and tested for efficacy and known major security attacks.

Kumar, Devendra, Mathur, Dhirendra.  2020.  Proximity Coupled Wideband Wearable Antenna for Body Area Networks. 2020 5th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Security (ICCCS). :1—5.

This paper presents a proximity coupled wideband wearable antenna operating between 4.71 GHz and 5.81 GHz with 5.2 GHz as centre frequency for biomedical telemetry applications in ISM band (IEEE 802.11 Standard). Two layers of different flexible substrate materials, ethylene-vinyl acetate and felt make the design mechanically stable. Bandwidth improvement is achieved by introducing two slots on elliptical ground plane. Highest gain of 3.72 dB and front to back ratio (FBR) of 6.55 is obtained in the given frequency band. The dimensions of antenna have been optimized to have desired bandwidth of 1100 MHz (\$\textbackslashtextbackslashsimeq\$21%). The specific absorption rate (SAR) value is 1.12 \$W/Kg\$ for 1 g of human body tissue. Both simulated and measured results are presented for the structure.

Sunehra, Dhiraj, Sreshta, V. Sai, Shashank, V., Kumar Goud, B. Uday.  2020.  Raspberry Pi Based Smart Wearable Device for Women Safety using GPS and GSM Technology. 2020 IEEE International Conference for Innovation in Technology (INOCON). :1—5.
Security has become a major concern for women, children and even elders in every walk of their life. Women are getting assaulted and molested, children are getting kidnapped, elder citizens are also facing many problems like robbery, etc. In this paper, a smart security solution called smart wearable device system is implemented using the Raspberry Pi3 for enhancing the safety and security of women/children. It works as an alert as well as a security system. It provides a buzzer alert alert to the people who are nearby to the user (wearing the smart device). The system uses Global Positioning System (GPS) to locate the user, sends the location of the user through SMS to the emergency contact and police using the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) / General Radio Packet Service (GPRS) technology. The device also captures the image of the assault and surroundings of the user or victim using USB Web Camera interfaced to the device and sends it as an E-mail alert to the emergency contact soon after the user presses the panic button present on Smart wearable device system.
Kamalraj, R., Madhan, E.S., Ghamya, K., Bhargavi, V..  2020.  Enhance Safety and Security System for Children in School Campus by using Wearable Sensors. 2020 Fourth International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :986—990.
Child security in the school campus is most important in building a good society. In and around the world the children are abused and killed also in sometimes by the people those who are not in good attitude in the school campus. To track and resolve such issues an enhanced security feature system is required. Hence in this paper an enhanced version of security system for children is proposed by using `Wearable Sensors'. In this proposed method two wearable sensors nodes such as `Staff Node' and `Student Node' are paired by using `Bluetooth' communication technology and Smart Watch technology is also used to communicate the Security Center or Processing Node for tracking them about their location and whether the two nodes are moved away from the classroom. If the child node is not moving for a long period then it may be notified by the center and they will inform the security officers near to the place. This proposed method may satisfy the need of school management about the staff movements with students and the behavior of students to avoid unexpected issues.
Maung, Maung, Pyone, April, Kiya, Hitoshi.  2020.  Encryption Inspired Adversarial Defense For Visual Classification. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). :1681—1685.
Conventional adversarial defenses reduce classification accuracy whether or not a model is under attacks. Moreover, most of image processing based defenses are defeated due to the problem of obfuscated gradients. In this paper, we propose a new adversarial defense which is a defensive transform for both training and test images inspired by perceptual image encryption methods. The proposed method utilizes a block-wise pixel shuffling method with a secret key. The experiments are carried out on both adaptive and non-adaptive maximum-norm bounded white-box attacks while considering obfuscated gradients. The results show that the proposed defense achieves high accuracy (91.55%) on clean images and (89.66%) on adversarial examples with noise distance of 8/255 on CFAR-10 dataset. Thus, the proposed defense outperforms state-of-the-art adversarial defenses including latent adversarial training, adversarial training and thermometer encoding.
Kim, Brian, Sagduyu, Yalin E., Davaslioglu, Kemal, Erpek, Tugba, Ulukus, Sennur.  2020.  Over-the-Air Adversarial Attacks on Deep Learning Based Modulation Classifier over Wireless Channels. 2020 54th Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS). :1—6.
We consider a wireless communication system that consists of a transmitter, a receiver, and an adversary. The transmitter transmits signals with different modulation types, while the receiver classifies its received signals to modulation types using a deep learning-based classifier. In the meantime, the adversary makes over-the-air transmissions that are received as superimposed with the transmitter's signals to fool the classifier at the receiver into making errors. While this evasion attack has received growing interest recently, the channel effects from the adversary to the receiver have been ignored so far such that the previous attack mechanisms cannot be applied under realistic channel effects. In this paper, we present how to launch a realistic evasion attack by considering channels from the adversary to the receiver. Our results show that modulation classification is vulnerable to an adversarial attack over a wireless channel that is modeled as Rayleigh fading with path loss and shadowing. We present various adversarial attacks with respect to availability of information about channel, transmitter input, and classifier architecture. First, we present two types of adversarial attacks, namely a targeted attack (with minimum power) and non-targeted attack that aims to change the classification to a target label or to any other label other than the true label, respectively. Both are white-box attacks that are transmitter input-specific and use channel information. Then we introduce an algorithm to generate adversarial attacks using limited channel information where the adversary only knows the channel distribution. Finally, we present a black-box universal adversarial perturbation (UAP) attack where the adversary has limited knowledge about both channel and transmitter input. By accounting for different levels of information availability, we show the vulnerability of modulation classifier to over-the-air adversarial attacks.
2021-05-18
Wingerath, Wolfram, Gessert, Felix, Witt, Erik, Kuhlmann, Hannes, Bücklers, Florian, Wollmer, Benjamin, Ritter, Norbert.  2020.  Speed Kit: A Polyglot GDPR-Compliant Approach For Caching Personalized Content. 2020 IEEE 36th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE). :1603–1608.
Users leave when page loads take too long. This simple fact has complex implications for virtually all modern businesses, because accelerating content delivery through caching is not as simple as it used to be. As a fundamental technical challenge, the high degree of personalization in today's Web has seemingly outgrown the capabilities of traditional content delivery networks (CDNs) which have been designed for distributing static assets under fixed caching times. As an additional legal challenge for services with personalized content, an increasing number of regional data protection laws constrain the ways in which CDNs can be used in the first place. In this paper, we present Speed Kit as a radically different approach for content distribution that combines (1) a polyglot architecture for efficiently caching personalized content with (2) a natively GDPR-compliant client proxy that handles all sensitive information within the user device. We describe the system design and implementation, explain the custom cache coherence protocol to avoid data staleness and achieve Δ-atomicity, and we share field experiences from over a year of productive use in the e-commerce industry.
Tai, Zeming, Washizaki, Hironori, Fukazawa, Yoshiaki, Fujimatsu, Yurie, Kanai, Jun.  2020.  Binary Similarity Analysis for Vulnerability Detection. 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :1121–1122.
Binary similarity has been widely used in function recognition and vulnerability detection. How to define a proper similarity is the key element in implementing a fast detection method. We proposed a scalable method to detect binary vulnerabilities based on similarity. Procedures lifted from binaries are divided into several comparable strands by data dependency, and those strands are transformed into a normalized form by our tool named VulneraBin, so that similarity can be determined between two procedures through a hash value comparison. The low computational complexity allows semantically equivalent code to be identified in binaries compiled from million lines of source code in a fast and accurate way.